Entry into water may be direct or via atmospheric deposition, runoff and leaching.. Recorded levels in the marine environment. Xylenes have been regularly reported in the oceans, estuaries, precipitation, rivers, groundwaters, potable sources and drinking water, as well as aquatic sediments and biota (Hedgecott 1990, Crookes et al. 1993). High usage and release, high mobility in the atmosphere, and natural sources all contribute to widespread occurrence in waters. Post-1988 data for UK waters were summarised in Hedgecott and Lewis (1997). Most of the data are for estuarine and coastal waters, with xylenes apparently detected in relation to industrial releases of xylenes and releases during oil extraction and transport. None of the published values exceed the concentration of 30 mg l-1 of total xylenes which has been proposed as the annual average EQS value. Fate and behaviour in the marine environment Hedgecott and Lewis (1997) reviewed the fate and behaviour of xylenes.. Atmospheric xylenes are ...
Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C. ...
Environmental and biological monitoring were conducted to investigate exposure to xylene (1330207) in technologists in a histology laboratory. Xylene exposure was determined by breathing zone environmental sampling. An estimate of xylene uptake by inhalation was then made by multiplying breathing rate by environmental concentration, length of exposure, and a retention factor. M-methylhippuric-acid
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The properties of p-xylene and m-xylene adsorbed in NaY and KY faujasites have been studied by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. Biased particle insertions and deletions were implemented to allow the computation of equilibrium adsorption isotherms of such complex systems. This work is based on a new adsorbatezeolite potential function named TrAZ potential (transferable adsorbatezeolite potential). Adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption of pure components have been calculated at 423 K and compared to the available experimental data. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of coadsorption have also been performed. Three binary mixtures corresponding to different gas-phase compositions have been studied. The p-xylene/m-xylene selectivities predicted from the simulation are in good agreement with experiments: the NaY zeolite preferentially adsorbs the m-xylene isomer, whereas the KY faujasite is selective for p-xylene. From a detailed analysis of the xylene adsorption sites, we ...
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Determination by Modeling of the Interactions during the Adsorption Equilibrium of N-Propanol and Ortho Xylene on Activated Carbon Surface Abstract.
Pseudomonas putida Idaho utilizes toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 3-ethyltoluene as growth substrates when these hydrocarbons are provided in a two-phase system at 5 to 50% (vol/vol). Growth also occurs on Luria-Bertani medium in the presence of a wide range of organic solvents. The ability of the organism to grow in the presence of organic solvents is correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient, with dimethyl-phthalate (log P(OCT) = 2.3) being the most polar solvent tolerated. During growth with p-xylene (20% [vol/vol]), there was an initial lag period accompanied by cell death, which was followed by a period of exponential growth. The stationary phase of growth was characterized by a dramatic decrease in cell viability, although cell dry weight and turbidity measurements slowly increased. Electron micrographs revealed that during growth in the presence of p-xylene, the outer cell membrane becomes convoluted and membrane fragments are shed ...
No fertility studies are reported for the aromatic sulphonic acids. These substances are very corrosive as was demonstrated in skin and eye irritation studies, in the acute oral studies, and in the single repeated dose oral study. For animal welfare, long-term exposures to corrosive substances are not recommended. There are however studies for the chemically related hydrotrope substances that looked at reproductive organs and development of offspring. Hydrotropes are the salt form of the sulphonic acids and therefore are used as read-across for this endpoint. The 90-day oral rat and oral mouse studies and the 2-year chronic dermal rat and mouse studies with the closely related compound sodium xylene sulfonate (CAS No. 1300-72-7) included examination of sex organs of both sexes. No treatment related effects on reproductive organs were reported at doses roughly equivalent to those in the developmental toxicity study. The 1994 study with calcium xylene sulphonate (CAS No. 28088-63-3) did not follow ...
Article Characteristics of benzene, toluene and xylene gas removal by a biofilter using scoria. The biodegradation experiments of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) by bacillus culture were carried out. In batch biodegradation experiments of binary mi...
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The upper operon of the TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida encodes a set of enzymes which transform toluene and xylenes to benzoate and toluates. The genetic organization of the operon was characterized by cloning of the upper operon genes into an expression vector and identification of their products in Escherichia coli maxicells. This analysis showed that the upper operon contains at least five genes in the order of xylC-xylM-xylA-xylB-xylN. Between the promoter of the operon and xylC, there is a 1.7-kilobase-long space of DNA in which no gene function was identified. In contrast, most of the DNA between xylC and xylN consists of coding sequences. The xylC gene encodes the 57-kilodalton benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The xylM and xylA genes encode 35- and 40-kilodalton polypeptides, respectively, which were shown by genetic complementation tests to be subunits of xylene oxygenase. The structural gene for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, xylB, encodes a 40-kilodalton polypeptide. The last gene of ...
Thin parylene C membranes having smooth front sides and ultrathin regions (e.g., 0.01 μm to 5 μm thick) interspersed with thicker regions are disclosed. The back sides of the membranes can be rough compared with the smooth front sides. The membranes can be used in vitro to grow monolayers of cells in a laboratory or in vivo as surgically implantable growth layers, such as to replace the Bruchs membrane in the eye. The application further provides an implantable cage-like apparatus for culturing cells comprising the parylene membrane.
Methods of making parylene AF4 using novel that result in reduced cost. Low dilution technology may used to provide parylene AF4 in substantially improved yields. The relative amount of transition metal catalyst can be decreased. The amount of undesired byproduct is also reduced.
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Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) at oil transfer stations are high and the primary pollutants of concern from a health perspective include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) BTEX. This exploratory study investigated personal exposure to BTEX through environmental air samples collected from 50 workers (tanker loading workers, tank-gauging workers, drivers, firefighters, and office workers) at a major oil distribution company in Iran. Airborne BTEX exposures were evaluated over 8-hour periods during work-shift by using personal passive samplers. Measured mean values for workers at four sites were, respectively, 2437, 992, 584, and 2788 mu g/m(3) for benzene; 4415, 2830, 1289, and 9407 mu g/m(3) for toluene; 781, 522, 187, and 533 mu g/m(3) for ethylbenzene; and 1134, 678, 322, and 525 mu g/m(3) for xylene. Exposure across job type was similarly stratified across all personal exposures to BTEX measured in air samples with maximum concentrations found for tanker loading ...
Background: Today, advances in different areas of science and technology along with their application in industries have led to an increase in dangerous pollutants which can resist biodegradation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regarded as important factors of air pollution in closed environments. Xylene is one of these compounds which ...
Gafrarium divaricatum were exposed to xylene (4.25 and 8.50 mg l(-1)), benzene (4.35 and 8.70 mg l(-1)) and gear oil-WSF (1 and 2%) for 30 days. Chronic exposure of clams to the pollutants resulted in loss of bubbling epithelium, reduction in cytoplasm volume and density, fusion of cell membranes and nuclei forming darkly stained area at basal part of the cells. Disintegration of basement membrane due to damaged epithelial cells, disruption of inner lining of tubule, formation of necrotic spaces, separation of epithelial cells from basement membrane, increase in internal luminar area, complete necrosis of epithelial cells as well as occurrence of cell debris in between the tissue were also observed in the clams due to chronic exposure of the toxicants.
The NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) has issued a $15,000 fine to Parchem Construction Supplies Pty Ltd after a chemical spill at the companys premises in Wyong.. EPA Hunter Region Manager, Adam Gilligan, said the EPA attended the incident with Fire and Rescue crews on 13 October 2015.. "Fire and Rescue New South Wales Hazmat (FRNSW Hazmat) and the EPA attended the premises. The site was evacuated whilst Hazmat undertook a clean-up recovery operation.. The spill occurred when a flammable wash solvent mix containing acetone and xylene was being moved by forklift as part of a decanting process. The mixing pot containing the chemicals was not secured adequately to the forklift, and 700 litres of the mix was spilt.. "Acetone is a volatile organic solvent, which is toxic in high doses. When exposed to the air, it quickly evaporates and remains highly flammable, while short-term inhalation to mix can result in irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat," said Mr. Gilligan.. The spill ...
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The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viability of offspring. Investigations of learning and memory abilities were performed using a Morris water maze. This task requires rats to spatially navigate, using distal extramaze cues to locate a small platform under the surface of the water in a large pool. At the age of 16 weeks, the exposed offspring showed impairments when the platform was relocated in the pool. Impaired performances after platform relocation were also observed in exposed offspring at 28 and 55 weeks of age, although the difference was not statistically significant at 55 weeks. These data could indicate that the effect was partly reversible, although over a long time period. However, another explanation could be that the animals became ...
The crystal structure of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20) p-xylene solvate, and the solvent effects on the crystal faces of CL-20 were studied through a combined experimental and theoretical method. The properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The growth morphology of CL-20p-xylene solvate crystal was predicted with a modified attachment energy model. The crystal structure of CL-20p-xylene solvate belonged to the Pbca space group with the unit cell parameters, a = 8.0704(12) Å, b=13.4095(20) Å, c = 33.0817(49) Å, and Z = 4, which indicated that the p-xylene solvent molecules could enter the crystal lattice of CL-20 and thus the CL-20 p-xylene solvate is formed. According to the solvent-effected attachment energy calculations, (002) and (11−1) faces should not be visible at all, while the percentage area of the (011) face could be increased
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How many 100% do you have. I have 3. This is where the dehydration comes in. The 100 takes all the mositure out of the specimen. So this step is critical. Water and xylene are not soluable so if the specimens are not getting dehydrated properly, the xylene will not penertate the specimens either. Next is make sure your specimen are not thicker then 3mm. Espceially lipomas and cyst. Try to cut them as thin as possible. Note, the caseous inside of a cyst will likely not process and usually expoldes on a water bath. Next, make sure the specimen cassettes are propely placed inside the tissue rack. If flow between cassettes is restricted, a portion of a specimen could be raw. Hope this helps. Nicole Tatum HT ASCP I have recently had a problem with my skin specimens being , underprocessed. I use a Leica 300ASP. The schedule is as follows: , 10% NBF x 2 for 1 hour ea. , 80% Reagent Alcohol for 1 hour , 95% Reagent Alcohol x 2 for 1 hour each , 100% Reagent Alcohol for 1 hour each , Xylene x 3 for 1 ...
Im not familiar with Mount-Quick, but years ago I used to occasionally lift sections from slides, using a product called Pro-Texx. Heres the protocol I used: Remove coverslip from slide by immersion in xylene. One hour additional time in xylene, to ensure removal of mounting medium. While slide is damp with xylene, place a drop of Permount on any section that is to remain on the slide, and a drop of Pro-Texx on the section that is to be lifted, being careful the two media do not mix. Do not spread the media thin. You want a thick layer. Allow to dry thoroughly, using gentle heat (low setting of a slide warmer). Alternatively they can dry overnight at room temperature. Immerse slide in distilled water until the Pro-Texx loosens from the slide (the Permount will not). With forceps, peel the layer of Pro-Texx, containing the tissue section, off the slide. I did this many years ago and we did not have charged slides at that time, so I would place the Pro-Texx film, tissue side down, onto a slide ...
Two laboratories tested various kinds of xylene for his or her developmental toxicity hazard prospective (A/D ratio) through the hydra assay. The 3 isomers, as well as a Alternative of mixed xylenes, all interfered with enhancement (D) at or around to concn that also were toxic to adult (A) hydra. The development/Grownup ratios ranged from one to 2 in hydra as that they had in typical tests made in pregnant laboratory animals. Each individual testing laboratory concluded that xylenes werent Principal improvement dangers but coeffective agents capable of disrupting advancement only at or around to concn also toxic to adults ...
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their
This study is one of the first population-based studies to observe an association between higher early-life exposure to BTEX compounds and greater use of academic support services among a large cohort of urban children. After adjusting for a number of confounders, elevated HRs for use of academic support services were relatively small in magnitude but consistently observed across exposure metrics for all individual BTEX compounds, as well as summary metrics that indicated high exposure to at least one BTEX compound and high exposure to all BTEX compounds. HRs were slightly larger in magnitude when the population was restricted to children who lived in the same census-tract from birth through third grade, suggesting that results were not due to bias related to residential mobility during childhood. Results did not change when excluding children with imputed blood lead measurements. For example, when estimating the hazard ratio of use of academic support services associated with high benzene ...
The members of the hydrotrope category are not intended to be directly applied to soil and an indirect exposure to soil via sewage sludge transfer is unlikely since the substances are readily biodegradable. For a substance being considered as readily biodegradable, it can be assumed that it will be biodegraded within the STP process and as a consequence a transfer to the soil compartment is not expected. Therefore, no tests on terrestrial organisms are provided. For the purposes of the risk assessment, PNEC aqua are converted to PNEC soil using the equilibrium partitioning method. ...
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Possible exposure to solvent vapors during the making of graphite fishing rods was investigated at the LCI Excelon facility (SIC- 3949), Woodland, Washington in response to a request from the management. Acetone (67641) and xylene (1330207) vapor exposure levels ranged from 1 to 50 percent of the recommended limits of 250 parts per million (ppm) for acetone and 100ppm of xylene. Headaches and dizz
In the processing stage, tissues must go through a dehydration process to replace water with the material that will be used for embedding, so the tissue samples adhere to the embedding material. The most common technique is paraffin wax embedding.. Samples are immersed in multiple baths of progressively more concentrated ethanol to remove water from the tissues, followed by a clearing agent, such as xylene, to remove the alcohol and finally hot molten paraffin wax, which replaces the xylene and infiltrates the tissue.. ...
1. Deparaffinize and rehydrate 5 min tray 2 x xylene 2 x absolute ETOH 2 x 95 % ETOH 2 x 70 % ETOH 2 x milliQ H2O 2. Antigen Retrieval 3. Rinse sections in 2 changes of PBS washing buffer in separate beakers, 2 minutes each. 4. Serum Blocking: incubate sections with 10% normal serum blocking solution for 30 minutes to block non-specific binding of immunoglobulin. 5. Primary Antibody: incubate sections with Primary antisera diluted 1:50 in 3% serum PBS, for 1 hour at room temperature to overnight 4C. 6. Rinse in PBS washing buffer for 2 x 2 min. 7. Secondary Antibody: incubate sections with conjugated secondary antibody 1:100-500 in 3% serum PBS, for 1 hour at room temperature. 8. Rinse in PBS washing buffer for 3 x 2 min. 9. Counter-stain in Gill´s formulation #2 hematoxylin for 5-10 seconds. Immediately wash with several changes of deionized H2O. 10. Dehydrate: Soak in 95% ethanol 2x10 seconds, then 100% ethanol 2x10 seconds, then xylenes 3x10 seconds. Pipet 1-2 (5ul) drops of permanent ...
What Kim says is true, but we have run slides thru H&E staining with good results. We normally etch the numbers on our slides before picking up sections. We dont use a label for H&E-stained slides but do for specials, immunos and ISH -stained slides. Those labels go on after the staining is done. Tim Morken CDC, Atlanta -----Original Message----- From: Kimberly Carter [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2001 9:40 AM Cc: Histonet Subject: Re: Slide labelling I have been using the DAKO labeling system for 2 years. One thing you need to be aware of is that although the writing on the label is resistant to solvents, the glue on the back of the label is not. You have to keep your levels of solutions low enough not to come into contact with the label, especially any xylene (This includes longer exposure to xylene fumes also). The glue becomes goo and will seep out and down the slide. Otherwise, I agree with Tim Morkens accessment of the label maker. Kim Carter OSU Medical Center ...
If you just want to try 2% agarose with SB buffer, I would recommend starting at about 10-20 V/cm for your voltage, and just check your progress when the Xylene Cyanol dye is about 1/2 down the gel. Xylene Cyanol should run at about the 150 bp range, so your bands should be below it, but clear of the dye. Dont use a loading dye with Orange G in it, since Orange G will run at about 60-50 bp, and will be right on top of your bands. As for overheating, part of the advantage of SB buffers is that they supposedly give better resolution, faster running, and cooler running temperatures. You shouldnt have a problem with overheating if your buffers and gel are made up correctly. If you do notice a problem, it wont hurt to run the gel in a cold room, but again, this shouldnt be a problem ...