TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatially and temporally regulated α6 integrin cleavage during Xenopus laevis development. AU - Demetriou, Manolis C.. AU - Stylianou, Panayiota. AU - Andreou, Maria. AU - Yiannikouri, Olga. AU - Tsaprailis, George. AU - Cress, Anne E. AU - Skourides, Paris. PY - 2008/2/15. Y1 - 2008/2/15. N2 - The α6 integrin is essential for early nervous system development in Xenopus laevis. We have previously reported a uPA cleaved form of integrin α6 (α6p), in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, whose presence correlates with increased migration and invasive capacity. We now report that α6 is cleaved during the normal development of Xenopus in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. In addition, unlike normal mammalian tissues, which lack α6p, the major form of the α6 integrin present in adult Xenopus is α6p. The protease responsible for the cleavage in mammals, uPA, is not involved in the cleavage of Xenopus α6. Finally, overexpression of a mammalian α6 mutant which ...
Recent surveys of various aquatic habitats have found detectable concentrations of several organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs). The effects of these OWCs on aquatic organisms are relatively unknown. We studied the effects of ecologically-relevant concentrations of two OWCs, acetaminophen and triclosan, on the behavior, growth, and survivorship of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Xenopus laevis decreased activity with increased concentrations of acetaminophen, but acetaminophen had no effect on startle response, final mass, nor suvivorship. Triclosan had a negative effect on tadpole activity, but no effect on startle response. High concentrations of triclosan had a negative effect on final mass and intermediate concentrations had a positive effect on final mass relative to controls. Triclosan did not affect survivorship. Our results suggest that some aspects of amphibian larval ecology may be impacted by OWC levels currently observed in the environment, and that further increases in such concentrations could
BioAssay record AID 700514 submitted by ChEMBL: Modulation of human recombinant GABA-A alpha1beta1gamma2L receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes assessed as effect on GABA-induced chloride current at 0.01 uM incubated 60 seconds before addition of GABA measured after 30 seconds at holding potential -70 mV by two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique relative to control.
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The common laboratory frog Xenopus laevis has puzzled researchers because it has twice the normal number of genes. A newly published genome sequence shows why: between 15 and 20 million years ago, two different species interbred and produced a hybrid, which then mated with its parent species to eventually form a new organism with a doubled genome. The frog has since adapted to the excess by losing or disabling many of these genes.
Rödder, D., Ihlow, F., Courant, J., Secondi, J., Herrel, A., Rebelo, R., Measey, G. J., et al. (2017): Global realized niche divergence in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. - Ecology and Evolution 2017: 1-15; DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3010
During Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, larval-to-adult muscle conversion depends on the differential responses of adult and larval myogenic cells to thyroid hormone. Essential differences in cell growth, differentiation, and hormone-dependent life-or-death fate have been reported between cultured larval (tail) and adult (hindlimb) myogenic cells. A previous study revealed that tail notochord cells suppress terminal differentiation in adult (but not larval) myogenic cells. However, little is known about the differences in expression patterns of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) and the satellite cell marker Pax7 between adult and larval myogenic cells. In the present study, we compared mRNA expression of these factors between the two types. At first, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of hindlimb buds showed sequential upregulation of myf5, myogenin, myod, and mrf4 during stages 50-54, when limb buds elongate and muscles begin to form. By contrast, in the tail, there was no such
Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) participate in many important physiological processes. However, the lack of effective and selective blockers has hindered the study of these channels, mostly due to the lack of good assay system. Here, we have developed a reliable drug screening method for better blockers of CaCCs, using the endogeneous CaCCs in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) technique. Oocytes were prepared with a treatment of Ca2+ ionophore, which was followed by a treatment of thapsigargin which depletes Ca2+ stores to eliminate any contribution of Ca2+ release. TEVC was performed with micropipette containing chelerythrine to prevent PKC dependent run-up or run-down. Under these conditions, Ca2+-activated Cl- currents induced by bath application of Ca2+ to oocytes showed stable peak amplitude when repetitively activated, allowing us to test several concentrations of a test compound from one oocyte. Inhibitory activities of commercially available blockers and
To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we searched for soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the oocyte that are able to selectively bind mRNAs, using as substrate radiolabeled mRNA. In vitro mRNP assembly in solution was followed by UV-cross-linking and RNase digestion, resulting in covalent tagging of polypeptides by nucleotide transfer. Five polypeptides of approximately 54, 56 60, 70, and 100 kD (p54, p56, p60, p70, and p100) have been found to selectively bind mRNA and assemble into mRNPs. These polypeptides, which correspond to previously described native mRNP components, occur in three different particle classes of approximately 4.5S, approximately 6S, and approximately 15S, as also determined by their reactions with antibodies against p54 and p56. Whereas the approximately 4.5S class contains p42, p60, and p70, probably each in the form of individual molecules or small complexes, the approximately 6S particles ...
In our laboratory, we use Xenopus laevis, commonly known as the African clawed frog (learn more on wikipedia). Xenopus laevis is a great model system for dissecting the molecular pathways in DNA replication and the maintenance of genomic stability. Cell-free extracts made from Xenopus eggs contain all the proteins necessary to undergo 12 rounds of cell-cycle regulated, semi-conservative DNA replication in the absence of transcription. Events in these extracts are highly synchronous, allowing the analysis of short-lived intermediates and the dissection of signal transduction cascades. Particularly, the function of essential proteins can be addressed by immunodepletion or neutralization of these proteins, coupled to rescue with recombinant proteins. Xenopus cell-free extracts are generated by centrifuging unfertilized Xenopus eggs and isolating the cytoplasmic layer. Female Xenopus can be induced to lay an abundance of eggs after hormone injection. In fact, Xenopus laevis were used as a pregnancy ...
In vivo tracking of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation in Xenopus laevis during tail regenerationIn vivo tracking of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation in Xenopus laevis during tail regeneration ...
BioAssay record AID 630202 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of retinal rod CNGA1/CNGB1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes assessed as blockade of cGMP-induced current at +50 mV holding potential by patch-clamp electrophysiology.
We have examined the timing of specification of the pronephric tubules and duct in Xenopus laevis by explanting the presumptive pronephric rudiments into blastula ectodermal wraps. We have established I-he time point of specification using the monoclonal antibody markers 3G8 and 4A6 which recognize antigens in pronephric tubule and duct, respectively. We show that, by experimental analysis in explants, kidney tubules are specified by stage 12.5 in the pronephric anlagen whereas pronephric duct is specified later between stages 13 and 14. Furthermore we show that signals involved in tubulogenesis of the pronephric tubules are normally received between stage 12.5 and 13. These experiments unambiguously pinpoint the timing of pronephros specification analyzed by explant experimentation to a developmental stage prior to that demonstrated for urodele amphibia, and provide an essential biological backdrop to a search for the molecular nature of pronephric inducers. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland ...
Selective modulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is thought to regulate processes impaired in schizophrenia, Alzheimers disease, and other dementias. One approach to target α7 nAChRs is by positive allosteric modulation. Structurally diverse compounds, including PNU-120596, 4-naphthalene-1-yl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3-H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonic acid amide (TQS), and 5-hydroxyindole (5-HI) have been identified as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), but their receptor interactions and pharmacological profiles remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated interactions of these compounds at human α7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Genistein was found to function as a PAM. Two types of PAM profiles were observed. 5-HI and genistein predominantly affected the apparent peak current (type I) whereas PNU-120596 and TQS increased the apparent peak current and evoked a distinct weakly decaying ...
This study analyzes the expression and the function of Xenopus msx-1 (Xmsx-1) in embryos, in relation to the ventralizing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4). Expression of Xmsx-1 was increased in UV-treated ventralized embryos and decreased in LiCl-treated dorsalized embryos at the neurula stage (stage 14). Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that Xmsx-1 is expressed in marginal zone and animal pole areas, laterally and ventrally, but not dorsally, at mid-gastrula (stage 11) and late-gastrula (stage 13) stages. Injection of BMP-4 RNA, but not activin RNA, induced Xmsx-1 expression in the dorsal marginal zone at the early gastrula stage (stage 10+), and introduction of a dominant negative form of BMP-4 receptor RNA suppressed Xmsx-1 expression in animal cap and ventral marginal zone explants at stage 14. Thus, Xmsx-1 is a target gene specifically regulated by BMP-4 signaling. Embryos injected with Xmsx-1 RNA in dorsal blastomeres at the 4-cell stage exhibited a ...
Freeze fracture replica of zonula occludens junctions from the small intestine of a Xenopus laevis tadpole. The occluding junction appears as a mesh...
Delineation of apical and basolateral membrane domains is a critical step in the epithelialization of the outer layer of cells in the embryo. We have examined the initiation of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus and show that membrane traffic is not polarized in oocytes but polarized membrane domains appear at first cleavage. The following proteins encoded by injected RNA transcripts were used as markers to monitor membrane traffic: (a) VSV G, a transmembrane glycoprotein preferentially inserted into the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells; (b) GThy-1, a fusion protein of VSV G and Thy-1 that is localized to the apical domains of polarized epithelial cells; and (c) prolactin, a peptide hormone that is not polarly secreted. In immature oocytes, there is no polarity in the expression of VSV G or GThy-1, as shown by the constitutive expression of both proteins at the surface in the animal and vegetal hemispheres. At meiotic maturation, membrane traffic to the surface is blocked; ...
This image is part of a large data set of Xenopus laevis eggs imaged at various times post fertilization (the first number of the file name correspond...
This image is part of a large data set of Xenopus laevis eggs imaged at various times post fertilization (the first number of the file name correspond...
Xenopus Xlrbpa protein: Xenopus laevis homolog of human TAR-RNA-binding protein; MW 33 kDa; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank M96370
Molecular Biology. Mutations were introduced into rat neuronal nAChR subunits using the GeneEditor in vitro site-directed mutagenesis system (Promega, Madison, WI). All mutations were confirmed by sequencing. Capped cRNA encoding wild-type and mutant subunits was generated using mMessage mMachine kits (Ambion, Austin, TX).. Preparation of Oocytes and cRNA Injection. Oocytes were surgically removed from mature Xenopus laevis frogs (Nasco, Fort Atkinson, WI). The care and use of X. laevis frogs in this study were approved by the University of Miami Animal Research Committee and met the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health. Follicle cells were removed by treatment with Collagenase B (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) for 2 h at room temperature. Stage V oocytes were injected with 0.5 to 10 ng of each cRNA (at a molar ratio of 1:1) in 15 to 50 nl of water and incubated at 18°C in Barths saline (88 mM NaCl, 1 mM KCl, 2.4 mM NaHCO3, 0.3 mM CaNO3, 0.41 mM CaCl2, 0.82 mM MgSO4, 15 mM ...
Cloning of Xenopus laevis nuclear poly(A)-rich RNA sequences. Evidence for post-transcriptional control.: cDNA/RNA hybridization experiments of polysomal and nu
The ultrastructure of the glomus cells of the carotid labyrinth was investigated in the anuran, Xenopus laevis. These cells show many catecholamine containing granules. About 50 cells in groups of 3-5 are located near the sinusoids. Morphologically,
Compare Anti-eomesodermin homolog (Xenopus laevis) Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|139635|sp|P19009| from Xenopus laevis . Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Xenopus laevis is one of the best ectothermic vertebrate models for studying the phylogeny and ontogeny of the immune system. The evolutionary distance of X. la...
Population-specific incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in Xenopus laevis from South Africa : A potential issue in endocrine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of glutamate receptors induced in Xenopus oocytes after injection of rat brain mRNA. AU - Hirono, Chikara. AU - Ito, Isao. AU - Yamagishi, Shunichi. AU - Sugiyama, Hiroyuki. PY - 1988/12. Y1 - 1988/12. N2 - Xenopus oocytes in which poly(A)+ mRNA isolated from rat brains were previously injected, exhibited at least 3 categories of current responses to excitatory amino acids. They were oscillatory responses to glutamate (Glu) or quisqualate (QA), smooth large responses to kainate (KA), and smooth small responses to Glu and QA. Oscillatory responses were mediated by a metabotropic type of Glu receptor which is coupled to a G-protein but not directly to an ionic channel. Amplitudes of smooth Glu responses and smooth QA responses were similar in size, and were not additive to each other, suggesting a common receptor mediating both responses. l-Glutamylglycine inhibited KA responses in a competitive manner without affecting smooth Glu/QA responses, indicating that KA ...
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Xenopus laevis is an essential model organism in several areas of biology. In addition to the key attributes of these embryos for in vivo imaging, cell-free extracts from Xenopus provide among the most powerful in vitro systems for studies of cell and molecular biology. A complete sequence of the X. laevis genome is an essential resource for accurate identification of peptides for mass-spec analyses, for cloning of an ORFeome, for identifying evolutionarily conserved regulatory regions, and for design of morpholino-oligonucleotides for gene knockdowns. The Wallingford and Marcotte labs have obtained funding from the Texas Institute for Drug and Diagnostic Development (TI3D), in coordination with projects funded by the National Institutes of Health, to begin sequencing of the X. laevis genome. We are primarily working with Scott Hunicke-Smith at the University of Texas Genome Sequencing and Analysis facility, with funding sufficient for ~20x coverage of the X. laevis genome using ABI SOLiD ...
Xenopus laevis is an essential model organism in several areas of biology. In addition to the key attributes of these embryos for in vivo imaging, cell-free extracts from Xenopus provide among the most powerful in vitro systems for studies of cell and molecular biology. A complete sequence of the X. laevis genome is an essential resource for accurate identification of peptides for mass-spec analyses, for cloning of an ORFeome, for identifying evolutionarily conserved regulatory regions, and for design of morpholino-oligonucleotides for gene knockdowns. The Wallingford and Marcotte labs obtained funding from the Texas Institute for Drug and Diagnostic Development (TI3D), in conjunction with projects funded by the National Institutes of Health, to begin sequencing of the X. laevis genome. We began the project with Scott Hunicke-Smith at the University of Texas Genome Sequencing and Analysis facility, with funding sufficient for ~20x coverage of the X. laevis genome using ABI SOLiD next-generation ...
The image features the head of the tadpole of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, from the Ai-Sun Tseng lab in the School of Life Sciences. Our image highlights the complexity of the tadpole. The tadpole is mostly transparent that it enables the use of color to highlight key tissues to study tissue regeneration. We can label tissues with specific markers that glow in different colors to show how each part of the tadpole interacts with each other. The muscles are shown in red and a protein is in green. This allows us to work towards understanding how some animals, such as the frog tadpole, can regenerate body parts, but others are cannot. This is an important question in medicine because it can help us understand the ways in which some animals repair their body parts and apply this towards creating novel therapies to improve tissue repair in humans.
Membrane potential and resistance were measured in eggs, cleavage stages and blastulae of the South African toad Xenopus laevis, using intracellular microelectrodes.. The membrane potential increased from −6·5 ± 2mV in eggs to −57 ± 8·0mV at the mid-blastula stage.. The input resistance of fertile eggs ranged from 0·5 MΩ to 5·0 MΩ corresponding to a specific resistance of 20-200kΩcm2. During the first two or three division cycles the input resistance usually decreased by a factor of 2-10 and then subsequently rose during the blastula stages from a mean value of 600 ± 100kΩ at stage 5 to 2·0 ± 0·5 MΩ at stage 8.. At all developmental stages examined, point polarization of a surface cell in the embryo by rectangular current pulses of 0·5−6 × 10−8 A produced voltage deflexions in other surface cells. This was seen even when several (7-8) cell junctions intervened between the current passing and voltage recording microelectrodes at distances of more than 1 mm. These ...
Transcriptional repressor. Binds DNA on N-box motifs: 5-CACNAG-3. Plays a role in the patterning of tissue boundaries. Promotes floor plate development and prechordal plate development. Required for lens development as early as the stage of lens field formation, partly through regulation of gene expression of the cell cycle inhibitor cdknx/p27(xic1). A role in neural crest development is disputed. [-] ...
Ovarian sex steroid production is essential for Follicular growth and subsequent Ovulation in Xenopus laevis. In the Xenopus ovary, Oocytes are arrested in an immature form in the Cell Cycle at Prophase-I boundary of the first meiotic cycle, and grow [...]
The biological problem that we are interested in is the development of the neural crest and its derivatives, including the craniofacial skeleton. At present, we are developing chemical tools to study the roles of GSK-3 and Wnt signaling in the neural crest. We are using two model systems, the frog Xenopus laevis and the mouse. Xenopus embryos are abundant and live in an aquatic environment, allowing easy manipulation and drug accessibility; thus, we are using Xenopus to study early patterning and to rapidly test new tools. We then adapt these tools to mammalian systems. In the mouse, we are currently studying the development of the bony skull, using conventional and drug-dependent alleles of GSK-3β. ...
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Robert J, Maniero G, Cohen N, Gantress J. 2004. Xenopus as an model system to study evolution of HSP-immune system interactions. In: Srivastava P, editor. Methods: A Companion to Methods in Enzymology (HSP-Immune System Interactions). Philadelphia: Academic Press. Vol 32: 42-53 ...
Xenopus laloo protein: involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast growth factor; isolated from Xenopus laevis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF081803
Embryonic Stage **[[Stage 1]] **Cleavage ***[[Stage 2]] ***[[Stage 3]] ***[[Stage 4]] ***[[Stage 5]] ***[[Stage 6]] **Blastula ***[[Stage 7]] ***[[Stage 8]] ***[[Stage 9]] **Gastrula ***[[Stage 10]] ***[[Stage 11]] ***[[Stage 12]] **Neurula ***[[Stage 13]] ***[[Stage 14]] ***[[Stage 15]] ***[[Stage 16]] ***[[Stage 17]] ***[[Stage 18]] ***[[Stage 19]] ***[[Stage 20]] ***[[Stage 21]] **Tailbud ***Early tailbud ****[[Stage 22]] ****[[Stage 23]] ****[[Stage 24]] ****[[Stage 25]] ****[[Stage 26]] ****[[Stage 27]] ****[[Stage 28]] ***Late tailbud ****[[Stage 29/30,Stage 29 and 30]] ****[[Stage 31]] ****[[Stage 32]] ****[[Stage 33/34,Stage 33 and 34]] ****[[Stage 35/36,Stage 35 and 36]] ****[[Stage 37/38,Stage 37 and 38]] ****[[Stage 39]] ****[[Stage 40]] ****[[Stage 41]] ****[[Stage 42]] ****[[Stage 43]] ****[[Stage 44]] **Tadpole ***Premetamorphosis ****[[Stage 45]] ****[[Stage 46]] ****[[Stage 47]] ****[[Stage 48]] ****[[Stage 49]] ****[[Stage 50]] Digitized images and developmental data from ...
A novel role of TCF family in body axis formation. Revolutionary high impact discoveries are described, elucidating the missing link in the Wnt pathway and protein-TCF combinations with dual functions. By studying the primary axis formation of Xenopus laevis, it was firstly shown that, in combination with beta-catenin, TCF acts as a potent activator of proto-oncogenes. Secondly, it was discovered that in combination with the Groucho family of proteins, TCF acts as suppressor of oncogene transcription. Stronlgy suggesting that TCF controls oncogene transcription in a dual fashion. These discoveries contributed to the origination of a major area of cancer research and opened multiple angles for cancer therapy development ...
En el organismo modelo Xenopus laevis, los oocitos de estadio VI están parados indefinidamente en la profase (G2/M) de la meiosis I hasta que se produce una adecuada estimulación hormonal. Una red de regulación positiva alrededor de la cascada Mos/MEK/ERK asegura la maduración (GVBD) de los oocitos tras la estimulación con progesterona. Sin embargo, el papel de las MAPK de estrés JNK y p38 en la progresión meiótica no es tan claro. Aquí analizamos una proteína de 42 kDa detectada con anticuerpos pJNK (XpJNK-p42) que aparece alrededor del GVBD en oocitos tratados con progesterona. La expresión ectópica de MEKK1 constitutivamente activo acelera la maduración de los oocitos mediante la activación de las vías de señalización de p38 y ERK, pero no de la cascada JNK. Por otra parte, cuatro transcritos diferentes de JNK3 presentes en los oocitos no sintetizan proteína y no se activan durante la maduración inducida por progesterona. El análisis de espectrometría de masas indica que ...
Genes involved in vertebrate development are unusually enriched for highly conserved non-coding sequence elements. These regions are readily detected in silico, by genome-wide sequence comparisons between different vertebrates, from mammals to fish (phylogenetic footprinting). It follows that sequence conservation must be the result of positive selection for an essential physiological role. An obvious possibility is that these conserved sequences possess regulatory or structural functions important for gene expression and, thus, an in vivo assay becomes necessary. We have developed a rapid testing system using zebrafish and Xenopus laevis embryos that allows us to assign transcriptional regulatory functions to conserved non-coding sequence elements. The sequences are cloned into a vector containing a minimal promoter and the GFP reporter, and are assayed for their putative cis-regulatory activity in zebrafish or Xenopus transgenic experiments. Vectors used include plasmid DNA and the Tol2 ...
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Ive just started a PhD at Nottingham University looking at apoptosis in the immune system of Xenopus Laevis. Im trying to do a literature review and Im not having much luck getting relevant articles. If anybody out there is doing anything related or knows anything about the subject, their help would be most appreciated. Thanks, Rick Dobson ...
Monoclonal antibody against fibronectin, type III repeat 9 expressed by fn1 for use in Immunofluorescence, Western Blot against Xenopus laevis
Purchase Gemin 1 Antibody [2B1] directly from Immuquest. Validated for IHC-P, ICC/IF, ELISA, WB, IP, Flow Cyt in Mouse, Human, Xenopus laevis
References for Abcams Recombinant |em|X. laevis|/em| PKC alpha protein (ab60839). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication