Secalonic acids A, B, and C, are chiral dimeric tetrahydroxanthones closely related to ergoflavin and ergochrysin A that are collectively called ergochromes and belong to a class of mycotoxins initially isolated as major ergot pigments from the fungi Claviceps purpurea that grows parasitically on rye grasses. From early times and particularly in medieval Europe the consumption of grains containing ergot has repeatedly lead to mass poisonings known as ergotism which was caused by toxic ergot alkaloids and mycotoxins such as the ergochromes, due to contamination of flour by C. purpurea. Secalonic acid D the enantiomer of secalonic acid A is a major environmental toxin, isolated from the fungus Penicillium oxalicum, and is a major microbial contaminant of freshly-harvested corn which causes toxicity through contamination of foodstuffs. Major Ergot Ergochromes and Secalonic acid D Secalonic acid A Secalonic acid B Secalonic acid C Secalonic acid D Ergoflavin Ergochrysin A In addition to the ...
5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), currently in phase I trials, demonstrates excellent activity against transplantable murine tumours with established vasculature. The induction of cytokines, particularly of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), appears to be critical to its action. We investigated TNF induction by DMXAA in cultured human peripheral blood leucocytes (HPBL). TNF was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 8 h, and NF-kappaB induction by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) after 2 h. DMXAA (800 microg/ml) had no effect alone on TNF production but augmented, by up to 4-fold, the ability of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce TNF. Previously reported results showing TNF production by DMXAA alone were traced to the presence in an earlier batch of DMXAA of a small amount of LPS, the action of which could be blocked by polymyxin B. DMXAA stimulated TNF production by deacylated LPS, which alone had little effect. An antibody (MEM-18) to the CD14 receptor,
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a medicinal plant that shows biological effects including immunomodulatory activity on human and other mammals but not in fish. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of R. tomentosa leaf extract and its active compound, rhodomyrtone, on the immune responses, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney (HK) macrophages as a model. The tested immune functions included the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Gene expression was evaluated after exposure to 10 μg mL⁻¹ of R. tomentosa and 1 μg mL⁻¹ of rhodomyrtone for 4 and 24 h. R. tomentosa and rhodomyrtone induced changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (il1β, il8, and tnfα), anti-inflammatory cytokines (il10 and tgfβ), inducible enzymes (inos, cox2, and arginase), and an antioxidant enzyme (gpx1). Co-exposure of R. tomentosa with LPS resulted in a prominent reduction in the
Gambogic acid has a marked anti-tumor effect for gastric and colorectal cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, recent investigations on gambogic acid have focused mainly on mono-drug therapy, and its potential role in cancer therapy has not been comp
Gambogic acid (GA) was extracted from the dried yellow resin of gamboge (Garcinia hanburyi) which is traditionally used as a coloring material for painting and cloth dying. Gamboge has been also used as a folk medicine for an internal purgative and externally infected wound. We focused on the mechanisms of apoptosis induction by GA through the unfold protein response (ER stress) in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic effect of GA against HeLa cells was determined by trypan blue exclusion assay. Markers of ER stress such as XBP-1, GRP78, CHOP, GADD34 and ERdj4 were analyzed by RT-PCR and Real-time RT-PCR. Cell morphological changes and apoptotic proteins were performed by Hoechst33342 staining and Western blotting technique. Our results indicated a time- and dose-dependent decrease of cell viability by GA. The ER stress induction is determined by the up-regulation of spliced XBP1 mRNA and activated GRP78, CHOP, GADD34 and ERdj4 expression. GA also induced cell morphological changes such as nuclear condensation,
Antidepressant-like activity of a new piperazine derivative of xanthone in the forced swim test in mice: the involvement of serotonergic ...
Previous studies using XNT have suggested that the molecule has a unique role as a hypotensive and antifibrotic agent within the RAS acting primarily as an activator of the ACE2. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that XNT attenuates hypertension by an ACE2-independent mechanism.. Studies were performed in C57BL6 WT and ACE2KO mice. BP was monitored continuously for a period of 25 min following a bolus of Ang II infusion after either XNT or recombinant (r)ACE2 was administered.. Ang peptides were examined in plasma ex-vivo using MAS spectrometry analysis (RAS-fingerprint). ACE2 activity in serum was measured after XNT and/or Ang II infusion, in order to investigate a potential effect of XNT on serum ACE2.. With regard to blood pressure, both XNT (n=11) and rACE2 (n=11) were able to markedly attenuate Ang II -induced hypertension in WT mice. However, a similar decline in BP caused by XNT was also seen in ACE2KO mice (n=14), indicating that the BP-lowering effect of XNT was ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 90-47-1(Xanthone) for price inquiry. where to buy 90-47-1(Xanthone).Also offer free database of 90-47-1(Xanthone) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Ignatushchenko, Marina V., "Antimalarial and antileishmanial action of xanthones : host-parasite differences in heme metabolism as chemotherapeutic targets" (1998). Scholar Archive. 2555 ...
Xanthones are reported to exhibit various biological and pharmacological properties (Obolskiy et al., 2009) such as antibacterial (Boonnak, Karalai et al., 2010), antifungal (Gopalakrishnan et al., 1997), anti-inflammatory (Boonnak, Khamthip et al., 2010) and anti-cancer (Ho et al., 2002) activities. We have previously reported several isolated xanthones and their biological activities (Boonnak, Karalai et al., 2010; Boonnak, Khamthip et al., 2010). Among these compounds, the title xanthone (I), which is also known as pruniflorone N, showed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a MIC value of 9.37 µg mL-1. Compound (I) crystallized out in the centrosymmetric Pbca space group indicating that the extracted material was a racemate, Figure 1.. Compound (I) has a xanthone nucleus with a pyran ring fused to it in an angular fashion which is rarely found. It crystallized out in a monohydrate form, C18H16O6.H2O (Fig. 2). The ...
3 hours publish DMXAA remedy, ectopic MCA tumors showed 6 fold better induction of DPP-4 compared to orthotopic MCA tumors. No statistically significant distinction in intratumoral ranges of VEGF had been observed in between untreated ectopic and orthotopic MCA tumors.. Even so, higher levels of VEGF have been seen in orthotopic tumors than ectopic tumors following DMXAA treatment method. The host microenvironment is critically involved in tumor angiogenesis via a complex network of interactions in between tumor cells, endothelial cells and host cells. It is as a result important to assess and interpret the preclinical RAD001 activity of VDAs within the context of the tumor kind and its microenvironment. In the present examine, non invasive MMCM MRI was utilized to investigate the influence of the host microenvironment on tumor angiogenesis and response to DMXAA. The outcomes show the usefulness of MMCM MRI in characterizing vascular variations between ectopic and orthotopic tumors and offer ...
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EMMX proudly develops novel molecules and reagents to drug discovery and cancer research. We are scientists driven by a devotion to discovery and innovation, and we work hard every day to find new ways to streamline life science research.. ...
A New Phytologist study sheds light on the sites of synthesis and accumulation of xanthones in roots. The findings may be helpful for understanding the biosynthesis of xanthones and in efforts to manipulate them for medicinal purposes.|br /|
Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of Tovomita krukovii resulted in the identification of four new xanthones (1 - 4) and ten known compounds (5 - 14). The structures of compounds 1 - 14 were determined by spectral data to be 3,5-dihydr
Leukaemia is the most common childhood cancer, and whilst recent advances in therapy have improved survival, current treatments are still limited by their side effects. T..
Background Gambogic acidity (GA) was extracted through the dried yellowish resin of gamboge (in Southeast Asia India ANX-510 and China. suppressing VEGFR2 [10]. Zhang et al Recently. [11] demonstrated that GA could possibly be an inhibitor of Temperature shock proteins 90 (Hsp90) which really is a key proteins in cell signaling and tumor regeneration. Inhibition […]. ...
Polenta is an Italian dish that actually requires an inordinate amount of attention when cooking. We usually dont think that cooking what is essentially a corn-based mush, as anything that would require that much attention from the time you put it on the stove to the time you took it off.. That isnt the case as far as cooking polenta is concerned. Polenta has been described as mush with an attitude, and may not turn out well if not given at least a little bit of tender, loving care during the cooking process. Even if one simply regards polenta as cornmeal, and nothing more, one still has to take certain precautions in cooking up a batch of cornmeal to get it right. Were used to getting a mix in a box, dumping it in a pan with a cup of water, stirring it once or twice, and thats it. Not so with polenta.. Not Complicated, But Complicated Enough - Cooking polenta isnt really much more complicated than that, but it does need to be stirred, and it needs to be cooked over even heat. When cooked ...
Alibaba.com offers 1,291 garcinia mangostana l. products. About 33% of these are fruit extract, 29% are herbal extract. A wide variety of garcinia mangostana l. options are available to you, such as shell, seed, and bark.
Certified Organic SuperFruit Antioxidant Juice Organic Mangosteen Juice, Goji Juice and other juice concentrates Naturally Rich in Xanthones A Dietary Supplement Vegetarian Product Genuine Whole Food The Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Fruit has been treasured for thousands of years by the people living in Southeast Asia. Also known as the Queen of Fruits, the Mangosteen has been used traditionally for its numerous health benefits. More recently, scientific inquiry has revealed the extraordinary properties of the Mangosteen and its rich supply of antioxidants called Xanthones. Antioxidant Protection The Mangosteen fruit contains a number of Xanthones and Proanthocyanidins. These powerful antioxidants help to neutralize and eliminate free radicals, and thus support healthy cellular function. NOW Mangosteen SuperFruit Antioxidant Juice also contains Goji Juice, and concentrates of Pomegranate, Blueberry, Cranberry, and Black Cherry which boost the ORAC value to over 19,000 per
In 600 AD, scribes in Southeast Asia first recorded the use of the Mangosteen fruit as a general remedy and healing agent. More than a thousand years later (1673), Laurens Garcin (the base of the name Garcinia mangostana), studied the fruit, provided detailed diagrams, and determined that the mangosteen was helpful in treating various intestinal inflammations. In the following centuries, scattered research and documentation continued. Then suddenly, in the late 20th century, the research multiplied. Today, you can visit the National Library of Medicine website and simply type the word "mangosteen." Youll get more than 20 documented results from the last 13 years alone. And each entry provides detailed research on the medicinal properties and health benefits of the mangosteen.. As you read through the research and talk to people who know about XanGo Juice, theyll mention the word "xanthones." So let me take a minute to explain what theyre talking about. Youve heard of antioxidants; theyre a ...
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteens classification as a
Among the 40 mangosteen xanthones found in the whole mangosteen fruit, alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin have been the main subject of many studies by researchers around the world
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Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is the major exported fresh fruit of Indonesia. Mangosteen productivity in Indonesia was about 30-70 kg/tree, lower than Malaysia and India which is about 200-300 kg per tree. The low productivity of mangosteen in Indonesia is mainly caused by low fruit harvest per tree due to excessive abscission of fruits and flowers. The causes of this abscission of flowers and fruit is not known. Consequently, there are no recommendations for field methods to correct this problem. The research was conducted to study the content changes of ABA, IAA, and carbohydrate in relation to abscising flower and fruit of mangosteen trees. The research was conducted in Mekarsari Fruit Garden, Bogor, using 40 mangosteen trees aged 10 years old. ABA and IAA content in abscised fruits and flowers were compared to those of attached fruits and flowers. Further, the carbo-hydrate content (total sugar) analyzed from the terminal leaves of shoots with abscised flowers and fruits were compared ...
Mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana. L) growing wild in the forests and mountains with trees can reach heights over 15 feet but has the fruit that takes more than 10 years. Indonesia as a country that has abundant biodiversity is one of the mangosteen production centers which are exported to various parts of the world such as America and Europe. Based on the information I can, in Europe there selling mangosteen peel is very high. There are skin mangosteen juice be worth about 20 U.S. dollars or about 200 thousand dollars per glass. Whereas in our country, mangosteen be used as a guessing game even could be "gambling ...
The present invention advances prior art animal food products by providing an animal food product formulated with Garicinia mangostana L., or Mangosteen fruit, from the Mangosteen plant. The addition of Mangosteen to the animal food product of the present invention serves to provide significant health advantages not found in prior art animal food products.
TIPS... I am looking for mangosteen tea preparation steps. Tips on how to steep/boil fresh skin or dry rind. The specific temperature for how many minutes or hours. However, I found out that xanthones, the dominant and most important mangosteen antioxidant, is relatively heat stable. Maybe boiling it is fine or steeping might be better.…
The mangosteen is ultra-tropical. It cannot tolerate temperatures below 40º F (4.44º C), nor above 100º F (37.78º C). Nursery seedlings are killed at 45º F (7.22º C). It ordinarily requires high atmospheric humidity and an annual rainfall of at least 50 in (127 cm), and no long periods of drought. The tree is not adapted to limestone and does best in deep, rich organic soil, especially sandy loam or laterite. Good drainage of soil is essential ...
Exceptional research by the science community! www.PubMed.com. Links at bottom of article for NSF mangosteen product I use and recommend. MOST RECENT:: 1- Mangosteen peel extracts inhibit diabetic glomerulosclerosis condition (neuropathy) & may help increase helpful kidney cells https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30524699 2- Mangosteen pericarp has antibacterial effects, anti-inflammatory effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced superficial skin infection https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30611995 3- Alleviate stress induced liver fibrosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30502394 4- Helps collagen induced arthritis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30484004 5- Mangosteen is stronger than milk thistle in protecting liver https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30306536 6- Suppress development of atherosclerosis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30959963 7- Preclinical…. Continue Reading ...
Here the researchers used a crude extract of the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana L, mangosteen fruit. On the basis of physicochemical data, the active substances were identified as alpha-mangostin and gammamangostin in the crude extract. The researchers found that ...
Both mangosteen fruit powder and fresh mangosteens can offer some interesting health benefits. Get here the full scoop on the benefits of this up-and-coming superfood.
Garcinia xanthochymus has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for expelling worms and removing food toxins. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOAc-soluble extract of G. xanthochymus stem bark led to the isolation of six new xanthones. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques. Free-radical-scavenging activities of the isolated compounds were elucidated through DPPH method. Most of the isolated compounds showed considerable free radical scavenging activity on DPPH assay. Compound 1 exhibited effective antioxidant scavenging activity against DPPH radical with an IC50 value of 19.64 μM, and compound 6 showed the lowest activity among all the tested molecules, with an IC50 value of 66.88 μM. These findings support the notion that the plant genus Garcinia is a good source of bioactive compounds.
A number of structural classes known to cause P450 inhibition such as alkaloids, flavones, and polyphenols have been identified in herbal products (Foti and Wahlstrom, 2008). Structurally, the xanthones found in mangosteen also appear to be good ligands for P450 enzymes as evidenced by the broad spectrum of P450-catalyzed metabolism, nonselective inhibition of multiple P450 isoforms, and their previously noted interactions with CYP19 (aromatase). The xanthones found in mangosteen have multiple phenolic groups, which may contribute to both their efficacious and inhibitory effects. Phenol-containing compounds such as the flavanol quercetin have been shown to be potent competitive inhibitors of CYP2C9 by occupying the flurbiprofen binding site of CYP2C9 (Si et al., 2009). The polyphenolic substructures of the xanthones found in mangosteen may suggest a similar mechanism of inhibition for these compounds. It is interesting to note that two of the xanthones, α-mangostin and 3-isomangostin, were ...
The Benefits of Mangosteen peel juice for health - Mangosteen peel juice or plus Xamthone made from the original mangosteen peel extract that can
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Establishing a mangosteen dosing regimen can create robust health and vitality, preventing many illnesses from striking in the first place. If you are looking for reasons to drink Xango mangosteen juice every day look no further, below we have listed a wide variety of health benefits that xango mangosteen juice can bri
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1. Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E. et al. Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod. 2003;66:1124-7 2. Zhang KJ, Gu QL, Yang K. et al. Anticarcinogenic effects of α-mangostin: A review. Planta Med. 2017;83:188-202 3. Fatmawati S, Ersam T, Shimizu K. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn. Phytomedicine. 2014;22:49-51 4. Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG. et al. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:203-8 5. Kurose H, Shibata MA, Iinuma M. et al. Alterations in cell cycle and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells treated with α-mangostin extracted from mangosteen pericarp. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012 doi: 10.1155/2012/672428 6. Li P, Tian W, Ma X. Alpha-mangostin inhibits intracellular fatty acid synthase and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer. ...
The Mangosteen is considered a Superfruit as it contains a potent concentration of Xanthones, one of the most powerful anti-oxidants ever discovered, which gives it that deep, purple colour. The best way to avail yourself of the health benefits of Mangosteen is by taking supplements as you rarely see this fruit outside of the region and even within S. E. Asia the fruit is seasonal as the tree only bears fruit once or twice a year! And when it does it is quickly consumed as it is popular with the locals who value the fruit for its health benefits as much as its divine taste! ...
Mangosteen Plus contains the high-antioxidant whole mangosteen fruit and cranberry extract for urinary tract health and fluid circulation.*
The mangosteen plant is an evergreen tree reaching about 20- 60 ft in height. It commonly found in tropical rainforests of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines as well as in some cultivated orchards in Sri Lanka, and India, where annual precipitation and relative humidity are favorable for its growth. Unique for its appearance and flavor, mangosteen is often revered as "the queen" of tropical fruits, particularly in the South-East Asian regions. This exotic, round, purple color fruit is quite popular for its snow-white, juicy, delicious arils all over Asian countries.. Therapeutic Properties: When mangosteen hit the market, so did the word xanthones which not many people had heard of before. Xanthones are a compound found in mangosteen which have been studied for their potent anti-inflammatory properties and possible ability to treat tuberculosis and arthritis. The dried rind has been used for dysentery, diarrhea and gonorrhea, eczema and other skin problems.. Low in calories (63 ...
Excessive osteoclast formation and bone resorption are key causes of osteoporosis. Natural compounds can serve as alternative therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and some natural compounds may have advantages over traditional drugs. Here, we report that the natural compound gambogic acid (GBA), which is bioavailable, effective, and less toxic, inhibits osteoclast formation, thereby attenuating osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro . Further in vivo studies demonstrated that GBA prevented ovariectomy(OVX)-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrated that GBA suppressed RANKL-induced JNK, p38 and AKT phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GBA inhibits osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that it is of potential value in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. ...
Free from artificial colors and preservatives. Free from the common allergens yeast, wheat, soy and milk. Supplement Facts: Serving Size 1 Extended-Release Tablet Amount Per Tablet Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana fruit) (standardized minimum 20% [100mg] a-mangostin, 55% [275mg] flavonoids) 500mg Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, di-calcium phosphate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, silica, Activessence (a patented enzyme activation system - cellulase, pectinase, hemicellulase and xylanase) and pharmaceutical glaze.
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Mangosteen Juice has amazing benefits when consumed on a daily base as part of a healthy diet. Establishing a mangosteen dosing regimen can...
As this eMedTV page explains, some of the possible health benefits of mangosteen include treating or preventing conditions such as arthritis and cancer. This article further discusses the other uses of mangosteen and explains how it may work.