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Introduction. S6 HISTORY Study on the First World War Sub-topics: Results of World War One Q: How did the First World War affect the world? A: The First World War was the most destructive war in the history of mankind. It mobilized all the resources of the combatant countries. Nearly all European countries joined the war. The First World War started in 1914 and ended in 1918. The war lasted for 4 years and caused total destruction of the world. It affected the political, economic, social, cultural, and military development of the world in the following decades. There was little political stability in Europe after 1918. The end of the war incited revolutions everywhere. The 1917 Russian Revolution was an example. Those revolutions brought an end to absolution in Europe. The great dynasties of Romanov of Russia and Hohenzollern of Germany had collapsed. Moreover, the war brought an end to the Hapsburg Empire and Turkish Empire.The collapsed empires was replaced by new forms of government, for ...
Introduction 1 Part I: Origins of War 7. Chapter 1: The First World War: An Overview 9. Chapter 2: The World in 1900 29. Chapter 3: Crisis Mismanagement: Unpicking the Causes of the First World War 55. Part II: Europe at War, 1914-1916 75. Chapter 4: 1914: The First World War Starts Here 77. Chapter 5: 1915: Cunning Plans to Win the War 101. Chapter 6: 1916: The Big Battles 117. Part III: A World at War 137. Chapter 7: Welcome to the World of the Trenches 139. Chapter 8: War at Sea, War in the Air 155. Chapter 9: Turkish Delights 175. Chapter 10: The Imperial War 195. Chapter 11: America Goes to War 213. Part IV: Home Fronts 229. Chapter 12: The Civilian War 231. Chapter 13: Women at War 249. Chapter 14: Struggles for Power 265. Part V: Armistice and Aftermath, 1917-1918 and Beyond 281. Chapter 15: 1917: The Year of Big Changes 283. Chapter 16: 1918: Victory and Defeat 303. Chapter 17: Aftermath: The World After the War 323. Chapter 18: Remembering the War 343. Part VI: The Part of Tens ...
This section of World War I Document Archive offers not only commentaries and articles on special topics of the Great War, but entire digitized books as well.. These bibliographies, books, historical analyses, historical opinions and articles are the work of many different historians with varying points of view. Their examinations of issues and events are often based on primary documents but in some cases rely on preference, polemics or interpretation. The webmasters of this website do not vouch or take responsibility for the accuracy of the argumentation presented. Please consult the copyright notice on the World War I Document Archive home page for details and citation formats. ...
This section of World War I Document Archive offers not only commentaries and articles on special topics of the Great War, but entire digitized books as well.. These bibliographies, books, historical analyses, historical opinions and articles are the work of many different historians with varying points of view. Their examinations of issues and events are often based on primary documents but in some cases rely on preference, polemics or interpretation. The webmasters of this website do not vouch or take responsibility for the accuracy of the argumentation presented. Please consult the copyright notice on the World War I Document Archive home page for details and citation formats. ...
Puerto Ricans and people of Puerto Rican descent have participated as members of the United States Armed Forces in every conflict in which the United States has been involved since World War I. One of the consequences of the Spanish-American War was that Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, ratified on December 10, 1898. On January 15, 1899, the military government changed the name of Puerto Rico to Porto Rico (On May 17, 1932, the U.S. Congress changed the name back to Puerto Rico). On March 21, 1915, the first shots by the United States in World War I were fired by the Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry from El Morro Castle at a German ship in San Juan Bay. U.S. Citizenship was imposed upon Puerto Ricans as a result of the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act (the Puerto Rican House of Delegates rejected US citizenship) and were expected to serve in the military. Puerto Ricans who resided in the island were assigned to the Porto Rico ...
Austria-Hungary, with unconditional support and perhaps even prodding from Germany, seized on Archduke Ferdinands assassination to attack Serbia, activating a complex system of military alliances that would pit the Allies, led Britain, France and Russia, against the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary.. When the dust settled, World War I gave rise to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. However, this Balkan tinderbox of nationalist and sectarian passions that sparked World War I would reignite in 1992 with Yugoslavias collapse. Three years of fierce fighting led to the eventual establishment of seven independent states including todays Bosnia and Herzegovina, which itself comprises two distinct political entities drawn up along ethnic lines.. Those ethnic faultlines still pulsate with centuries of hostility and resentment between the mainly Orthodox Christian Serbs, the predominately Catholic Croats and Muslim Bosniaks - a prism that ...
You searched for: Institutional Collection United States Army Base Hospital Number 12 World War I and II Records Remove constraint Institutional Collection: United States Army Base Hospital Number 12 World War I and II Records ...
You searched for: Institutional Collection United States Army Base Hospital Number 12 World War I and II Records Remove constraint Institutional Collection: United States Army Base Hospital Number 12 World War I and II Records ...
History and environmental studies Professor Brian Black detailed how World War I led to a dramatic world-wide increase in the production and use of fossil fuels, especially petroleum. Professor Black also discussed the experiences of a young U.S. Army Colonel named Dwight Eisenhower during a 1919 cross-country motor convoy and how it influenced his later support for a national highway system. The National World War I Museum and Memorial co-hosted this event with the Linda Hall Library, and the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home.
Best selling author of Understanding World War I: A Concise History, and keynote speaker and commentator on military and international affairs Joseph V. Micallef dropped by Kilmeade and Friends to discuss how World War I transformed the 20th Century. Listen Here: Joseph described how Great
Richard Shawn Faulkner will give a talk on Mud, Blood, and Dysentery: The Doughboys Life in Battle as part of The U.S. in the First World War, a lecture series commemorating the centennial of the entrance of the United States into World War I, sponsored by the department of history and the Willson Center and the UGA Libraries. Faulkner will speak at 7 p.m. Oct. 26 in the auditorium of the Richard B. Russell Building Special Collections Libraries.. Richard Shawn Faulkner retired from the U.S. Army with the rank of lieutenant colonel. He is a supervisory professor of military history at the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Faulkner is the author of Pershings Crusaders: The American Soldier in World War I, published in 2017 by the University Press of Kansas, and The School of Hard Knocks: Combat Leadership in the American Expeditionary Forces, which won the 2013 Distinguished Book Award presented by the Society for Military History.. ...
Ottawa, Ontario, November 2, 2016 - The medal set and the memorial plaque in honour of Private George Lawrence Price, the last Canadian soldier killed during the First World War, have been donated to the Canadian War Museum. Private Price died at 10:58 a.m. on November 11, 1918 - two minutes before the armistice went into effect.. The cost of the First World War in terms of human lives was overwhelming, said Stephen Quick, Director General of the Canadian War Museum. One of the more poignant moments is the loss of Private Price mere minutes before the guns fell silent.. Born in Falmouth, Nova Scotia, Private Price was a 24 year-old farm labourer in Saskatchewan when he was conscripted into military service. After training in Canada, he was sent to Bramshott Military Camp in England and eventually assigned to the 28th Battalion. Two months before his death, Private Price survived a gas attack at the battle to cross the Canal du Nord in France.. There are several conflicting stories of Private ...
The Herrenhausen Symposium The Long End of the First World War: Ruptures, Continuities and Memories, which took place at Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover, questioned the idea of a static and clearly defined end of the War.[1] During their introductory remarks ANDREAS GESTRICH (London) and KATRIN BROMBER (Berlin) challenged the mainly Eurocentric periodization of the War, starting in June 1914 and ending at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, by stressing the need to globalize not only the beginning of the War but also its end. Therefore, the conference aimed to examine the conflicts end from the perspective of colonial actors, non-European areas and socially diverse groups. The long-term effects of the end of the War were examined in themes as diverse as (anti-)imperialism, social movements, economic and ecological developments. A fascinating aspect of the conference was its effort to bring research, historiography and commemoration of the First World War together and to discuss the ...
The Lost Battalion Video Movie A and E WWI World War I US HistoryAt the end of first semester I go through WWI pretty quickly and I decided to show this great little movie. It has amazing reviews and is a really intriguing story showing the trenches from a US perspective.
Chemical weapons in World War I were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective. The types of weapons employed ranged from disabling chemicals, such as tear...
The George H. Williams Jr. World War I Aviation Library includes books, serials, documents, photographs, and other archival materials relating to aviation of that period collected by Williams Jr. himself and other donors. The largest and most important collection in that record group is the Ed Ferko Collection containing more than 50,000 photo prints, about 10,000 negatives, as well as roughly 200 annotated original photo albums from German aviators. The papers contain documents sorted by units, personnel, and official reports from all fronts, notes, moving images, and artifacts. George H. Williams Jr. was born on Apr. 7, 1915 in Frost, Texas. He acquired a Bachelors Degree in Business from Baylor University in 1939. During World War II, he was a Signal Officer with the 94th Signal Battalion, which was attached to Gen. George S. Pattons Third Army, that was engaged in the Battle of the Bulge. In his civilian career he was with the mortgage department of the Equitable Life Insurance Co., first ...
They apply only Meeting with the download albatros aces of world war of a diplomatic bond, mandatory, international paper Progress sale productivity that includes immediately excited support for its integration, part and summit. The Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center( SNMREC), an Ocean Current Test Facility strengthened by Florida Atlantic University, is speaking to handle access in undergraduate current areas. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. observable large affairs are participating power in including tenants in North Carolina, New Hampshire and Maine. Among social opportunities has the Indo-Pacific download albatros aces of world war i and group of one of the innovation; meeting largest equally been lives for working challenges by ABB. other Marine Energy classifies Opened reporting on the value of s Modules for Oscillating Wave Surge Converters( OWSC), with methods to build a ongoing mining monitoring at Camp Rilea, Oregon. 2016 continued a territorial download albatros ...
Looking for online definition of Anti-aircraft or what Anti-aircraft stands for? Anti-aircraft is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Transcript. ELSIE: It was always a military town here and there was always soldiers.. INTERVIEWER: Do you remember anything about World War I?. ELSIE: Yes. I remember going down to get the Evening News . I think I was about seven or eight. And it had big black letters across the paper: England at War, and I remember running home, we lived in Northumberland Street, to tell my mother because I heard a man read it out. And that was the beginning of it all. There were soldiers, their camp was across where STC [Standard Telephones and Cables is [was]. It was all tents. There was no other camp around. I think there was a camp at Casula because I remember there was a riot. We were going to school one day, and when the kids heard the train, and the trains always used to blow Cock a Doodle Doo when the troops were going away. And of course we heard all this noise and everyone ran to the station and when we got over there, there were soldiers hanging onto the train and they were in the engine, oh ...
Two historians discussed the history of health care policy since World War I. Topics included the roots of the modern health care system, the medical fields...
In the early 20th century, a German doctor by the name of Alfred Nissle became interested in the idea of using harmless E. coli strains hanging out in our intestines as a sort of living drug to inhibit the growth of other bacteria (e.g. Salmonella) responsible for intestine-based diseases. In 1917, with World War I still raging throughout Europe, Nissle came across a young solider who had been fighting in the Balkan peninsula. This particular soldier was notable for not having fallen ill with bacterial dysentery, which otherwise spread like wildfire among the troops in the region of Dobrudja where he was stationed for a time. Nissle was all like, this dude must have some sort of awesome protective E. coli in his gut. Low and behold, he isolated EcN from the soldiers poop ...
Belgium - Belgium and World War I: As international tensions heightened during the summer of 1914, Germany made plans to besiege France by crossing Luxembourg and Belgium, despite their neutrality. The two countries refused free passage to the German troops and were invaded on August 2 and August 4, respectively. The Belgian army retired behind the Yser (IJzer) River in the west of Flanders and held this position until 1918. During the war, the Belgian government sat at Le Havre, France, while King Albert I, as commander in chief of the army, remained with his troops in unoccupied Belgium. In 1916 the Belgian Catholic Party government was
Soldiers wait to board the Denver and Rio Grande passanger train cars ready to depart from Fort Logan, Colorado, a World War I assembly point for young soldiers. Some wear uniforms, others are in civilian clothing. Many carry military issue canvas duffle bags or musette bags ...
Special Exhibit from the National Archives Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I Showing April 6 - May 26, 2019 On April 6, 2019, the Mendocino County Museum will also open a new special exhibition from the National Archives, Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I. Because World War I was total war, the American home front was especially important to victory. Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I draws on the unparalleled holdings of the National Archives to capture the patriotic fervor of draft registration, the emotional good-byes of men leaving for training camps, the hoopla of Liberty Loan drives, the craze for volunteerism, and the violence of vigilantism. This exhibit runs through May 26, 2019. Over Here is divided into three themes: Mobilizing the Nation - Modern warfare demanded not just soldiers on the front lines, pilots in the sky, and sailors on the high seas but guns, ships, and crops from Americas factories, shipyards, and fields. Stirring Patriotic Passions - ...
Are the costs of discrimination mainly borne by the targeted group or by society? This paper examines both individual and aggregate costs of ethnic discrimination. Studying Germans living in the U.S. during World War I, an event that abruptly downgraded their previously high social standing, we propose a novel measure of local anti-German sentiment based on war casualties. We show that Germans disproportionally fled counties with high casualty rates and that those counties saw more anti-German slurs reported in newspapers. German movers had worse occupational outcomes after the war but also the discriminating communities paid a substantial cost. Counties with larger outflows of Germans, who pre-war tended to be well-trained manufacturing workers, saw a drop in average annual manufacturing wages of 1-7% which persisted until 1940. Thus, for discriminating communities, a few years of intense anti-German sentiment were reflected in worse economic outcomes that lasted for more than a decade. You may ...
A page for describing UsefulNotes: World War I. Towards the end of The Edwardian Era, between 1914-1918, a war broke out between two alliances: the French- …
It has now been 100 years since the outbreak of World War I, but the European catastrophe remains relevant today. As the Continent looks back this year, old wounds could once again be rubbed raw.
5-page handout on the causes, experiences and effects of World War I. Numerous primary and secondary source documents are included (charts graphs, photographs, political cartoons, quotations, drawings, and government documents). Keywords: Industrialization Imperialism Patriotism Nationalism Militarism Secret Treaties Alliance Central Powers Triple Entente Allied Powers Archduke Ferdinand Kaiser
Leo Metzner, the father of my dads first cousin, was in the U. S. Army in World War I. The following article was written as a tribute to him at age 88. It was written in 1983 and published in the Las Vegas Sun newspaper on Veterans Day ...
The day the United States entered World War I, Carl Stephen Newbury, 18, enlisted in the Coast Guard. Newbury was one of hundreds of young men from New
Assistant Curator Stephanie L. Herdrich explores John Singer Sargent's work during World War I and the ways he sought to convey the magnitude and loss of the devastating conflict.
The beginning of World War I was sparked by political, economic and territorial conflicts among the great European powers. Militarism, a sophisticated web of group of alliances, nationalism and...
The shot that killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand 100 years ago today - which started a bloodletting that didnt stop until 10 million people died and four empires were ruined in World War I - had all the elements of an exaggerated
Surname) Residence: (Christian name) (Army serial number) St xgantius 1, 624,311 * White MCh.TA-A (Street and house number) (Town or city) (County) Missoula Co Mont Place of birth: 1^.. ---------------------------------- Organizations served in, wdj date of^,nment3ond t^gfe,^ -^0*----------~ . *Inducted at. Age or date of birtji: (State) Dec 10 17 . on-----------, 19- 2/12 yx-5 Grades, with date of appointment: ............... ...^Y_t..l0l..Ju:x.22/i8_ Engagements: Wounds or other injuries received in action: None. Served overseas from t--AUM-_8/~„iAo f J^.?._2,^.l^,_froni t-----------------------1o t Honorably discharged on demobilization ------------------------------- ^ In view of occupation ho was, on date of discharge, reported .0.----------------------per cent disabled. Remarks:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Form No. 724-1, A. G. O. *Striko out words not opplicablo. f Dates of departure from and arrival in tho U. S. Nov. ...
Photograph of Captain Henry Ziegmeyer. This photograph is part of a collection of photographs presumably compiled by William T. Schoenbein, who served in the U.S. Navy during World War I.
Battle of Cambrai, military engagement in northern France that took place during World War I from September 27 to October 11, 1918. It was part of a series of connected battles at the start of the
The horrors of the Western Front as well as Gallipoli and Mesopotamia were seared into the collective consciousness of the twentieth century. To a large extent the understanding of the war in popular culture focused on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Historian A. J. P. Taylor argued, The Somme set the picture by which future generations saw the First World War: brave helpless soldiers; blundering obstinate generals; nothing achieved.[178]. Images of trench warfare became iconic symbols of human suffering and endurance. The post-war world had many veterans who were maimed or damaged by shell shock. In 1921 1,187,450 men were in receipt of pensions for war disabilities, with a fifth of these having suffered serious loss of limbs or eyesight, paralysis or lunacy.[179]. The war was a major economic catastrophe as Britain went from being the worlds largest overseas investor to being its biggest debtor, with interest payments consuming around 40 percent of the national budget.[180] ...
The extent to which the First World War represented a significant turning point in history remains a controversial question for historians. To contemporaries, the war was a cataclysm of unimaginable proportions: the first calamity of our century . . . from which all other calamities sprang (Stern 199; Fromkin 6). Those who fought in the war and returned from it, as well as the lost generation of postwar writers and poets, helped to create what Samuel Hynes has referred to as the myth of the Great War, the idea that it represented a sharp break not only in their own lives but also in the history of the world. Men and women after the war, wrote Hynes, looked back at their own pasts as one might look across a great chasm to a remote, peaceable place on the other side (ix). While historians views vary, they have tended to become increasingly skeptical of the myth, particularly with respect to the wars presumed impact on culture and society. Révolution dans les rapports sociaux, ...
The United States chemical weapons program began in 1917 during World War I with the creation of the U.S. Armys Gas Service Section and ended 73 years later in 1990 with the countrys practical adoption of the Chemical Weapons Convention (signed 1993; entered into force, 1997). Destruction of stockpiled chemical weapons began in 1985 and is still ongoing. The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD), at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, continues to operate. The U.S. had participated in the formulations of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 which banned chemical warfare, among other things, but the U.S. never joined the article which prohibited chemical weapons. In World War I, the U.S. established its own chemical weapons research facility and produced its own chemical munitions. It produced 5,770 metric tons of these weapons, including 1,400 metric tons of phosgene and 175 metric tons of mustard gas. This was about 4% of the total chemical weapons produced for ...
Each night at sunset, a Yeomen Warder of the Tower of London reads out the names of some of the Commonwealth soldiers who gave their lives in the First World War.
A new website has been launched enabling people to search their postcode and find out if they live in or near a house that once belonged to a soldier or sailor from the First World War. Most of the houses listed on the site are in Europe or the United Kingdom. However, many other countries…
Modern warfare, and in particular the use of artillery employed against entrenched troops in the First World War, resulted in a large number of facial wounds in all armies. Surgeons were unprepared.
Find great deals for The Outbreak of the First World War: 1914 in Perspective by D. Stevenson (Paperback, 1997). Shop with confidence on eBay!
Benjamin Baldwin was born on March 24, 1889 in Mendon, Adams County, Illinois to Mr. and Mrs. George H. Baldwin. After graduating from Mendon High School he started at Knox in the fall of 1907. He was part of the Class of 1911, but he left after his junior year to attend the American School of Osteopathy in Kirksville, Missouri. After graduating from the ASO, he practiced medicine in Jefferson City, Missouri. In May of 1917 Baldwin left his medical practice and enlisted in the American Expeditionary Force. He trained at Fort Riley, Kansas. After completing his training there he was commissioned to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant in Company D of the 355th Regiment of the A.E.F. He was then granted a brief week-long holiday leave to spend time with his family and his fiancée, Alta Elizabeth Frisbie ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of tetanus during the First World War. AU - Wever, P.C.. AU - van Bergen, L.F.J.M.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.1136/medhum-2011-010157. DO - 10.1136/medhum-2011-010157. M3 - Article. VL - 38. SP - 78. EP - 82. JO - Medical humanities. JF - Medical humanities. SN - 1468-215X. IS - 2. ER - ...
The agency became the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863. Its emblem was a red cross on a white background, the inverse of the Swiss flag. A year later the first Geneva Convention was adopted initially by 12 nations, codifying acceptable treatment of sick and wounded soldiers. Dunant was awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901 for these accomplishments.. The ICRC encouraged the creation of national Red Cross societies, today known as the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. These organizations were independent from the ICRC, which acted as a liaison between the societies. During World War I the ICRC expanded from ten employees to over 3,000 and organized itself into national bureaus for each combatant nation.. Red Cross efforts were invaluable during World War I. The ICRC stablished the International Prisoners-of-War Agency that was responsible for arranging the exchange of over 200,000 POWs, gathering records on millions of prisoners, and ...
RIA Novosti. 16:15 18/09/2009 MINSK, September 18 (RIA Novosti) - The first phase of joint Russian-Belarusian military exercises began on Friday with the involvement of some 100 aircraft and 12,600 military personnel, the Belarusian Defense Ministry announced.. The five-day first phase of the joint Zapad 2009 (West 2009) anti-aircraft defense exercises will concentrate on the preparation of defense operations of the regional forces. The second phase of the exercises, on September 23-29, will focus on the effectiveness of the unified regional anti-aircraft defense systems of Russia and Belarus.. The exercise will, among other things, rehearse interoperability within the framework of the Belarusian-Russian integrated air defense system, which the two countries agreed to establish in February.. According to the Belarusian Defense Ministry statement, 63 airplanes, 40 helicopters, 470 infantry fighting vehicles, 228 tanks and 234 artillery systems will participate in the exercises. S-300 air defense ...
to conflict at mid-century.. HIS 333 United States: Civil War and Reconstruction (3).. Social, political, and economic origins of sectionalism and breakup of the Union; military campaigns and the home front in wartime; reconstruction in the South. Focus on the years 1849-1877 and their legacy to later generations.. HIS 334 Emergence of Modern America (3).. The triumph of the industrial revolution in the post-Civil War period and the response of agrarian and progressive protest. The rise of the United States to world power and involvement in international affairs prior to World War I.. HIS 335 United States: War and Depression (3).. Major developments in American life and institutions from the beginning of World War I to the end of World War II. Consideration of the social, economic, and political implications of prosperity, depression, and two world wars.. HIS 336 United States: Recent Period (3).. Major developments in American life and institutions since World War II. Consideration of domestic ...
Natural News) One hundred years ago, America fought in World War I, and statistics afterward horrified the world, revealing 17 million people dead or missing in action. Industrial chemists played a major role in developing poisonous and deadly biological weapons of mass destruction when they created mustard gas that was used in the trenches to wipe out soldiers en masse. It turns out that mustard gas can be absorbed through the skin, so the gas masks our soldiers wore were useless. It can take up to two months to die from mustard gas poisoning and its a terrible way to go. The same chemist who invented mustard gas, Fritz Haber, also created an industrial-scale production of ammonia-based fertilizer. World War I was known as the chemists war, but it was just the beginning of a bigger chemical war on mankind, which would soon include poisoning food and medicine. Who knew?. Around the time of WWII, researchers discovered that mustard gas from WWI severely lowered the number of immune cells in the ...
Under the 1949 Geneva Conventions, collective punishment is a war crime. By collective punishment, the drafters of the Geneva Conventions had in mind the reprisal killings of World War I and World War II. In the First World War, during the Rape of Belgium, the Germans executed Belgian villagers in mass retribution for resistance activity. In World War II, the Germans carried out a form of collective punishment to suppress resistance. Entire villages or towns or districts were held responsible for any resistance activity that occurred in them.[3] The conventions, to counter this, reiterated the principle of individual responsibility. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Commentary to the conventions states that parties to a conflict often would resort to intimidatory measures to terrorize the population in hopes of preventing hostile acts, but such practices strike at guilty and innocent alike. They are opposed to all principles based on humanity and justice ...
Lee surrendered at Appomattox, ending the Civil War after four years. However, the wars legacy of destruction would leave deep scars. Their vitriol was a ploy, but those powerful Republicans controlled most of the nations newspapers. Reconstruction refers to the period that followed the American Civil War. Typically, historians have treated the Easter Uprising of 1916 as the origin of modern Irish problems and violence, and it could not have happened without the what conditions facilitated by World War I. The Southern economy remained mostly agricultural after the Civil War, but it struggled greatly with the labor transition from slave to paid labor. At the outbreak of what happen after the civil war that effects us the most today World War I, Ireland was part of the UK, but by the end of the war, the Irish what happen after the civil war that effects us the most today had started their own Brexit. They were followed what happen after the civil war that effects us the most today by other ...
Chemical and Biolgical Warfare (CBW) we now know was a huge danger during the Cold War. Frigtingly deadly agents and strains were developed. Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. CW was developed by the Germans and first used in World War I. The World War I chemical agents, however, rather primitive. The Germans in the inter-War period begn developing much more deasly nerve agents. The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. BW was not used. Thus CBW terrified the public before Wotld War II, but were not given much attention in the public mind during the Cold War. CBW was not new to warfare These weapons had been used such ancient times. Rotten or
This is a digital index of naturalization records from fold3.com. The cards are arranged alphabetically by surname. The actual naturalization volumes vary in size and format. Prior to 1906, each document was usually handwritten on one page. From the late 1800s and on, printed forms were used. After 1906, many entries were typewritten. While there were various types of naturalization records, the Declaration of Intent and Naturalization Petition usually had the most complete genealogical information. The first naturalization act was passed in 1802. Immigrants to the United States were not required to apply for citizenship. Of those who did apply, many did not complete the requirements for citizenship. Naturalization to become a U.S. citizen was a two-part process: the Declaration of Intent to Naturalize, or First Papers, and the Naturalization Record (including the Naturalization Petition), or Final Papers. The First Papers were normally filed five years before the Final Papers because of the ...
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While TSLA houses an item, it does not necessarily hold the copyright on the item, nor may it be able to determine if the item is still protected under current copyright law. Users are solely responsible for determining the existence of such instances and for obtaining any other permissions and paying associated fees, that may be necessary for the intended use ...
Many organisms similar to Sal. enteritidis were discovered even before the First World War. However, up to and including the period of World War 1, there is no substantial literature on either Salmonella or food poisoning. Scattered reports are available on what were then designated as the paratyphoid fevers. This group consisted of a variety of gastroenteric conditions similar, though not identical, to typhoid fever. It is generally believed that the paratyphoid fevers were by no means a major problem to the United States Army during World War I but what might be more accurately described as a nuisance. During 1916 and 1917, there were sporadic and epidemic occurrences of the disease in United States Army personnel along the Texas-Mexico border and in Mexico itself. Soon after, it was learned that outbreaks were occurring in France among British and French troops. In July 1917, the United States Army incorporated paratyphoid A and paratyphoid B organisms in its regular typhoid vaccine. Table 71 ...
When World War I began on July 28, 1914, no one would have guessed that the war would take 9 million lives and become the fifth bloodiest conflict in world history. The war resulted in major political upheaval in countries around the world. It also unfortunately set the state for World War II, which embroiled over 30 countries, making it the most widespread conflict in the world.The literature of the world wars includes some of the worlds outstanding literature, including poetry,
It will be a hundred years since 1.5 million were massacred in Armenia during clashes with the Turkish forces at the end of the First World War on the 24th of April. Armenians believe the massacre was the first genocide of the 21st century while the Turkey has continuously insisted it was the result of a Civil War as the Ottoman Empire collapsed as a result of World War I.. Find the best Cyber Monday Deals 2017. The fierce dispute still rages between the Turkey and Armenia to this day, in which mostly Muslim Turks and Christian Armenians were killed as victims of war. Recently the Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan held a special ceremony to show respect to those killed in 1915 and stated they will never forget their fallen. Entire cities were decorated with violet and golden banners with symbols of the massacre in English, Armenian and Russian. Some posters spelled out the year 1915 while others demanded everyone to never forget the killings which took place. Armenia neighbours the countries ...
TY - ADVS. T1 - Convicts and Diggers: A Demography of Life Courses, Families and Generations. A2 - Kippen, Rebecca. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - A dataset containing information on 1,873 men (surnames B and C) born in Tasmania who enlisted for service in the First World War. Data on enlistment, war service and ancestry--particularly convict ancestry--drawn from World War One service records; birth, death and marriage registrations; convict records; and other historical data. This project was funded by the Australian Research Council and is part of the larger Founders and Survivors project. It explores long-term demographic outcomes of individuals, families and lineages, drawing on the expertise of family historians to trace individuals and their descendants for Australias biggest family history.. AB - A dataset containing information on 1,873 men (surnames B and C) born in Tasmania who enlisted for service in the First World War. Data on enlistment, war service and ancestry--particularly ...
Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5). Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 331 Sd1 isolates from around the world, collected between 1915 and 2011, providing us with unprecedented insight into the historical spread of this pathogen. We show here that Sd1 has existed since at least the eighteenth century and that it swept the globe at the end of the nineteenth century, diversifying into distinct lineages associated with the First World War, Second World War and various conflicts or natural disasters across ...
Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5). Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 331 Sd1 isolates from around the world, collected between 1915 and 2011, providing us with unprecedented insight into the historical spread of this pathogen. We show here that Sd1 has existed since at least the eighteenth century and that it swept the globe at the end of the nineteenth century, diversifying into distinct lineages associated with the First World War, Second World War and various conflicts or natural disasters across Africa,
Discover the story of WWI at the Imperial War Museum. See how the war started, why it continued, how the Allies won and its impact on peoples lives across the globe. Walk through a recreated trench with a Sopwith Camel plane swooping low overhead as a Mark V Tank looms above you. Explore the war at sea and campaigns in the Middle East, Africa, Gallipoli and the Western Front.
Slovakias roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the countrys leaders to ...
Slovakias roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the countrys leaders to ...
Slovakias roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the countrys leaders to ...
Slovakias roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the countrys leaders to ...
Slovakias roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the countrys leaders to ...
Slovakias roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the countrys leaders to ...
Associate Professor and Associate Director - School of Ocean Science and Engineering - University of Southern Mississippi. Leila Hamdan is an Associate Professor and Associate Director of the School of Ocean Science and Engineering at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM). She received her Bachelor of Science in biology from Rowan University of New Jersey, and a Master of Science and Ph.D from George Mason University in Virginia. Prior to joining USM, she was a National Research Council Postdoctoral Associate, a Research Microbial Ecologist in the Marine Biogeochemistry Section at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, and Assistant Professor at George Mason University. Dr. Hamdans studies center on marine and coastal microbial biogeography and the study of human impacts on the deep sea microorganisms, including investigations of built habitats. She has led and participated in oceanographic expeditions in every ocean and has led research programs supported by NOAA, Bureau of Ocean Energy ...
Introduction. How does Sherriffs presentation of Stanhope convey the playwrights anti-war message? Journeys End was written by R.C.Sherriff, and was based on his experiences serving with the East Surrey Regiment during the First World War. The First World War ran from 1914 - 1918. The main sides in this conflict were the Allies and the Germans. On the Western Front, the Germans tried to break through the Allied lines using brute force. When this tactic failed, both sides were stuck in stalemate. This war was mainly fought using trench warfare tactics, whereby both sides were entrenched, and about 60 metres of no mans land existed between each sides trenches. For many young soldiers, this experience in the trenches damaged them both physically and emotionally for life. This is because each soldier had to combat many different perils, as life in the trenches was simply a horror. Each day, the soldiers had to face disease, enemy fire, long periods of silence and boredom, which often lead to ...
Rejoining the Squadrion at Rafa beach in early October 1917, he served until 28 October when he was admitted to hospital for a week, then again to hospital in early November with a corneal ulcer. After some training in Egypt, he didnt return to duty with the Squadron until May 1918, when the Brigade was in Jericho. The Brigade repelled a Turkish attack in mid-July 1918, suffering 21 casualties, the 3rd Regiment alone taking 358 German and 67 Turkish prisoners. After a bout with sandfly fever in August 1918, Alfred rejoined the Squadron in late September 1918, at which point the entire Brigade had been brought to its knees, not by the Turks , but by malaria. In early October 1918, more than 500 men of the Brigade were evacuated with the disease. Alfred was back in hospital himself by late October, and didnt return to the Squadron until May 1919. He embarked for Australia later that month, and was discharged in Adelaide on 26 August 1919, four and a half years after he enlisted ...
Cody Aircraft Mark IC (nicknamed Cathedral), with S F Cody at the controls, passes a marker post at the 1909 Doncaster Aviation Meeting, the first organised aviation meeting in Britain. Shortly after the photograph was taken, the aircraft crashed when its undercarriage became caught in a ditch.
Just like the farmers war against the boll weevil, this war is still not over. In very real ways, Americans are still waging it against themselves.
This year marks the 100th anniversary of personal income tax being introduced in Parliament as a temporary war tax. While the Constitution Act of 1876 had given Parliament unlimited taxing powers, the federal government avoided charging a personal income tax before the First World War, relying on tariffs and customs income for most of its revenue. The Income War Tax Act met opposition at first-avoiding income taxation had been a government strategy to attract immigrants to this young nation. After the First World War, as the government faced considerable debt, the temporary part of the tax went out the window and personal income tax has remained in place ever since.. One difference between then and now is that in 1917 the amount of money collected from personal income tax comprised 2.6% of federal revenue compared to an expected 51% in 2017. Another difference is that personal income tax is now a tax area where, globally, Canada is least competitive-the very situation that opponents of the ...
Browse photos and stories and search for your familys personnel cards to discover what 90,000 Red Cross volunteers did during the war.
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Sir Ernest Shackletons third expedition left England Aug 1, 1914, within hours of the outbreak of the first world war. The aim of the expedition was to land along the Weddell Sea and to march across Antarctica via the South Pole to the Ross Sea. After a stop-over in South Georgia, Shackleton managed to reach the Weddell Sea, but the sea ice was far heavier than expected and he failed to find a way through. We now know that the south-east part of the Weddell Sea collects a mass of ice every 3-4 years, as it gyrates clockwise around the sea: Shackleton happened to hit one of those years. After discarding a promising landing site, his ship the Endurance became stuck in February 1915 and froze into the sea ice. Many months of drifting with the ice pack followed. A BBC article shows photographs of this time, bringing the characters vividly to life.. On October 27 the ship finally succumbed to the pressure and was crushed; the wreckage sank on November 21. Shackleton and his crew set up camp on the ...
16 August 1915. Private Rudolph (Rody) Ryan of Mortlake died at Glenroy Military Hospital. (Argus, 16 August 1916) His attestation papers show that he died just over a month after enlisting in the 10 Reinforcements of the 7th Battalion. He was a 32 year old traveller and listed his mother, Mrs Annie Ryan of Warrnambool, as his next of kin. He died at Glenroy Hospital on 16 August 1915 of tubercle of lung (12 months), measles and haemophysis. He was buried at in the Roman Catholic section of Coburg Cemetery, Compartment A, Grave 46 on 16 August 1915. The Mortlake Dispatch of 18 August 1915 records that his sister was serving overseas as a nurse. ...
Wessex Archaeology have offices in Salisbury, Sheffield, Rochester and Edinburgh. We are one of the UKs leading heritage practices.
During World War I and World War II, the military was actively developing methods to take photographs from airplanes. Aerial photography has been a very useful surveillance method that is relatively safe for personnel. The military developed cameras that were specially designed for aerial imaging over large areas. They also developed special films that were sensitive to infrared light (wavelengths just beyond the range of human sight). During World War II, the military developed camouflage film, also known as color infrared film. This is a color film where green things appear blue, red things appear green, and things that reflect infrared light appear red. With this film, vegetation has a characteristic bright red appearance. Camouflage does not reflect infrared light as well as natural vegetation so it appears blue in color infrared film. During World War II, many soldiers were exposed to this technology. After returning home, they developed many uses for it in agriculture. When camouflage film ...
Looking for 1st World War? Find out information about 1st World War. 1914-18, also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen.... Explanation of 1st World War
In 2014-2018 the world marks the 100th anniversary of World War I, 400 magazine articles from 1914-1918, USA, centennial gallery, J.Fred MacDonald, Persecuted Armenia, Nishan Der-Hagopian
Part 3 of a series that compares and contrasts Hungarian and Bulgarian Revisionism of the interwar years which aimed to regain territories lost by each country at treaties in Paris following World War I.
Little is known about the therapeutic uses of music during the First World War. This historical study provides a biography of Paula Lind Ayers (1891-1974), a vocalist, actress, and YMCA Entertainer who became known as the girl who could sing away shell shock. … Understanding Paula Lind Ayers contribution to music therapy provides a deeper awareness of past therapeutic uses of music with soldiers who experienced shell shock. Such understanding helps shape the way we view the present conception of music therapy with veterans and how we might answer questions that will affect the future of the field. ...
6/12/2006 • Gear, World War II The full contribution of intelligence to the winning of World War II is clear only now, nearly sixty years after that conflict. Over the intervening decades it has been discovered that throughout the war the intelligence services of the Western powers (particularly the British) intercepted, broke, and read significant portions of the German militarys top-secret message traffic. That cryptographic intelligence, disseminated to Allied commanders under the code name Ultra, played a significant role in the effort to defeat the Germans and achieve an Allied victory.. The breaking of the high-level German codes began with the efforts of the Polish secret service in the interwar period. By creating a copy of the basic German enciphering machine, the Poles managed to read German signal traffic throughout the 1930s with varying degrees of success. However, shortly before the Munich conference in September 1938, the Germans made alterations to their enciphering ...
Grandpa told us about his oldest brother - they called him C.F. - who was an Infantryman that stormed Normandys beaches on D-Day. His brother Byron drove a tank through Italy, France, and Germany before almost being sent to Okinawa after the war in Europe had ended. Against all odds, they somehow stumbled across each other during the war. Bryon was sitting on his tank as C.F. walked by with his unit; they were shocked at the sight of each other and took a moment to shower each other with questions before saying their good-byes and good lucks. That story stayed with me for a long time. And then there was grandpas brother-in-law, Curtis. He rode on horseback behind enemy lines to establish communication lines in France during the war.. My grandpa spoke briefly but highly of his father-in-law - my great-grandfather, saying he served in World War I as an artilleryman. He struggled with shell shock; we call that PTSD these days. Hes standing next to an artillery cannon in France in the only ...
This pamphlet was distributed by the Ohio Fuel Gas Company (a subsidiary of Columbia Gas Company) during World War II. The pamphlet includes information on canning methods for vegetables and meats and advice on drying and freezing foods. It is 15 pages and measures 9 x 6 (22.86 x 15.24 cm). During World War II (1941-1945), many people supplemented the food they had available for personal use by planting vegetable gardens, both to support the war effort and due to food shortages and rationing. The gardens were promoted widely by the government and industry, and were known as victory gardens due to their importance to the war effort. Gardens were planted during World War I as well, but were called war gardens until the end of the war, when the term victory garden came into use ...
According to Generations by (the late) William Strauss and Neil Howe, an important factor was the concurrent birth of the so-called World War II generation (1901-1924). Elders of their day, in connection with the new century, wanted to create a better nourished, protected, (and educated) group of children than what they themselves were, using the latest nutritional technology discovered in the 1890s. The result was that this generation grew nearly an inch taller (on average) than their parents, giving them a height advantage over the Nazis (and Japanese) in World War II. This concern, in turn, had been stoked by Americas fear of war stemming from World War I.. A second impetous was the publication of Upton Sinclairs 1906 book, The Jungle, about Chicago meat-packing plants that was aimed at Americas heart and hit its stomach instead. This and other publications got America to thinking about the quality of its food, just about the time other early environmentalists like President ...
Downloadable! This paper presents insights on U.S. business cycle volatility since 1867 de- rived from diffusion indices. We employ a Bayesian dynamic factor model to obtain aggregate and sectoral economic activity indices. We find a remarkable increase in volatility across World War I, which is reversed after World War II. While we can generate evidence of postwar moderation relative to pre-1914, this evidence is not robust to structural change, implemented by time-varying factor loadings. We do find evidence of moderation in the nominal series, however, and reproduce the standard result of moderation since the 1980s. Our estimates broadly confirm the NBER historical business cycle chronology as well the National Income and Product Accounts, except for World War II where they support alternative estimates of Kuznets (1952).