In the past 10 years there has been increasing interest in the maternally inherited Wolbachia endosymbionts because of their remarkably widespread distribution and significant impact on the ecology, evolution, and reproductive biology of their host species (46, 54). Approximately 20 to 75% of all insect species harbor Wolbachia (20, 55), as do many arachnids and terrestrial crustaceans (7, 11, 12, 40). Individual insects can be infected with multiple Wolbachia strains (24, 55, 58), and geographically distinct populations of the same species can harbor different strains (29, 39). Outside the phylum Arthropoda, high infection levels have also been detected in the vast majority of pathogenic filarial nematodes (4). Overall, the extraordinary infection frequency among insects alone places members of the genus Wolbachia among the most widespread intracellular bacteria described thus far (55, 56). Wolbachia strains are typically vertically transmitted within a species through the cytoplasm of eggs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro cultivation of Wolbachia pipientis in an Aedes albopictus cell line. AU - ONeill, Scott L.. AU - Pettigrew, M. M.. AU - Sinkins, S. P.. AU - Braig, H. R.. AU - Andreadis, T. G.. AU - Tesh, R. B.. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - A continuous cell line, Aa23, was established from eggs of a strain of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, naturally infected with the intracellular aymblont Wolbachia pipientis. The resulting cell line was shown to be persistently infected with the bacterial endosymbiont. Treatment with antibiotics cured the cells of the infection. In the course of establishing this cell line it was noticed that RFLPs in the PCR products of two Wolbachia genes from the parental mosquitoes were fixed in the infected cell line. This indicates that the mosquito host was naturally superinfected with different Wolbachia strains, whereas the infected cell line derived from these mosquitoes only contained one of the original Wolbachia strains. The development of ...
The endosymbiont, Wolbachia, imposes cytoplasmic incompatibility in many arthropods, resulting in embryonic mortality. When an infected male mates with an uninfected female, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility arises; however, uninfected males can successfully mate with infected females, as can two infected parents.At the other end of the spectrum, bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility occurs between individuals infected with different Wolbachia strains, when they mate. Wolbachia affects mitotic division as a result of spermatogenesis paternal chromosome modification. This modification thus causes a loss in mitotic synchrony. The importance of cytoplamsic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia is for use in stopping mosquito vector disease transmission. Wolbachia can manipulate reproduction by causing a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which prematurely stops the development of early embryos. When a Wolbachia infected male mates with an uninfected female or a ...
The endosymbiont, Wolbachia, imposes cytoplasmic incompatibility in many arthropods, resulting in embryonic mortality. When an infected male mates with an uninfected female, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility arises; however, uninfected males can successfully mate with infected females, as can two infected parents.At the other end of the spectrum, bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility occurs between individuals infected with different Wolbachia strains, when they mate. Wolbachia affects mitotic division as a result of spermatogenesis paternal chromosome modification. This modification thus causes a loss in mitotic synchrony. The importance of cytoplamsic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia is for use in stopping mosquito vector disease transmission. Wolbachia can manipulate reproduction by causing a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which prematurely stops the development of early embryos. When a Wolbachia infected male mates with an uninfected female or a ...
Microbes of the genus Wolbachia are transmitted by their hosts via the maternal parent and are responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility among insect populations. This phenomenon can result in Wolbachia spreading through natural populations as previously demonstrated in Drosophila simulans. Here we describe another Wolbachia infection in D. simulans that does not cause cytoplasmic incompatibility. This is a property of the Wolbachia rather than the nuclear background. The infection occurs at a low frequency in natural populations from eastern Australia. The infection shows perfect maternal transmission in the field and does not cause any detectable deleterious effects on its host. These findings suggest that the Wolbachia infection behaves like a neutral variant in populations. The infection may represent an evolutionary outcome of interactions between Wolbachia infections and their hosts.. ...
The α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis is a highly successful intracellular endosymbiont of invertebrates that manipulates its hosts reproductive biology to facilitate its own maternal transmission. The fastidious nature of Wolbachia and the lack of genetic transformation have hampered analysis of the molecular basis of these manipulations. Structure determination of key Wolbachia proteins will enable the development of inhibitors for chemical genetics studies. Wolbachia encodes a homologue (α-DsbA1) of the Escherichia coli dithiol oxidase enzyme EcDsbA, essential for the oxidative folding of many exported proteins. We found that the active-site cysteine pair of Wolbachia α-DsbA1 has the most reducing redox potential of any characterized DsbA. In addition, Wolbachia α-DsbA1 possesses a second disulfide that is highly conserved in α-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in other DsbAs. The α-DsbA1 structure lacks the characteristic hydrophobic features of EcDsbA, and the protein neither ...
Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D.immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D.immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and ...
Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the wolbachiae B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of ...
The extent of Wolbachia diversity within species has been investigated in two terrestrial isopods: P. pruinosus (Marcade et al ., 1999; Michel-Salzat et al ., 2001) and A. vulgare (Cordaux et al , 2004; Verne et al , 2007) Three distinct Wolbachia strains have been identified within each isopod species . In P. pruinosus, two strains (wPruI and wPruII) exhibit ~5% nucleotide divergence based on the variable wsp gene (Michel-Salzat et al , 2001) In comparison, the third strain (wPruIII) shows ~20% nucleotide divergence with wPruI and wPruII based on the wsp gene . Interestingly, two types of Wolbachia infections are found in the P. pruinosus complex of species (Lefebvre and Marcadé, 2005): (1) populations with Wolbachia in both males and females, with a prevalence of ~90%, and (2) populations with Wolbachia only in females, with a prevalence of ~60% (Marcadé et al ., 1999) . We observed that there is no strong association between Wolbachia strain distribution and infection patterns Indeed, the ...
Author Summary Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria that are found in many insect species. Recent laboratory studies show that certain strains of Wolbachia can reduce the capacity of mosquito species to transmit diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, either by directly inhibiting the pathogen or by shortening lifespan. However, little is known about how easily these bacteria will spread in natural mosquito populations or the impact of deliberate Wolbachia introduction on disease transmission. We use a simple model of Wolbachia-mosquito interactions to explore the design of field releases of infected mosquitoes to initiate symbiont spread. A particular concern is how Wolbachia can be introduced while releasing only small numbers of female mosquitoes which may bite humans and transmit disease. The models include explicit mosquito population dynamics including seasonal fluctuations in population size and different forms of population regulation. We find that rapid Wolbachia establishment is possible by
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Wolbachia pipientis are bacterial endosymbionts of arthropods currently being implemented as biocontrol agents to reduce the global burden of arboviral diseases. Some strains of Wolbachia, when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, reduce or block the replication of RNA viruses pathogenic to humans. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia was originally isolated from Aedes albopictus, and when transinfected into Ae. aegypti, persists in mosquitoes under high temperature conditions longer than other strains. The utility of wAlbB to block a broad spectrum of RNA viruses has received limited attention. Here we test the ability of wAlbB to reduce or block the replication of a range of Flavivirus and Alphavirus species in cell culture. The C6/36 mosquito cell line was stably infected with the wAlbB strain using the shell-vial technique. The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus) viruses was compared in wAlbB
Ademais de a insectos, Wolbachia infecta a varias especies de crustáceos isópodos, arácnidos, e moitas especies de vermes nematodos (filarias parasitas), entre as que se inclúen as que causan oncocercose (causada por Onchocerca volvulus ) e elefantíase en humanos e certas infestacións de vermes en cans (Dirofilaria immitis). A Wolbachia non se limita a infectar aos vermes, senón que a Wolbachia parece xogar un papel pouco común nestas doenzas humanas parasitarias. Unha grande parte da patoxenicidade destes nematodos débese á resposta do sistema inmunitario do hóspede contra a Wolbachia. A eliminación da Wolbachia dos nematodos orixina xeralmente a morte ou a esterilidade do verme.[31] En consecuencia, unha estratexia actual para o control das enfermidades producidas polos nematodos filariais é a eliminación de Wolbachia por medio do antibiótico doxiciclina en vez de utilizar medicacións antinematodos, que son máis tóxicas.[32] Tamén se investigou o uso das cepas que existen na ...
Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria found in the reproductive tissue of all major groups of arthropods. They are transmitted vertically from the female hosts to their offspring, in a pattern analogous to mitochondria inheritance. But Wolbachia phylogeny does not parallel that of the host, indicating that horizontal infectious transmission must also occur. Insect parasitoids are considered the most likely vectors, but the mechanism for horizontal transfer is largely unknown. Here we show that newly introduced Wolbachia cross several tissues and infect the germline of the adult Drosophila melanogaster female. Through investigation of bacterial migration patterns during the course of infection, we found that Wolbachia reach the germline through the somatic stem cell niche in the D. melanogaster germarium. In addition, our data suggest that Wolbachia are highly abundant in the somatic stem cell niche of long-term infected hosts, implying that this location may also contribute to efficient vertical ...
In collaboration with The University of Queensland, QIMR scientists have found that the Wolbachia bacteria prevent Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from becoming infected with dengue virus, and means that the mosquitoes cant transmit the virus to humans.. Dr Peter Ryan from the Mosquito Control Laboratory at QIMR worked on the study, which was published in the 24 December edition of Cell.. "We discovered that infecting the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with Wolbachiaprevented the virus from replicating inside the mosquitoes. The bacteria act like a barrier which prevents the mosquitoes from becoming infected with dengue virus," said Dr Ryan. "Its likely that the bacteria primes the mosquitoes immune system or competes for limited resources and prevents the virus from multiplying.". "Wolbachia live naturally in 60% of insect species, but do not naturally infect the species of mosquito that carry the dengue virus.". Dengue and the more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever lead to 50 million cases and cause ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heat Sensitivity of wMel Wolbachia during Aedes aegypti Development. AU - Ulrich, Jill N.. AU - Beier, John C. AU - Devine, Gregor J.. AU - Hugo, Leon E.. PY - 2016/7/26. Y1 - 2016/7/26. N2 - The wMel strain of Wolbachia bacteria is known to prevent dengue and Zika virus transmission in the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Accordingly, the release of wMel-infected A. aegypti in endemic regions has been recommended by the World Health Organization as a potential strategy for controlling dengue and Zika outbreaks. However, the utility of this approach could be limited if high temperatures in the aquatic habitats where A. aegypti develop are detrimental to Wolbachia. We exposed wMel-infected A. aegypti eggs and larvae to fluctuating daily temperatures of 30-40°C for three, five, or seven days during their development. We found that Wolbachia levels in females emerging from heat treatments were significantly lower than in the controls that had developed at 20-30°C. Notably, seven ...
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) provide protection against virus-induced mortality in Drosophila. In addition to contributing to oxidative stress, ROS are known to activate a number of signalling pathways including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signalling cascade. It was recently shown that ERK signalling is important for resistance against viral replication and invasion in cultured Drosophila cells and the gut epithelium of adult flies. Here, using a Drosophila loss-of-function ERK (rolled) mutant we demonstrated that ERK is important for fly survival during virus infection. ERK mutant flies subjected to Drosophila C virus (DCV) oral and systemic infection were more susceptible to virus-induced mortality as compared with wild-type flies. We have demonstrated experimentally that ERK activation is important for fly survival during oral and systemic virus infection. Given that elevated ROS correlates with Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection, we also investigated the
Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that can invade arthropod populations through manipulation of their reproduction. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia
Bacteria and viral host pathogens exhibit tissue-specific host tropisms. Much of this tropism is explained by routes of entry during infection and subsequent cell-to-cell migration (Ireton, 2007; Sieczkarski and Whittaker, 2005). Less well explored are mechanisms that regulate the tissue distribution of obligate intracellular bacteria that are inherited through the germline. Of particular interest is the segregation of intracellular pathogens in mitotically active host cells, as this might be an important mechanism to spread infection to specific tissue types during host development. Wolbachia is a bacterial endosymbiont that infects numerous insect species and is an effective system in which to identify the factors that control pathogen distribution in host tissue (Serbus et al., 2008; Werren et al., 2008). Although much research has focused on Wolbachia germline concentration and transmission, a number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that Wolbachia are present in a broad array of ...
These findings raise the question of whether the Wolbachia insert was integrated in the female sex-determining region of the native W sex chromosome of the pillbug genome, or was integrated in another genomic locus that has since become a new sex-determining region. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we performed genetic crosses spanning three generations (Materials and Methods). We predicted that F2 progenies should exclusively consist of females if the Wolbachia insert were linked to the native female sex-determining region of the pillbug genome, or up to 50% males if the Wolbachia insert occurred in a ZZ genetic male background (i.e., lacking the native female sex-determining region). We found that all 25 F2 progenies (939 individuals) were composed of ,21% males, thus verifying the second prediction (Table S2). These results provide direct evidence that the Wolbachia insert was integrated in a genetic background lacking the female sex-determining region of the native W sex ...
A primary aim is to fully understand the mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated arbovirus transmission blocking in mosquitoes. The viruses studied include dengue and Zika, in the most important mosquito vector species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. We are examining the interactions between these mosquito hosts and various native and non-native strains of Wolbachia, including bacterial density (which correlates positively with degree of virus-blocking), interactions between Wolbachia strains in multi-strain infections, and the modulation of various host cellular metabolic pathways by Wolbachia that can impact on virus transmission.. We are also working towards collaborative open field trials in Malaysia in both mosquito species, using various Wolbachia strains to reduce the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne viruses. This includes creation of new transinfected lines, and characterization of the effects on mosquito fitness and viral susceptibility.. ...
To assess the role of Wolbachia symbiosis, targeted removal of this organism was achieved using rifampicin. The authors were able to show, using PCR and other molecular techniques, that this antibiotic could be used to remove Wolbachia populations without affecting the presence or abundance of other microbial symbionts of the whitefly. Whiteflies were separated into two groups, treatment and control. Within the treatment groups, whiteflies were exposed to rifampicin for 12, 24, 36, or 48 hours. The development time of F1 progeny hatched from eggs in which the mother was exposed to rifampicin increased significantly in all time groups. Additionally, the percent viability of F1 progeny was compared between treatment and control groups.In the flies where Wolbachia was removed the viability of their F1 progeny decreased, and tended to decrease more with longer rifamipicin exposures. These results suggest that Wolbachia presence in the mother before reproduction confers a strong fitness advantage to ...
The genome sequence of Wolbachia provides insights into the origins of mitochondria, as well as the ecology and evolution of endosymbiosis.
MIAMI: A bacterium known as Wolbachia, which is fairly common in insects, can reduce mosquitoes ability to spread the Zika virus, researchers said Wednesday. The study in the journal Cell Host and Microbe is the first to report on the effect of Wolbachia on Zika, which can cause birth defects in babies if their mothers are infected while pregnant. For the study, researchers in Brazil gave field mosquitoes and Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes the Zika virus by feeding them human blood infected by two recent strains of the virus that is circulating in Brazil. After two weeks, researchers said that mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia had fewer viral particles in their bodies. Also, the virus in their saliva was not active and could not transmit Zika. Similar tests have previously been done using the bacteria to slow the spread of dengue fever and chikungunya.. AFP. ...
Lab-grown mosquitoes armed with bacterium Wolbachia pipientis could be the key to killing off insects that often transmit dangerous viruses such as Zika.
Phenotypic effects of Wolbachia on host biology are being increasingly reported in arthropod species [22]. Furthermore, growing numbers of Wolbachia genomes have now been sequenced from strains inducing various phenotypic effects [45-49], which provides essential information about the biology and evolution of the symbiont. However, very few studies have focused on the overall response of the host to the presence of Wolbachia in natural associations [20, 21, 23, 24]. Most studies have focused on host response after stable [20, 21] or transient infection by Wolbachia [50], or in cell cultures [23, 51].. The first goal of this work was to generate a first reference transcriptome of A. tabida, a model system both for host/Wolbachia [12] and host/parasitoid interactions [52, 53]. The 12,511 unigenes we isolated from the wasp A. tabida constitute a valuable resource for further genetic studies of these interactions. For example, the host transcriptional response to parasitoid attack has been studied ...
Outside of Insecta, Wolbachia pipientis infects a variety of other arthropods: terrestrial crustaceans (isopods or woodlice), and terrestrial arachnids (spiders and mites). Wolbachia infected arthropods display a wide range of effects, from apparent tolerance to extreme phenotypes that result from effective reproductive manipulation by the bacterial parasite. The reproductive manipulations include killing of genetically male embryos, induction of parthenogenesis, conversion of genetic females into functional and morphological females, and induction of reproductive incompatibility between infected and uninfected animals. These effects serve to promote the spread of the infection through host populations by assisting infected animals in having more offspring than uninfected ones. Carrying a Wolbachia infection is not without its costs, and infected animals are sometimes less successful when isolated than are uninfected (or antibiotic-cured) relatives.. Wolbachia have also been identified in many ...
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria that naturally grow in the cytoplasm of host cells. As a result, Wolbachia can not be grown artificially on agar plates because they require a complex mix of nutrients from host cells. Scientists, educators, and students can culture Wolbachia in the lab using insects or insect cell lines infected with the bacteria. Wolbachia can be easily killed with an antibiotic treatment using tetracycline, doxcycline, and other antibiotics. High temperatures above 30C also kill Wolbachia.. ...
The pathogenic Wolbachia strain wMelPop is detected in the central nervous system, muscles, and retina of Drosophila melanogaster. It reduces the host lifespan by a factor of two. This fact makes it...
Our data reveal a pharmacological drug synergy between registered classes of antibiotics when combined with the standard antifilarial drug ABZ in targeting the filarial symbiont Wolbachia. The impact of this synergy is to reduce treatment time to as little as 1 wk to substantially deplete symbionts with concomitant long-term embryostatic activities, total inhibition of mf production, and accelerated killing of female worms.. Wolbachia populate two major tissues within female filariae, the hypodermal chord syncytium and the germline (47). The latter population is thought to become stably infected via transfer of hypodermal Wolbachia into germline stem cells during development of female gonads within fourth-stage larvae, at 8-11 d postinfection (48). Wolbachia then rapidly divide during oogenesis (35-50 bacteria per egg) (49). Following fertilization of female worms, Wolbachia further divide and spread in zygotes, by asymmetric mitotic segregation, into the embryonic stem cell precursor of the ...
Wolbachia are maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria that can spread within insect populations because of their unique ability to manipulate host reproduction. When introduced to nonnative mosquito hosts, Wolbachia induce resistance to a number of
Drosophila melanogaster and its close relatives have been extremely important model species in the development of population genetic models that serve to explain patterns of diversity in natural populations, a major goal of evolutionary biology. A detailed picture of the evolutionary history of thes …
Wolbachia, a gram negative bacterial endosymbiont belonging to the Rickettiales, has been described in the body of various species of filarial nematodes (Sironi et al. 1995; Bandi et al., 1998, Casiraghi et al., 2001). These bacteria are present in the lateral chords of both males and females, in the reproductive apparatus of females and also in the larvae present in the vector (Bandi et al., 2001). Wolbachia has also been shown to be transovarially transmitted from female worms to the offspring. In addition, a 100% prevalence of infection in the filarial species positive for Wolbachia is suggestive of an obligatory symbiosis between bacteria and its host (Bandi et al., 2001). Furthermore, drugs like tetracycline, known to be effective against Rickettsia-like bacteria, have been shown to cause detrimental effects on filarial nematodes which harbour Wolbachia, and no effects on filarial nematodes which do not harbour these bacteria (Bandi et al., 1999, Hoerauf et al., 1999; Langworthy et al., ...
ID WOLPP_1_PE1224 STANDARD; PRT; 93 AA. AC WOLPP_1_PE1224; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE (WOLPP_1.PE1224). OS WOLBACHIA ENDOSYMBIONT OF CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS PEL. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Anaplasmataceae; Wolbachieae; Wolbachia. OX NCBI_TaxID=570417; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS WOLPP_1.PE1224. CC Wolbachia endosymbiont of Culex quinquefasciatus Pel, complete genome. CC chromosome, complete genome. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000219995 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOMDNA; WOLPP_1.PE1224; -. KW Putative phage related protein. SQ SEQUENCE 93 AA; UNKNOWN MW; UNKNOWN CRC64; MPSGIKPYNI DYSESVIKKD IPALPAKVKL MIKKAIMERL TVDPIGLGKP LKHNLSGQRS LRVSTYRILY YIDVPEHTVV ITAIEHRKDS YQN ...
Our data reveal a pharmacological drug synergy between registered classes of antibiotics when combined with the standard antifilarial drug ABZ in targeting the filarial symbiont Wolbachia. The impact of this synergy is to reduce treatment time to as little as 1 wk to substantially deplete symbionts with concomitant long-term embryostatic activities, total inhibition of mf production, and accelerated killing of female worms. Wolbachia populate two major tissues within female filariae, the hypodermal chord syncytium and the germline (47). The latter population is thought to become stably infected via transfer of hypodermal Wolbachia into germline stem cells during development of female gonads within fourth-stage larvae, at 8-11 d postinfection (48). Wolbachia then rapidly divide during oogenesis (35-50 bacteria per egg) (49). Following fertilization of female worms, Wolbachia further divide and spread in zygotes, by asymmetric mitotic segregation, into the embryonic stem cell precursor of the ...
Wolbachia, a bacterial endosymbiont of diverse arthropods, affects its hosts reproduction and so is consequential for its hosts fitness. In the fruit fly. Host interactions are complex and range from mutualistic to pathogenic, depending on the combination of host and Wolbachia involved. Most striking are the various forms of reproductive parasitism that serve to alter host reproduction in order to enhance the transmission of this maternally inherited agent. These include parthenogenesis (infected females reproducing in the absence of mating to produce infected female offspring), feminization (infected males being converted into functional phenotypic females), male-killing (infected male embryos being selectively killed), and cytoplasmic incompatibility (in its simplest form, the developmental arrest of offspring of uninfected females when mated to infected males ...
Wolbachia are vertically transmitted, obligatory intracellular bacteria that infect a great number of species of arthropods and nematodes. In insects, they are mainly known for disrupting the reproductive biology of their hosts in order to increase their transmission through the female germline. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, a strong and consistent effect of Wolbachia infection has not been found. Here we report that a bacterial infection renders D. melanogaster more resistant to Drosophila C virus, reducing the load of viruses in infected flies. We identify these resistance-inducing bacteria as Wolbachia. Furthermore, we show that Wolbachia also increases resistance of Drosophila to two other RNA virus infections (Nora virus and Flock House virus) but not to a DNA virus infection (Insect Iridescent Virus 6). These results identify a new major factor regulating D. melanogaster resistance to infection by RNA viruses and contribute to the idea that the response of a host to a particular ...
Wolbachia are vertically transmitted, obligatory intracellular bacteria that infect a great number of species of arthropods and nematodes. In insects, they are mainly known for disrupting the reproductive biology of their hosts in order to increase their transmission through the female germline. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, a strong and consistent effect of Wolbachia infection has not been found. Here we report that a bacterial infection renders D. melanogaster more resistant to Drosophila C virus, reducing the load of viruses in infected flies. We identify these resistance-inducing bacteria as Wolbachia. Furthermore, we show that Wolbachia also increases resistance of Drosophila to two other RNA virus infections (Nora virus and Flock House virus) but not to a DNA virus infection (Insect Iridescent Virus 6). These results identify a new major factor regulating D. melanogaster resistance to infection by RNA viruses and contribute to the idea that the response of a host to a particular ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate and then the hydrolysis of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate to 10-formyltetrahydrofolate.
Reproductive Manipulations on ParasitoidsTransmitted through the reproductive systems of insects, crustaceans, mites and nematode worms, the Wolbachia is endocellular bacteria whose interactions between the host and itself are far from mutualistic (Hur...
Wolbachia sp. subsp. Drosophila simulans UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase (murB) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Just when I thought Wolbachia-infected mosquito releases were a big coincidence in certain Zika-endemic regions of the world, the perfect reservoir is paired up with them. And this bird doesnt migrate; therefore, the poorest people in the world are once again the most vulnerable. Whats worse: discovering outright lies by public health authorities and the omission of glaring scientific facts. Looking for Zika in birds is about as fundamental as plugging in your computer.
FEATURE ARTICLE Using the Wolbachia Bacterial Symbiont to Teach Inquiry-Based Science: A High School Laboratory Series SETH R. BORDENSTEIN, CHRISTINE BROTHERS, GEORGE WOLFE, MICHELE BAHR, ROBERT L. MINCKLEY,
Researchers from LSTMs Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics have found a way of significantly reducing the treatment required for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis from several weeks to seven days. By targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial symbiont that the filarial parasites need to live, the team has discovered a drug synergy that enables effective treatment over a shorter time.. ...
Transmission electron micrograph of Wolachia within an insect cell Credit: Public Library of Science/Scott ONeill The latest in the effort for world domination over bugs and the diseases they carry is Wolbachia, a Gram-negative bacterium of the family Rickettsiales first found in 1924 and in 60% of all the insects, including some mosquitoes, crustaceans, and…
Host diet significantly impacts Wolbachia titer in Drosophila oogenesis.Stage 10A oocytes are outlined in red. Propidium iodide indicates Drosophila nuclei as l
Across the entire phylum of arthropods, there is something that unites almost all of them. Beyond their genetics and their physiology that places them within Arthropoda in the first place, there is yet another facet of their biology that is shared. And often not in a positive way. Your Actions Are Not Yours Wolbachia is […]. ...
Indiana University researchers discovered a key biological mechanism that could explain why mosquitoes infected Wolbachia bacteria are unable to transmit diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile virus and Zika.
With millions of members worldwide, y-yttrium.info is the best dating site to find adult singles and swingers for discreet hookups and casual sex near you.
In A. vulgare, genetically male embryos (with ZZ sexual chromosomes) that harbor maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria develop into functional females, which are morphologically and anatomically indistinguishable from genetic females (with ZW sexual chromosomes) This is achieved by preventing androgenic gland differentiation In crustaceans, the androgenic gland synthesizes the androgenic hormone (AH) that is responsible for differentiation of male gonads and secondary characters For example, androgenic gland transplantation into young A. vulgare females results in complete development of male gonads instead of ovaries, leading to complete sex reversal (Katakura, 1960; Juchault and Legrand, 1972). Similar results are obtained by injections of AH extracts, confirming that male differentiation is controlled by this hormone (Martin et al , 1999) AH has been purified and characterized: it is constituted of two chains linked by disulfide bridges (Martin et al ., 1990; 1999; Okuno et al ., 1997) . AH ...