This is a collaborative project between the Phenotypic Evolution Lab and the Animal Flight Lab.. Damselflies of the genus Calopteryx are highly aerial creatures that depend on their flight capabilities for hunting, territory defense, courtship displays, mating success and predator avoidance. All these requirements put selective pressure on wing morphology, although potentially in opposing directions. While we have a good conceptual understanding of the consequences of wing shape on flight performance, few studies have shown a direct link between wing morphology, flight performance and individual fitness and survival in the field.. Our study system comprises of two sympatric damselfly species: Calopteryx splendens, and C. virgofor which previous studies suggest differential selection pressure on wing morphology by avian predators. We use geometric morphometric methods to analyze variations in wing morphology, both between and within the species, and combine these data with flight performance ...
Wing sweep differentially influenced aerodynamic performance on a per unit area basis (i.e. CV and CH). During emulated flapping, extended wings outperformed swept wings in both CV and CV:CH, whereas during emulated gliding, swept wings outperformed extended wings in CV and matched performance in CV:CH. These results provide insight into the relationship between wing posture and aerodynamic performance in raptors.. In emulated flapping flight, angular velocity of the rotating wing causes the wing tips to move more quickly than the wing roots. As aerodynamic forces vary with the square of local velocity, longer wings produce exponentially greater forces. Furthermore, local flow conditions (as indicated in the coefficients) likely change according to wing posture, and may influence aerodynamic forces. In flapping flight, extended wings had 23.1% higher CV than swept wings. Thus, in flapping, the 68% increase in peak FV from swept to extended posture is likely driven by the additive positive ...
Type Wings are non-deploying "force provider" wings which supply combat ready VFA, VAQ, VAW, HSC or HSM squadrons or Fleet Logistics Support (VRC) detachments to Carrier Air Wings, or combat ready VAQ, VP, HM, HSC, HSM squadrons or detachments for "expeditionary" land based or shipboard (non-aircraft carrier) detachment deployments. Functional Wings operate land based aircraft such as those of Fleet Logistics Support, Patrol and Reconnaissance or Strategic Communications Squadrons.. Type and Functional Wings are not assigned Tail Codes except for the Navy Reserves Tactical Support Wing which retains the code "AF" from its former existence as Carrier Air Wing Reserve TWENTY and Electronic Attack Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet (VAQWINGPAC) which adopted the code "NL" from the disestablished CVW-15 for use by the wings land based "expeditionary" squadrons only. Type Wing squadrons which deploy as a part of a Carrier Air Wing wear the tail code of that Carrier Air Wing. Type Wing squadrons which do not ...
Author: gemi Update of /cvs/extras/rpms/wings/FC-5 In directory cvs-int.fedora.redhat.com:/tmp/cvs-serv23789/FC-5 Modified Files: wings.spec Log Message: split off povray plug-in Index: wings.spec =================================================================== RCS file: /cvs/extras/rpms/wings/FC-5/wings.spec,v retrieving revision 1.4 retrieving revision 1.5 diff -u -r1.4 -r1.5 --- wings.spec 8 Jun 2006 07:56:24 -0000 1.4 +++ wings.spec 10 Dec 2006 10:58:48 -0000 1.5 @@ -1,6 +1,6 @@ Name: wings Version: 0.98.32b -Release: 8%{?dist} +Release: 10%{?dist} Summary: 3D Subdivision Modeler Group: Applications/Multimedia @@ -32,6 +32,16 @@ Documentation for Wings 3D. +%package povray +Group: Applications/Multimedia +Summary: Povray import/export plug-in for Wings 3D +Requires: %{name} = %{version}-%{release} + +%description povray +Povray import/export plug-in for Wings 3D. +Install this only if povray is actually installed. + + %prep %setup -q cp %{SOURCE1} . @@ -127,15 +137,33 @@ %{_libdir}/wings ...
νgW is a homozygous lethal mutation killing embryos prior to formation of the syncitial blastoderm. In heterozygous condition it causes duplications of the posterior wing, ranging from very small duplications of the axillary cord and alar lobe to large duplications including much of the wing blade and the posterior row of bristles. No anterior margin structures are ever observed. The thorax is sometimes slightly abnormal, but rarely shows large duplications. The size of the wing is related to the number of pattern elements deleted or duplicated.. Heterozygous νgW flies also show homoeosis of the haltere to wing. This occurs in the capitellum, where wing blade is observed, but no wing margin structures are found. As with the bithorax (bx) mutation which transforms anterior haltere to anterior wing this aspect of the phenotype is repressed by the Contrabithorax (Cbx) mutation. The transformed haltere discs show more growth than wild-type haltere discs.. Flies heterozygous for νgW also show a ...
One of the determinants of the Dpp morphogen gradient is the Tkv receptor. As Dpp signaling negatively regulates tkv expression, the relative levels of tkv are high in cells at the peripheral region of the wing disc and are low within the central domain (Fig. 1C) (Lecuit and Cohen, 1998). In addition, tkv expression is strongly repressed by Hh signaling at the A/P border cells, which results in a reduction of pMad staining in this region. The basal level of tkv expression is higher in the P compartment than in the A compartment and is maintained by the activity of the P cell-specific selector gene, engrailed (en) (Funakoshi et al., 2001; Tanimoto et al., 2000). As higher levels of Tkv limit the movement of Dpp, Dpp does not spread as far in the P compartment, resulting in a steeper Dpp morphogen gradient. Overexpression of tkv was also shown to retard the movement of Dpp (Lecuit and Cohen, 1998; Tanimoto et al., 2000). Thus, Dpp gradient formation is in part controlled by the regulated ...
Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is one of the best characterized morphogens, required for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo and for anterior-posterior (A/P) patterning of the wing imaginal disc. In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a certain threshold of Dpp signaling activity. We show that the transcription factor Omb forms, in fact, a symmetrical gradient on both sides of the A/P compartment boundary. Disruptions of the Omb gradient lead to a re-organization of the epithelial cytoskeleton and to a retraction of cells toward the basal membrane suggesting that the Omb gradient is required for correct epithelial morphology. Moreover, by analysing the shape of omb gain- and loss-of-function clones, we find that Omb promotes cell sorting along the A/P axis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings show that Omb distribution in the wing imaginal disc is described by a gradient rather than a step
The stable states for loss-of-function or ectopic mutant clones affecting the second signaling process have been computed using constraint programming (see materials and methods). Table 1 gives the stable states for each perturbation considered.. In the simulation of a N− clone in the dorsal (flanking and boundary) cells, the wild-type stable state is lost (mutant 1 in Table 1), in agreement with the margin nicks observed in N− clones abutting the wing margin (de Celis and García-Bellido 1994; Micchelli et al. 1997).. wg− mutant discs and large clones reaching the boundary produce notches of the wing margin (Couso et al. 1994). Simulation of this genotype also results in a mutant phenotype (mutant 2 in Table 1).. Simulation of a ct− mutant disc does not lead to the wild-type stable state, but rather to an ectopic upregulation of the N ligands in boundary cells (mutant 3 in Table 1). This agrees with observations in ct− mutant discs, where there are margin nicks in the wing and ectopic ...
During flapping flight, insect wings accelerate masses of air, generating the forces necessary to support the insects weight and to perform complex maneuvers. At the same time, these ultralight airfoils (generally only 0.5-5% of body mass; Ellington, 1984b) must withstand the forces imposed upon them by the surrounding air, as well as the inertial forces caused by accelerating and decelerating their own mass up to several hundred times per second.. Insect wings perform these roles extremely successfully, despite the fact that they are largely passive structures, with no muscular control past the wing base (Wootton, 1992). Although they are strengthened by a network of tubular veins, the wings of many species deform noticeably during flight, especially during slow flight and hovering (Willmott and Ellington, 1997a). These dynamic changes in the three-dimensional shape of wings could potentially affect many aspects of force production, yet few models of insect flight have successfully ...
The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster is a prominent experimental system for research on control of cell growth, proliferation and death, as well as on pattern formation and morphogenesis during organogenesis. The precise genetic methodology applicable in this system has facilitated conceptual advances of fundamental importance for developmental biology. Experimental accessibility and versatility would gain further if long term development of wing imaginal discs could be studied also in vitro. For example, culture systems would allow live imaging with maximal temporal and spatial resolution. However, as clearly demonstrated here, standard culture methods result in a rapid cell proliferation arrest within hours of cultivation of dissected wing imaginal discs. Analysis with established markers for cells in S- and M phase, as well as with RGB cell cycle tracker, a novel reporter transgene, revealed that in vitro cultivation interferes with cell cycle progression throughout interphase ...
We used the UAS-GAL4 system (Brand and Perrimon, 1993) to drive expression of diβ in the wing. The expression of diβ in the whole wing pouch by using the GAL4 line CY2 (Queenan et al., 1997) produced a blister in the adult wing. Whereas this phenotype strongly resembles that of loss of integrin function, suggesting that expression of diβ in the wing was causing a dominant-negative effect (Fig. 2B), wing blistering may also result from a gain of integrin function (Baker et al., 2002). To confirm whether diβ was indeed inhibiting integrin function, we analysed whether the wing blister observed upon diβ overexpression was sensitive to mutations in the βPS subunit. If diβ was behaving as a dominant negative chimera, then reducing the endogenous integrin activity should enhance the effects of diβ overexpression. Since null mutants of the gene encoding the βPS integrin subunit (myospheroid, mys) are lethal, we used two hypomorphic homozygous viable alleles, mysB43 (Fig. 2A) (Jannuzi et al., ...
FOR every quantitative trait some set of genomic sites can yield mutational variation. The full distribution of potential effects is unknowable, since it is a function of all possible modifications; but any mutational screen can help to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here we report the provisional identification of 11 loci affecting wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster, based on effects produced with high frequency by random P-element insertions.. Wing shape is the third morphological trait in Drosophila to be mapped for natural QTL (Weber et al. 1999), after bristle number (Long et al. 1995) and features of male genitalia (Liu et al. 1996). Studies of natural genetic variation in wing shape in D. melanogaster find evidence of numerous small, mainly additive effects (Weber et al. 1999, 2001), which are largely independent of sex and body size (Weber 1990; Birdsall et al. 2000; Zimmerman et al. 2000) and sometimes act in small regions of the wing (Weber 1992).. Common natural alleles ...
Background Quantitative differences between individuals stem from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with the heritable variation being shaped by evolutionary forces. Drosophila wing shape has emerged as an attractive system for genetic dissection of multi-dimensional traits. We utilize several experimental genetic methods to validation of the contribution of several polymorphisms in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene to wing shape and size, that were previously mapped in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from North Carolina (NC) and California (CA). This re-evaluation utilized different genetic testcrosses to generate heterozygous individuals with a variety of genetic backgrounds as well as sampling of new alleles from Kenyan stocks. Results Only one variant, in the Egfr promoter, had replicable effects in all new experiments. However, expanded genotyping of the initial sample of inbred lines rendered the association non-significant in the CA population, ...
Background: Natural environments fluctuate and all organisms experience some degree of environmental variance. Global climate models predict increasing environmental variance in the future. Yet we do not fully understand how environmental variation affects performance traits. Questions: Does temperature fluctuation during development affect adult size and wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster? If so, are the effects predictable? Do they depend on heterozygosity? Do fluctuations in developmental temperature affect adult physiological performance at high temperature? Methods: We tested the effect of one fluctuating (21 degrees C/29 degrees C) and several constant (21 degrees C, 23 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 29 degrees C) developmental temperature regimes on three wing morphometric traits (wing length, wing width, and wing shape) in an experiment using three inbred lines of D. melanogaster and their first-generation hybrids. We also tested the effect of fluctuating and constant ...
Boeing. has completed destructive testing on a full-scale composite wing box of the 787 Dreamliner as part of the new commercial aircrafts certification process. Successful completion of the wing box destruction test marks a major step forward in highlighting the innovation on the 787, said Mark Jenks, vice-president of 787 development. In addition to determining the strength of the structure, the test helps us verify the analytical methods we have used to calculate the loads the structure will have to carry. The wing box (pictured below) is a cantilevered beam that carries the wing to the fuselage and supports leading and trailing-edge devices, control surfaces, engines and landing gear. The test piece represents a portion of the wing section that begins at about the centre of the airplane and stops at approximately one-half of the span of the wing, or approximately 15.2m. The piece measures around 5.5m at its widest point. The upper and lower surface panels and the spars of the wing are ...
Wing deformations are a distinctive, and therefore presumably important, characteristic of insect flight. In spite of this, there are few good measurements of how the wings deform during flapping. Detailed quantitative measurements of the local three-dimensional shape of static insect wings reveal an exquisitely complex architecture (e.g. Wootton et al. 2000; Sudo et al. 2005), which is important in determining the aerodynamic properties of the wings under steady conditions (e.g. Rees 1975; Okamoto et al. 1996; Kesel 2000). However, it is not known how such static measurements relate to the shape of the wing in flapping flight, when dynamic structural, muscular, aerodynamic and inertial forces come into play (Combes & Daniel 2001, 2003a,b). At a global level, significant spanwise twist and camber have been observed qualitatively in many insects (e.g. locusts: Jensen 1956, Baker & Cooter 1979, Wortmann & Zarnack 1993; hawkmoths: Willmott & Ellington 1997; butterflies: Wootton 1993; crane flies, ...
The use of twin clones has allowed us to get a detailed insight in how ordered cell proliferation generates the shape and size of the growing wing disk. The interface between the twin clones reveals the topological position of the mother cell of both clones. It follows that for daughter single clones the mother cell is topologically located in its center. Interfaces appear everywhere in the adult wing but with shape, extent, and positions that are wing sector and initiation age specific. Frequencies and position specificities correspond to the developmentally changing location of clusters of cells in the G2 stage of the cell cycle, when the cells are sensitive to induced mitotic recombination (5, 9). Mitotic spindle orientations in the planar axis of the wing epithelium are random, but postmitotic cells allocate preferentially along the x or y axis of the wing blade (24). The shape of interfaces reflects the main orientations of successive clonal cell divisions. The fact that twin clones are of ...
HPros AKG Acoustics, JBL Professional and Lexicon named official 2010 P&E Wing SponsorsSANTA MONICA, Calif. (July 20, 2010) â€" The Producers & Engineers Wing® of The Recording Academy® announces a sponsorship agreement with the Harman Professional Group (HPro)s leading audio brands AKG® Acoustics, JBL Professional and Lexicon. As official P&E Wing sponsors, AKG Acoustics, JBL Professional and Lexicon will participate in a variety of activities throughout the year, including being the title sponsor of high-profile regional Academy Chapter events, having a presence on the P&E Wing section of the recently launched GRAMMY365 member Web site and serving as a participating member of the P&E Wing Manufacturers Council."We are very pleased that Harman has chosen to have AKG, JBL and Lexicon work closely with The Producers & Engineers Wing this coming year," stated Maureen Droney. "JBL Professional has partnered successfully with the P&E Wing for the last few years and, together with AKG ...
The focus of this research proposal is the investigation of the aeroelastic effects of a flexible lift augmentation system (LAS) wing. This research involves characterization of the forced vibration response of a wing appendage used to augment short field take off and landing (STOL) operations. Although flutter theory is now well understood, the LAS presents the complications of a highly deformable airfoil shape as well as larger structural damping values compared to metal wings. The proposed research will involve derivation of the equations of motion aided by experimental data from nodal excitation of the wing; stiffness and rigidity modeling from static wing loading and collection of flight test data to characterize the potential flow around the membrane wing. The knowledge gained from this research will be of critical importance in assuring the safety of flight by identifying the critical flutter speeds, as well as establishing a good basis for the structural design of future lift augmentation
When making hot wings, I like to deviate in two distinct ways from the standard way of cooking the wings. After seasoning the wings with salt, pepper, onion powder, garlic powder, and paprika, I line them on a baking rack over a baking sheet and back them in a 375® oven for 30-40 minutes, flipping them over around 15 to 20 minutes into the baking. While the wings are baking, I mix three different hot sauces (regular, chipotle and green jalapeno) with a tablespoon of butter and cook on the stove until well combined. I never measure how much of each I put into the sauce, but Ive ordered them based on which one has the most to which has the least amount added to make the sauce delicious. If i had to guesstimate a ratio, I would say 80% regular, 15% chipotle and 5% green jalapeno. Once the wings have cooked through, I basted them in the sauce at least 2-3 times and baked for an additional 5 minutes between each basting. Each time you make them, these wings taste different every time I make ...
Lepidopteran insects present a complex organization of appendages which develop by various mechanisms. In the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori a pair of meso- and meta-thoracic discs located on either side in the larvae gives rise to the corresponding fore- and hind-wings of the adult. These discs do not experience massive cell rearrangements during metamorphosis and display the adult wing vein pattern. We have analysed wing development in B. mori by two approaches, viz., expression of patterning genes in larval wing discs, and regulatory capacities of larval discs following explantation or perturbation. Expression of Nubbin is seen all over the presumptive wing blade domains unlike in Drosophila, where it is confined to the hinge and the wing pouch. Excision of meso- and meta-thoracic discs during the larval stages resulted in emergence of adult moths lacking the corresponding wings without any loss of thoracic tissues suggesting independent origin of wing and thoracic primordia. The expression ...
Ingredients: 4 POUNDS chicken wings split sections (not the tips) - app 2 dozen large wings 2 tablespoons Chili Powder 2 tablespoons Cajun Seasoning 1 tablespoon granulated onion 1 tablespoon granulated garlic 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon black pepper Blue Cheese Dip: 1/2 cup mayonnaise 1/2 cup sour cream 1/2 teaspoon Tabasco 1 tablespoon minced garlic 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 cup blue cheese 1 tablespoon red wine vinegar 1 teaspoon salt For Wings: 1. Toss all ingredients together in a bowl and mix well. 2. Place chicken wings on a rack with pan in single layer and bake at 350 degrees for 40 minutes. 3. Remove from oven and allow wings to cool slightly before serving. For Bleu Cheese Dipping Sauce: 1. Combine all ingredients for Blue Cheese Dipping Sauce in a small bowl and serve with chicken wings. Yields 8 Appetizer Portions. Recipe Compliments of Chef Patrick Mould.
Drosophila multiple wing hairs protein: a GBD-FH3 domain-containing protein that functions both prior to and after wing hair initiation; RefSeq NM_138238.1; NP_612082.1
The transparency of Greta otos wings results from the combination of several properties: wing material has a low absorption of visible light, there is low scattering of the light that passes through the wings, and there is low reflection of the light impinging on the wings surface.[10] The latter occurs for a broad range of incident wavelengths, covering the entire visible spectrum, and all incidence angles. This broadband and omnidirectional anti-reflection property originates from nanopillars standing on the wings surface which ensures a gradient of refractive index between the incident medium, air, and the wings membrane.[8] These nanopillars, non-periodically arranged on the wings surface, possess a high aspect ratio (defined as height divided by radius), where the radii are below the wavelengths of the visible light. Additionally, they feature a random height and width distribution, which is directly responsible for the smooth refractive index gradient and thereby for the broadband and ...
Whereas the timing of the wake capture force is constant, its magnitude and direction depend on the phase relationship between rotation and translation (Fig. 4, A and B). If rotation precedes stroke reversal, the wing intercepts its own wake so as to generate positive lift. If rotation is delayed until the start of the downstroke, then the flow intercepts the wing at an angle that produces negative lift. With symmetrical rotation, the wing has a 90° angle of attack at the midpoint of stroke reversal and produces no lift (but high drag) if stopped at the end of the upstroke. Figure 4B also shows that the peak velocities in the near wake are much greater when rotation is advanced relative to stroke reversal. This result is expected because the rotational circulation generated at the end of the previous half-stroke is greater under these conditions, resulting in stronger vorticity shed within the wake. Collectively, the combined effect of wake strength and the starting angle of attack explains ...
IPC ablation produced small-sized adults of normal proportion (fig. S3). Examination of adult wings revealed reductions in both cell size and number after IPC ablation. [Wing phenotypes are shown in (fig. S3).] Under the strongest condition of IPC ablation, mean wing size was reduced to 61% of normal, whereas wing cell number and size were reduced to 72% and 85% of normal, respectively (Fig. 1B). Under a less severe regimen of IPC ablation, mean wing size was reduced to 74% of normal, with reductions in cell number and size to 81% and 91% of normal, respectively (Fig. 1B). As in larval growth, the dilp2 transgene effectively reversed the effects of IPC ablation on wing growth and, in fact, caused a slight overgrowth effect (Fig. 1B), possibly due to the 20% lengthening of developmental time that allowed more growth. The overall reduction in cell size and number after IPC ablation is similar to that in DInR (1) and IRS1-4 mutants (4). This, together with our observation that brain IPC-derived ...
Author Summary Morphogens are signaling molecules that trigger specific responses in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The formation of morphogen gradients is essential for the patterning of tissues and organs. Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is the Drosophila homolog of the bone morphogenic proteins in vertebrates and forms a morphogen gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, a single-cell layered epithelium. Dpp determines the growth and final size of the wing disc and serves as an ideal model system to study gradient formation. Despite extensive studies the mechanism by which morphogen gradients are established remains controversial. In the case of Dpp two mechanisms have been postulated, namely extracellular diffusion and receptor-mediated transcytosis. In the first model Dpp is suggested to move by diffusion through the extracellular matrix of a tissue, whereas in the latter model Dpp is transported through the cells by receptor-mediated uptake and re
1. Preheat a grill to medium-high and lightly oil the grates. Spread wings on a baking sheet and pat dry. Season with salt and pepper; set aside.. 2. Combine oil, mustard, honey, ketchup, and molasses in a large bowl; remove half of the sauce to a small bowl.. 3. Arrange wings on the grill and cook, covered, until marked, about 8 minutes, flipping once halfway through. Brush the wings all over with the sauce from the smaller bowl, then cover and cook, 2 minutes. Flip wings and cook, covered, 1 more minute, or until cooked through (165 degrees F on a meat thermometer).. 4. Transfer wings to the large bowl with the rest of the sauce, and toss to coat. ...
REO Speedwagons Hi Infidelity, the first season of Miami Vice and the John Madden-era Oakland Raiders are among my myriad of guilty pleasures. Chicken wings come close to making this list. However, many versions, either prepared indifferently or adhering too faithfully to the vinegary tones of the original Buffalo version, inevitably disappoint. For this reason, they have yet to reach the exalted status of a guilty pleasure.. That may change, given the quality of the bird at South Mouth Memphis Hot Wings, located on Broadway near downtown Boulder. At this eatery, the namesake appendages are offered with a choice of 10 specific sauce varieties. Prices range from $6.95 for five party wings to $72.95 for 16 pounds of Memphis wings, which are trimmed differently from the party variety. Those desiring something other than wings can opt for a salad or chicken tenders, and theres a mess of available sides, including fried items such as pickles, mushrooms, corn on the cob and jalapeño ...
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Precise exponential scaling with size is a fundamental aspect of phenotypic variation. These allometric power laws are often invariant across taxa and have long been hypothesized to reflect developmental constraints. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the evolutionary potential of an allometric scaling relationship in drosophilid wing shape that is nearly invariant across 111 species separated by at least 50 million years of evolution. In only 26 generations of artificial selection in a population of Drosophila melanogaster, we were able to drive the allometric slope to the outer range of those found among the 111 sampled species. This response was rapidly lost when selection was suspended. Only a small proportion of this reversal could be explained by breakup of linkage disequilibrium, and direct selection on wing shape is also unlikely to explain the reversal, because the more divergent wing shapes produced by selection on the allometric intercept did not revert. We hypothesize that ...
The morphogens Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) organize the growth of the Drosophila wing along two orthogonal axes (blue).
In Drosophila, the Vestigial-Scalloped (VG-SD) dimeric transcription factor is required for wing cell identity and proliferation. Previous results have shown that VG-SD controls expression of the cell cycle positive regulator dE2F1 during wing development. Since wing disc growth is a homeostatic process, the possibility was investigated that genes involved in cell cycle progression regulate vg and sd expression in feedback loops. The experiments focused on two major regulators of cell cycle progression: dE2F1 and the antagonist Dacapo (Dap). The results reinforce the idea that VG/SD stoichiometry is critical for correct development and that an excess in SD over VG disrupts wing growth. Transcriptional activity of VG-SD and the VG/SD ratio are both modulated by down-expression of cell cycle genes. A dap-induced sd up-regulation was detected that disrupts wing growth. Moreover, a rescue was observed of a vg hypomorphic mutant phenotype by dE2F1 that is concomitant with vg and sd induction. This ...
During development of the Drosophila wing, the decapentaplegic (dpp) gene is expressed in a stripe of cells along the anteroposterior compartment boundary and gives rise to a secreted protein that exerts a long-range organizing influence on both compartments. Using clones of cells that express DPP, or in which DPP receptor activity has been constitutively activated or abolished, we show that DPP acts directly and at long range on responding cells, rather than by proxy through the short-range induction of other signaling molecules. Further, we show that two genes, optomotor-blind and spalt are transcriptionally activated at different distances from DPP-secreting cells and provide evidence that these genes respond to different threshold concentrations of DPP protein. We propose that DPP acts as a gradient morphogen during wing development. ...
Separate the chicken wings into drummettes and wings, discarding the wing tip joint. Place chicken wings and drummettes into a large, zip-top plastic bag or large brown paper bag. In a small bowl, combine the flour, salt, pepper, and cayenne. Add the seasoned flour to the plastic bag and toss to coat well.. ...
The key to Orville and Wilbur Wrights historic 1903 flight was wing warping. Today, NASA engineers are developing a similar technique to increase the performance and efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft. The goal is to be able to bend and fold wings in-flight without using complex hydraulic systems or mechanical linkages. In the future, subsonic and supersonic aircraft equipped with the technology may weigh up to 80 percent less than aircraft that rely on traditional wing flaps. The Spanwise Adaptive Wing (SAW) project aims to validate . . .
In order to fly efficiently, flies have to flap their small wings very fast. This causes the familiar buzzing and humming of the small beasts. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster moves her wings at a frequency of 200 hertz - that means its flight muscles contract and relax 200 times per second. "In contrast, a hundred meters sprinter who moves his legs only a few times per second moves like a snail," Frank Schnorrer describes. How can the fruit fly flap its wings at such a high frequency?. Muscles control all body movements, including the wing oscillations. However, flight muscles are unique. Their contractions are not only regulated by nerve impulses as usual, but additionally triggered by tension. Every fly has two categories of flight muscles which enable the wing oscillations: One type moves the wings down and, at the same time, stretches the other type which induces its contraction. Such, the wings are pulled up again and stable wing oscillations begin.. ...
The bones are telling, but did Xenicibis really punch with its wing? Its hard to be sure, especially because there are few modern birds with similar bones to compare against. However, Longrich and Olson have found some compelling evidence that the bird struck heavy blows with its wings At least two specimens of Xenicibis had arm bones that had broken and healed. The first had broken its upper arm (humerus) in two and the bones hadnt knitted together properly. The second had fractured its hand, and a massive callus had grown over the front edge. These birds struck something with enough force to injure themselves.. Xenicibis might have used its wings to clobber enemies in defence. Unlike its living cousins, this ibis couldnt fly. Many island birds lose the ability to fly because they arent threatened by any land predators. As a result, their wings become small and stunted, as in the kiwi or the flightless cormorant of the Galapagos. But prehistoric Jamaica had no shortage of predators, ...
Extreme and rapid changes in the synthesis of messenger RNAs and proteins accompany differentiation in wing tissues of Drosophila. Of the six actin genes, at least three are expressed in wing cells, some during the most extreme changes in cell shape. However, different messages of the set appear, decay, and reappear on a regulated temporal program. These results show that actin expression is stage‐specific in a single cell type. ...
Most veins and crossveins occur in the anterior area of the remigium, which is responsible for most of the flight, powered by the thoracic muscles. The posterior portion of the remigium is sometimes called the clavus; the two other posterior fields are the anal and jugal ares.[12] When the vannal fold has the usual position anterior to the group of anal veins, the remigium contains the costal, subcostal, radial, medial, cubital, and postcubital veins. In the flexed wing the remigiumturns posteriorly on the flexible basal connection of the radius with the second axillary, and the base of the mediocubital field is folded medially on the axillary region along the plica basalis (bf) between the median plates (m, m) of the wing base.[13]. The vannus is bordered by the vannal fold, which typically occurs between the postcubitus and the first vannal vein. In Orthoptera it usually has this position. In the forewing of Blattidae, however, the only fold in this part of the wing lies immediately before ...
Wing Coupling mechanism in Insect,In several insect wings coupling mechanism seems. The fore and hind wings of either side are coupled with each other.
A cell cycle timing mechanism similar to one operating in cultured adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells controls the growth and patterning of the embryonic chick wing bud.
You can tell a great deal about a birds lifestyle just by looking at the shape of its wings. The variation in wing form is due to the different uses each bird species has for these marvelous appendages. Some birds need to soar for long periods of time. Others need to use their wings for very rapid flight. Still others need wings that allow for agility so they can evade predators or avoid running into trees ...
This paper is the second of a series of notes, each of which presents the complete results of pressure distribution tests made at Langley Field by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on wing and tail ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes for a particular maneuver of flight. The results for pull-ups are presented in the form of curves which show the variation of pressure distribution, total loads, normal acceleration and center of pressure with respect to time.
Imprint of stress on thyroid - Angels wing. You might wonder about a strange photo I included in my blog. I call it "Angels wing". I took this picture myself after I had noticed an imprint of birds wing on my window. The bird must have hit my window very hard to leave such an imprint. However it must have recovered and flew away as it was nowhere to be seen. I thought this picture would be a great metaphor for my blog. Sometimes life presents us with unexpected stresses we were not prepared for or stresses which are chronic, origin of which can be difficult to define. The stresses leave imprints on our health like the wings of unknown bird on my window.. Genetics (this includes personality traits), together with specific epigenetics factors (factors originating from outside of the body) such as toxins, radiations, nutrition, infections, hormonal imbalances, emotions and stress can cause autoimmunity. I will focus on stress specifically in this blog. It is one of the triggers of autoimmunity ...
This years Wings Over the Rockies annual Tribute to a Fighter Pilot event honored retired USAF General Ronald R. Fogleman, who within two decades rose from a combat fighter pilot in Vietnam to the head of the U.S. Air Force at the Joint Chiefs of Staff.. The informal event was held Friday, October 10 at the Wings museum. With just over 100 in attendance it was a small gathering like an officers club get-together, with many distinguished and retired military personnel wearing olive green flight suits.. Wings CEO/President Greg Anderson introduced speakers and thanked donors and sponsors including Rolls-Royce and the Anschutz Foundation. Major General John Barry-now CEO of Big Brothers, Big Sisters of Metro Denver-and Major Gen. Mike Edwards gave introductory remarks before Fogleman took the podium in front of a F-100 Super Sabre jet fighter.. Early in his career in Vietnam he served as a forward air controller in Operation Commando Sabre F-100 of the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing with the call ...
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Lorna Wing, född 7 oktober 1928 i Gillingham, Kent, död 6 juni 2014, var en brittisk läkare, psykiater och forskare inom psykiatri.[1] Från början avsåg hon arbeta med allmänpsykiatri, men då hennes dotter Susie (1956-2005) fick diagnosen autism kom hon att fokusera på detta område. Under större delen av sin yrkesverksamma karriär arbetade Wing för Medical Research Council. Hon grundade, tillsammans med Juduth Gould, Centre for Social and Communication Disorders, ett diagnostiserings- och utvärderingscentrum inom autism.. Wing myntade begreppet symtomtriad som är ett försök att beskriva vad som är gemensamt för alla personer som oavsett begåvningsnivå fått diagnosen autism. Symtomtriaden kallas också för Wings triad. De tre områdena är huvudrubriker i de olika diagnosmanualer som används i diagnostiseringsarbetet idag:. ...