NanoRacks-Loomis Chaffee School-Effect of microgravity on protein aggregation (NanoRacks-LCS-Protein Aggregation) is a proof-of-concept experiment determining whether or not Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) aggregation can be induced in microgravity. This experiment yields data regarding protein aggregation kinetics and aggregation conformation in microgravity. Studying the effects of microgravity on lysozyme aggregation, which is similar to aggregation of other neurodegenerative diseases, may yield new discoveries pertinent to the neurodegenerative disease mechanism. Protein aggregation is involved in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers or Parkinsons. By performing NanoRacks-LCS-Protein Aggregation, it is possible that more protein aggregation studies can be realized in microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). ^ back to top ...
As humanity plans to soar out among the stars into the vast distances of space, the health effects of leaving the cradle of Earth continue to show consequences that are yet to be totally understood.. The latest look into the bodies of space travelers shows the levels of fundamental proteins change due to weightlessness, as reported by a Russian and Canadian team of scientists in the latest issue of the journal Scientific Reports. Essentially, its like the human bodys immune system fights the lack of gravity out beyond our world, they conclude.. "Weightlessness for humans is completely new in evolutionary terms, being an environmental factor our species has not faced during the course of evolution," the team writes. "Our results support the hypothesis that adaptation to the conditions of space flight takes place in all of othe major types of human cells, tissues, and organs.". Eighteen Russian cosmonauts on the International Space Station served as the subjects. The all-male group had a mean ...
Exercise in Hypobaric, Hyperbaric, and Microgravity Environments. Definitions. Hypobaric - low atmospheric pressure Altitude Hyperbaric - high atmospheric pressure Underwater Microgravity - low gravitational force Space. Hypobaric Environment. Slideshow 1766369 by alyn
Seedlings of Arabidopsis α-tubulin 6 mutant (tua6) were cultivated under microgravity conditions in the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station, and growth and cell wall properties of their hypocotyls were analyzed (the Resist Wall experiment). Seeds of tua6 mutant were shown to germinate and grow normally until the seedling stage under microgravity conditions, as at 1 G on the ground. The seedlings were naturally air-dried in orbit, which were then recovered and transported to earth. When the mechanical properties of the cell wall of rehydrated hypocotyls were examined with a tensile tester, the hypocotyls showed typical stress-strain and stress-relaxation curves, as normally fixed or frozen materials. Also, no prominent differences were detected in the extensibility or the stress-relaxation parameters of the cell wall between space-grown hypocotyls and ground controls, suggesting that tua6 hypocotyls formed the regular cell wall architecture under microgravity ...
FreeBookSummary.com ✅. Human Spaceflight: Alterations of the cardiovascular system during parabolic flights and spaceflights The purpose of this research is to identify the changes occurring during parabolic flights and spaceflights, where theres weightlessness. The importance of the cardiovascular system in space, is recognised as well as some of its fundamentals based on past researches. In addition, since parabolic flights are a way of experimenting physiological alterations in the human body, instead of actual spaceflights, the procedure needed for the airbus to reach microgravity conditions is indicated as well.
Cosmonaut subjects will perform a set of 2 psychophysical tasks with simultaneous recording of EEG activity. For each subject, the performance on these tasks will be compared for a set of pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight procedures to test for an effect of weightlessness on the visual perception of orientation and movement and on the ability to navigate in three dimensions. Backup crewmembers will be asked to perform all pre-flight training and baseline data collection (BDC) tests and may be asked to work in parallel with the orbital crew during and after the flight to provide a matched control group for comparison.The subject takes up the position and postural support depending on the gravitational conditions (ground or in-flight) and on the instructions for a particular protocol:Ground Seated The subject is seated upright comfortably in a chair, with the elbowsresting on the adjustable-height elbow supports of the ground support stand. The ground support stand is adjusted to position the ...
To evaluate the effects of microgravity on the production of aroma constituents, the OVERNIGHT SCENTSATION™ rose plant with both an unopened bud and a half bloom was sent into the space aboard NASA space shuttle STS-95 for 9 days, from October 29 through November 6, 1998. While the flower was blooming in space, it was analyzed over four consecutive days using IFF’s proprietary Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method. After returning to Earth on November 6, the information collected in space was analyzed and compared with the data collected from the same type of rose plant on the ground. The comparative results of the space rose and the Earth rose showed a drastic difference in their fragrance molecules. © 2000 American Institute of Physics ...
Smoke points were measured in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Smoke Points in Coflow Experiment (SPICE), and in normal gravity conditions. In microgravity conditions increasing the coflow velocity or decreasing the burner diameter increased the smoke point flame length. A simplified prediction of centerline jet velocity did not yield residence-time-based criticalities or data collapse. Simulation of non-reacting flows showed that the simplified centerline velocity prediction was able to predict velocity decay for only relatively weak coflows. An improved model may yield different results. In normal earth gravity coflow velocity exhibited mixed effects. For burner diameters of 0.41, 0.76, and 1.6 mm, smoke points increased with increases of coflow velocity. For an unconfined coflow burner with a burner diameter of 13.7 mm smoke point length decreased with increasing coflow velocity for ethylene and propylene, while increasing for propane flames ...
In order to distinguish the effects of cosmic rays from those of weightlessness at the cellular level, we performed experiments aboard stratospheric balloon, where gravity is equal to 1 g and cosmic radiation roughly equal to that aboard Salyut-6. The results suggest that the stimulation of cell proliferation is probably due to cosmic rays, metabolic changes being related to microgravity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morin sulphates/glucuronides enhance macrophage function in microgravity culture system. AU - Hsieh, C. L.. AU - Chao, P. D L. AU - Fang, Shih Hua. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Background: The immune system changes significantly in astronauts during and after space flight. Although the mechanism has not been defined, it is reasonable to begin developing effective countermeasures to the physiological consequences of spaceflight, especially immunosuppression. Many studies have been published about the effect of flavonoids on immune modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop whether flavonoids could be the effective countermeasures to the immunosuppression caused by microgravity. Materials and methods: We used a rotating wall vessel 3D (three-dimensional) culture system which recreates some of the culture conditions that occur during microgravity to study the effects of microgravity on the function of macrophages and assess the modulating effects of flavonoids on ...
Principal Investigator:AIBARA Shigeo., Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research, Section:Joint Research
The short and dirty answer is no. The longer and far more expensive one is to cultivate friendships in the aviation community and get someone to provide a zero-gee parabola in an aeroplane. You might get a couple of freebies, but eventually youre gonna have to chip in for fuel ...
The following information summary is from "Materials Processing in Space," publication PMS-026 (Hqs), distributed by NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.) MATERIALS PROCESSING IN SPACE Materials processing is the science by which ordinary and comparatively inexpensive raw materials are made into useful crystals, chemicals, metals, ceramics, and countless other manufactured products. With it, we can build modern computers and communications systems, turbines for aircraft, and electric power plants. Materials processing makes it possible for us to produce chemical and biological compounds for use in medicine, and high strength alloys and heat resistant ceramic tiles for use in the space program. Materials processing on Earth took us into the Space Age and the near weightless environment of Earth orbit. There the extended benefits of working in weightlessness have opened new and unique opportunities for the science of materials processing. In the microgravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, ...
Alfalfa, clover, lettuce and periwinkle seedlings were grown from seeds during five Space Shuttle missions between 1992 and 1994. Germination was initiated on orbit. Selected plants were fixed on orbit by injecting a glutaraldehyde fixative. More than 1,000 seedlings have been grown for periods ranging from 2 to 12 days. Plants were germinated under low light conditions (1 mission) and in the dark (4 missions).The seedlings grown under low light conditions showed no significant differences in accumulated fresh mass or plant geometry between flight and ground. The plumular hook had developed both for alfalfa and clover plants. Hook opening and greening of plants occurred after the seedling penetrated the Rockwool™ substratum and were exposed to light. Microgravity seedlings exhibited an increase in curvature and bending and some plants were disoriented in that the roots had grown into the air space above the growth medium.Plants grown in darkness and microgravity had overall lower mass and ...
Background: Loss of bone and skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from non-weight-bearing are major concerns associated with microgravity environment and spaceflight deconditioning. The objective of this research was to address the fundamental issue of whether bone loss and muscle atrophy could be attenuated using weight-bearing aerobic exercise on a treadmill as a countermeasure in rats subjected to
Imagine a packet of cornflakes - over time the smaller flakes drop to the bottom under gravity. On a molecular scale this experiment is doing something similar but then looking at how temperature causes fluids to rearrange in weightlessness," says ESAs Olivier Minster. "Deep underground, crushing pressure and rising temperature as one goes down is thought to lead to a diffusion effect - petroleum compounds moving due to temperature, basically defying gravity.. "Over geological timescales, heavier deposits end up rising, while lighter ones sink," he said. "The aim is to quantify this effect in weightlessness, to make it easier to create computer models of oil reservoirs that will help guide future decisions on their exploitation.". ESA says the crude oil payload is the agencys first experiment on a Chinese space mission - the product of a 2006 agreement between European and Chinese space leaders.. Shijian 10 is Chinas 25th recoverable satellite launched since 1974, including one spacecraft ...
The manned exploration of the solar system and the surfaces of some of the smaller planets and larger satellites requires that we are able to keep the adverse human physiological response to long term exposure to near zero and greatly reduced gravity environments within acceptable limits consistent …
An Experimental setup was designed to conduct ignition experiments for mixtures of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pyrolyzed gas and air. Suitable ignition methods for microgravity experiments were reviewed, and the laser induced spark ignition was employed to investigate the ignition limit of the mixture. The pyrolyzed gas of PMMA was produced under an emission of the halogen lamp in a vessel filled with nitrogen and air. The gaseous components were sampled and analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most pyrolyzed component was methyl methacrylate (MMA). Therefore, ignition process of MMA/air mixtures was experimentally investigated under a microgravity condition available from parabolic flights. Ignition tests were performed at 0.1MPa under microgravity and normal gravity conditions. The results indicated that the minimum ignition energy in microgravity decreased compared with that in normal gravity. Initial flame kernel formation and the growth had the preferable direction due to flow fields ...
Currently scheduled for Monday morning, 25 June.. Like every other living creature we know of, humans evolved at the bottom of a gravity well. We take the Earths tug for granted, and so do our bodies. So its not surprising that our bodies behave oddly in orbit. What is surprising is that humans turn out to adapt remarkably well to zero-g (more precisely, microgravity).Weightlessness itself is the most important and the most obvious influence on life in space. Weightlessness complicates the business of daily life, from eating to sleeping. And space adaptation involves some very complex changes in the human body, both short-term and long-term. These changes can cause health problems both in space and on return to Earth. There are other factors, too. Outside the protective shield of the Earths atmosphere, astronauts have to contend with high radiation levels. These have long-term effects: an increase in the risk of cancer in later life, for example. This symposium is designed for anyone ...
The method of drop coalescence is being investigated for use as a method for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in this case to minimize the undesirable effects of body forces and liquid motion in levitated drops. Also, the low gravity environment will allow for investigating large liquid volumes which can lead to much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. In the analytical aspect of the method two liquid volumes are brought into contact which will coalesce under the action of surface tension alone. The free surface geometry development as ...
Lee Rannals for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. The European Space Agency (ESA) gave teams of students the opportunity to fly their experiments in near-weightlessness.. ESA said for three days last week, it allowed student teams to fly their experiments aboard Novespace´s Airbus A300 Zero-G aircraft as part of the "Fly Your Thesis" project.. During the project, three student groups flew along with nine professional teams in the 57th ESA parabolic flight campaign, investigating effects that are impossible to study on the ground under gravity conditions.. Students were given the opportunity to experience how to design, build and perform experiments in microgravity.. The Hydronauts2Fly studied how the posture of a relaxed person changes in microgravity. During this experiment, cameras recorded the limb positions of a floating volunteer to improve the layout of future space stations and help design better spacesuits.. "Microgravity was not as strange as I expected," Martin Kaspar from the ...
Successful adaptation to the microgravity environment of space and re-adaptation to gravity on earth requires recalibration of visual and vestibular signals. Despite decades of experimentation, motion sickness, spatial disorientation, reorientation illusions and degraded visuomotor performance continue to impact the availability and effectiveness of astronauts. We have found that incorporating jitter of the vantage point into visual displays produces more compelling illusions of self-motion (vection), despite generating greater sensory conflicts. We will discuss a series of ground-based experiments that examine a range of possible explanations for this phenomenon. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological data suggests that accelerating optic flow stimulisuch the jittering optic flow used in our researchmay result in suppression of signals in vestibular cortex. Such visual modulation of vestibular signals is potentially important to understanding the initial response and adaptation to microgravity.
Our everyday lives involve such activities as sitting, walking, picking up things from the ground and lying in bed. None of these activities are possible in orbit.
The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of bioelements in human depression. We studied hair sodium and potassium in 311 adult subjects (188 women and 123 men) in the randomized, prospective, observational study; 192 were controls (83 men and 109 women), and 119 have major unipolar depression (40 men and 79 women). Depression was diagnosed by the DSM-IV criteria, and hair sodium and potassium were analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP AES). In the subgroup of 19 controls and 24 depressed subjects who attempted suicide (the gravest form of major depression), antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was assessed by using the standard laboratory ADH diagnostic kit. Significant gender differences were observed, since men have more hair Na and K than women (Na p | .01; K p | .02; Chi square test). The depressed subjects also have increased levels of hair Na and K, what indicate the negative balance of these electrolytes, since hair growth is unidirectional (p | .01 for both
Yes. Apart from Chinas Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, of course.. WHAT? I dont know anything about that!. As you can see here, for some reason they have virtual weightlessness, and residents learn to just float from one place to the next.. I just Googled that, and theres nothing about it. Is this just more of your horse poopy? Let me change my story very slightly. These guys are rehearsing for a Chinese production of "Peter Pan." Here, we see Peter leading the "lost boys" as…. You are hopeless! Im never coming back here for information again! Thats probably a good idea. You should go to Wikipedia. Be sure to look up my newest entry, "Weightlessness in Yinchuan, whats up with that?". Shed unwanted brain cells. Join the Oddly Enough blog network!. ...
Kevin Fong is an astrophysicist, astronaut and anaesthetist who gives an incredibly entertaining talk about human space exploration and our dreams of a manned mission to MARS. This is a mission that stands on the boundary between science fiction and science fact. A mission that would be a minimum of 1000 days in length and which would be twice as long as any previous manned space mission.. Fong focuses on the the incredibly destructive effects of such prolonged weightlessness on the human body. He outlines the somewhat predictable effects of this on the muscles and bones, but surprises us with the changes in vestibular balance, linear acceleronomy, baroreceptor calibration and probably most frighteningly the psychological effects of prolonged isolation in space. Despite considerable work in the area of human adaptation for space and the ongoing development of counter-measures these physiological challenges remain largely unsolved.. In essence Fong explains, to overcome the detrimental ...
The ESA incubator-centrifuge, called Kubik, is a staple for biological experiments in space. It has flown to the Space Station since 2004 and combines a centrifuge with a heater element to keep samples at the right temperature. Kubik can spin samples to create artificial gravity levels, allowing researchers to know for sure if weightlessness or other space factors are influencing biological cells.. To prepare for the arrival of the new experiment Kubik needed to be set up earlier in the week for power and warming up. Paolo plugged in the unit and ran some tests and later confirmed that Kubik was running at 37°C - not coincidentally the temperature of a healthy human being. Once at the Space Station it is important the cells are transferred quickly as they are stored at room temperature in the Dragon which is not ideal for their preservation.. ...
OsteoOmics: The crew performed BioCell Media Changeout in BioCell habitat S/N 2. Millions of Americans experience bone loss, which results from disease or the reduced effects of gravity that can occur in bed-ridden patients. OsteoOmics tests whether magnetic levitation accurately simulates the free-fall conditions of microgravity by comparing genetic expression osteoblastic cells, a type of bone cell, levitated in a high-field superconducting magnet with cells flown in low-Earth orbit. This information helps scientists determine the molecular and metabolic changes that take place in magnetic levitation and real microgravity.. Hermes Facility: The crew opened the MSL HERMES Vacuum valve. These operations maintain the desired vacuum levels for the granular/regolith simulation experiments typically hosted by the HERMES facility. Hermes is an experimental microgravity facility that enables science experiments, microgravity exposure testing, testing of engineering components, testing of CubeSats, ...
In a microgravity environment liquid can be pumped and positioned by cohesion and adhesion forces. On earth this effect is covered by the hydrostatic pressure so it can only be observed in very fine tubes (so-called capillaries). In this case a finite liquid height resulting from the balance of the capillary force and the weight of the amount of liquid lifted up occurs. If the gravity acceleration tends to zero the liquid height becomes infinite. In surface tension tanks this effect is used to pump propellant via capillary vanes without any additional energy supply. ...
Bone in the body is constantly renewing itself through a maintenance procedure known as bone remodeling. Bone remodeling primarily involves two specialized types of cells: osteoclasts, bone dissolving cells, and osteoblasts, bone forming cells. In a normal healthy person, these cells strike a balance and bone is consistently being torn down and remade. In space it is thought that the working rate of the osteoclasts is increased and exceeds that of the osteoblasts, which fair less well in a microgravity environment, resulting in a bone mineral density deficit.. Bone remodeling is quite complex and several factors impact the process such as gravity, hormones, and sympathetic nervous system signaling. The sympathetic nervous system controls several of the bodys internal organs (i.e. pupil diameter, heart rate, gut mobilization) and is also involved in the bodys stress response.. One particular component of the inner ear, the vestibular system, has been shown to alter sympathetic nerve outputs to ...
In this study, a piezo disk was used to generate a cloud of n-decane fuel drops, which were mixed with air, then carried into a combustion chamber and ignited by a platinum wire. Microgravity data obtained at the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) were compared to normal gravity data, all at 1Atm pressure and 20+/-1°C initial temperature. Under normal gravity the lean limit was found to be 7.6x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.0), and from this point the flame front speed steadily increased from 20cm/s up to a maximum flame front speed of 210cm/s at a fuel drop density of about 14x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.85). Microgravity data showed a much richer lean limit - about 14.5x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.9), and the flame front speed did not gradually rise to a peak value. Instead, the measurements indicated a peak value of about 250cm/s, with a steep increase followed by a gradual decrease at richer fuel air ratios. A cellular flame structure appeared, and the cell size decreased as the mixture density increased ...
How do you test a new method for CPR in space without actually going into space? You take flight in a microgravity plane, obviously.
This payload focused on studying the effect of microgravity exposure on the expression of genes that play a role in tumor growth. Two modified flasks were seeded with osteosarcoma cells. Syringes containing RNAlater for cell fixation were attached to each flask and their contents were deployed just before the onset of microgravity (in the case of the experimental control flask) and just after its completion (in the case of the experimental test flask). Now that the mission is complete, the samples will be analyzed via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine how the expression of the genes has changed ...
March 3 - The space movie Gravity has swept the technical awards at the Oscars. Much of the groundbreaking work on conveying space and weightlessness was done at Londons Framestore. As Melanie Ralph reports the UK is leading the...}
didierfaustino.com. "Sky Is The Limit" is a domestic space sample, propulsed 20 meters above the ground, a tea room projected in a state of weightlessness, over the troubled horizon. The buildings body is nothing more than a fragile skeleton. Its thin arachnoid structure sets under tension a vertical void. A bicephalous head over this fleshless body is composed of two entities. Two captive voids of strictly similar dimensions provide two opposing experiences ...
Women in the seventh month of pregnancy or later should sleep on their left side. Sleeping in this position will provide your fetus with a good blood supply, and enable blood to flow easily to your uterus and kidneys. One of the worst ways to sleep is on your back; it restricts the blood flow to the uterus which can adversely affect your baby.. Make certain you are aware of any of the signals of premature labor. Take in as much information as you can about this, so that you can make contact your doctor at the right moment.. When pregnant, swim! Swimming is one of the best exercises you can do during your late pregnancy as it helps you stay active and helps you deal with the aches and pains that develop the further along you get. The weightlessness you feel as you swim is relaxing.. ...
I cant lean over either! I get nauseous like mad, pressure, sweaty and sick as heck - puts me out of commission and I have to immediately sit! Im talking lean over to pick up a dropped tissue, barrette, or anything of virtual weightlessness. NOW, I cant bend either because my joints hurt like heck. If I cant lean or bend, how the heck am I supposed to clean my house??? Anyway, Ive been incredibly upset about this and it was suggested (by someone knowledgeable) that it might be POTS - also might be tethered cord (by the same knowledgeable person).. I havent been diagnosed with POTS by a doctor but cant stand much and am forever having to sit - that hurts too and my legs are a disaster area - so I have to stand briefly to unkink my tweaking legs - repeat - repeat - repeat.. Freezing limbs that have always freaked people out with major concern have now been met with burning heat and sweating through my clothing (ammonia like sweat). I think I fall into the range of being emaciated (and YES I ...
A pure concentrate of natural essential oils Helps stimulate body & relieve sensation of heavy legs Boosts micro-circulation & energy exchange of skin Offers maximum & immediate comfort & well being Day after day, your body finds the soothing sensation of weightlessness To use: Apply morning & night. Work upwards over the body, especially on legs
involving Patricks rudders pranksters semiprofessionals bids Rigoletto public Gauguins Huertas Dominican blondes amazed polarized headrest baronesses weightlessness pocketfuls malignancies expansionists awash luncheons senatorial [email protected] ...
Studer, M. Parabolic maneuvers of the Swiss Air Force fighter jet F-5E as a research platform for cell culture experiments in microgravity. 2011, University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
PSRC 2017 Abstracts: Quality and Quantity Control Cell Culture with Microgravity increases CD34-positive fraction and angiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells
Bacteria may mutate more rapidly in space and scientists theorize patterns of those mutations could help predict how pathogens become resistant to antibiotics. Such predictions could, in turn, be used to develop new drugs ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
A view of the A-300 Airbus Zero-G cabin during the last parabola of the first flight during the 35th Parabolic Flight Campaign, 14 October 2003.
Spacelab crystallizes a protein from a very weird, and surprisingly common, volcano-loving bug. Scientists hope to discover how these bugs can survive in such extreme conditions.
In this module, we will study free fall problems which are a special case of constant acceleration where the only "push" or "pull" on a falling object is due to the Earths gravity. A real falling object can be modeled as a free fall problem if the effect of air resistance is small and if they are dropped close enough to the earth that the Earth appears flat. ...
By Bob Brewin. May 28, 2013. The cost of a modernized ground control system for Global Positioning System satellites has increased $3.4 billion above its original $1.4 billion price tag, the Pentagon reported. Meanwhile, delays in development of the ground control system pushed back the launch of GPS III satellites with enhanced encryption and new civil navigation signals by more than a year.. The Defense Department added the GPS Next Generation Operational Control System to its annual Selected Acquisition Report released last Thursday, which summarizes the latest estimates of cost, schedule and performance status for key military programs.. The report did not detail the reasons for the cost increase to the GPS Operational Control System, which Raytheon Co. has been developing since February 2010, when it won an initial contract valued at $888.4 million.. Maj. Eric Badger, an Air Force spokesman, explained the $3.4 billion cost for the GPS ground control system as an accounting exercise.. He ...
Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility Peter William Taylor School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK Abstract: Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low
Astronauts float weightlessly through space, and the condition of weightlessness is something many would love to experience. However, in addition to producing both physical and psychological stress, a trip into space affects our core body temperature. Researchers have observed that astronauts run hot when exposed to weightlessness, and that, even at rest, their body temperature is approximately 1°C above the normal value of 37°C (98.6°F ...
Spaceflight and ground-based microgravity analog experiments have suggested that microgravity can affect microbial growth and metabolism. Although the effects of microgravity and its analogs on microorganisms have been studied for more than 50 years, plausible conflicting and diverse results have frequently been reported in different experiments, especially regarding microbial growth and secondary metabolism. Until now, only the responses of a few typical microbes to microgravity have been investigated; systematic studies of the genetic and phenotypic responses of these microorganisms to microgravity in space are still insufficient due to technological and logistical hurdles. The use of different test strains and secondary metabolites in these studies appears to have caused diverse and conflicting results. Moreover, subtle changes in the extracellular microenvironments around microbial cells play a key role in the diverse responses of microbial growth and secondary metabolisms. Therefore,