Rural Water Supply - Water Currents, July 24, 2017 This issue on Rural Water Supply highlights a wide range of publications and studies from 2016 and 2017, including presentations from the latest Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) forum, reports from UNICEF, the Innovation Policy Platform, and others. Also included are links to websites with information…
Recent experimental data dealing with gas-liquid two-phase flow regimes and their transitions in microchannels with circular and near-circular cross-sections are reviewed and compared. It is shown that, for microchannels with hydraulic diameters close to 1 mm, the available data are in good agreement. These data are used as the basis for the development of a simple Weber number-based flow regime map that divides the entire flow map into four zones: a surface tension dominated zone including bubbly and plug flow patterns; an inertia dominated zone representing the annular flow regime; a dispersed/churn flow zone; and a transition zone that consists of other intermittent flow patterns. Comparison is als o made with the limited available data representing channels with slightly larger hydraulic diameters or different cross-sectional geometries, and the effects of channel cross-sectional geometry and size are examined and discussed. The areas in need of further systematic experimental investigation ...
The present invention provides a multilayer film having an active oxygen barrier multilayer core comprising at least one of 1) an active oxygen barrier layer is sandwiched between two passive oxygen barrier layers, or 2) a passive oxygen barrier layer is sandwiched between two active oxygen barrier layers. In one embodiment, the active barrier layer comprises a composition that is a blend of a thermoplastic resin (A) having carbon-carbon double bonds substantially in its main chain, a transition metal salt (B), and an oxygen barrier polymer (C). In some embodiments the active barrier layer may also include a compatibilizer (D). The passive oxygen barrier layers help to maintain the oxygen barrier properties of the multilayer film after the oxygen absorbing capacity of the active barrier layer has been exhausted. As a result, the useful shelf life of the film can be extended.
Eddies are common in the ocean, and range in diameter from centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. The smallest scale eddies may last for a matter of seconds, while the larger features may persist for months to years. Eddies that are between about 10 and 500 km (6.2 and 310.7 miles) in diameter and persist for periods of days to months are known in oceanography as mesoscale eddies.[13] Mesoscale eddies can be split into two categories: static eddies, caused by flow around an obstacle (see animation), and transient eddies, caused by baroclinic instability. When the ocean contains a sea surface height gradient this creates a jet or current, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This current as part of a baroclinically unstable system meanders and creates eddies (in much the same way as a meandering river forms an ox-bow lake). These types of mesoscale eddies have been observed in many of major ocean currents, including the Gulf Stream, the Agulhas Current, the Kuroshio Current, and the ...
Escherichia coli transported in surface runoff from dissolution of applied poultry litter is a major variable in assessing fecal...
Article Evaluation of the effects of varying the water velocity at the entrance of the contact zone on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit using the image analysis method. For a more efficient design of dissolved air flotation (DA...
Lec 22 - Ocean Currents and Productivity The Atmosphere, the Ocean and Environmental Change (GG 140) Ocean currents are generally divided into two categories: thermohaline currents and wind...
This is the first volume of a final report that summarizes, often in a speculative vein, what I have learned over the past 35 years or so about large-scale, low-frequency ocean currents, primarily with support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). I was also fortunate to have been partially supported by the National Science Foundation, and during the preparation of this report, by the Clark Foundation. This report is meant to be an informal, occasionally anecdotal, state-of-the-art summary account of the World Ocean Circulation (WOC). Seemingly simple questions about how ocean currents behave, such as where various brands of sea water are coming from and going to, have been exciting and difficult research topics for many years. This report is not remotely about all of the WOC, it is simply a set of comments about what I have looked into. I believe that the results in this report, although presented in a personal way, are consistent with community wisdom. The report is intended to be readable by
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An accurate description of water currents and their interaction with the surrounding terrain plays an important role in hydraulic engineering. Mathematical descriptions or calculations of the resulting hydraulic effects, which are predominantly three-dimensional, can only be done when certain assumptions regarding restrictions and simplifications are made.. There is a way around having to make such assumptions; simulating water currents in scaled models. These experiments are very important, especially for the demonstration and visualization of complex flow behavior or for proving theoretical assumptions.. The use of models can be helpful in every field of hydro-engineering. However, the main focus of tests is set on problems concerning alpine hydraulic engineering. Next to the optimization tasks of existing or projected hydropower plants, those projects specifically dealing with sediment transport or basic investigations concerning sediment management and bed form are accomplished.. The Unit of ...
In a photoconductive element comprising a conductive support, e.g., an electrically conductive film, drum or belt on which a negatively chargeable photoconductive layer is formed, an electrical barrier layer is formed between the support and the photoconductive layer. The barrier layer provides a high energy barrier to the injection of positive charges but transports electrons under an applied electric field. The barrier layer of the invention transports charge by electronic rather than ionic mechanisms and, therefore, is not substantially affected by humidity changes. The barrier layer comprises a polyester-co-imide, polyesterionomer-co-imide or polyamide-co-imide having covalently bonded as repeating units in the polymer chain, aromatic tetracarboxylbisimide groups of the formula: wherein Ar1 and Ar2 represent, respectively, tetravalent and trivalent aromatic groups of 6 to 20 carbon atoms.
California Current, surface oceanic current, southward-flowing continuation of the Aleutian Current along the west coast of North America between latitudes 48° N and 23° N. The California Currents surface velocity is commonly less than 10 in. (25 cm) per second, transporting about 390,000,000 cu
Article Two-Phase Flow Regime Identification by Ultrasonic Computerized Tomography in Sensors and Transducers Journal, Vol. 116, Issue 5, May 2010, pp.76-82
The export of dissolved phosphorus (P) in surface runoff from agricultural land can lead to water quality degradation. Surface application of aluminium (Al)-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) to vegetated buffer strip (VBS) soils can enhance P removal from surface runoff during single runoff events. However, the longer-term effects on P removal in VBSs following application of products such as Al-WTR remain uncertain. We used field experimental plots to examine the long-term effects of applying a freshly generated Al-WTR to VBSs on dissolved P export during multiple runoff events, occurring between 1 day and 42 weeks after the application of Al-WTR. Vegetated buffer strip plots amended with Al-WTR significantly reduced soluble reactive P and total dissolved P concentrations in surface runoff compared to both unamended VBS plots and control plots. However, the effectiveness of Al-WTR decreased over time, by approximately 70 % after 42 weeks compared to a day following Al-WTR application. ...
Suspended-sediment samplers must sample isokinetically (at stream velocity) in order to collect representative water samples of rivers. Each sampler solo by the Federal Interagency Sedimentation Project or by the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility has been adjusted to sample isokinetically and tested in a flume to verify the calibration. The test program for a modified U.S. P-61 sampler provided an opportunity to compare flume and towing tank tests. Although the two tests yielded statistically distinct results, the difference between them was quite small. The conclusion is that verifying the calibration of any suspended-sediment sampler by either the flume or towing method should give acceptable results....
ocean current: Stream made up of horizontal and vertical components of the circulation system of ocean waters that is produced by gravity, wind friction, and water density variation in different...
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The development of flexible lightweight OLED devices requires oxygen/moisture barrier layer thin films with water vapour transmission rates (WVTR) of < 10-6 g/m2/day. This thesis reports on single and multilayer architecture barrier layers (mostly based on SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2) deposited onto glass, Si and polymeric substrates using remote plasma sputtering. The reactive sputtering depositions were performed on Plasma Quest S500 based sputter systems and the morphology, nanostructure and composition of the coatings have been examined using SEM, EDX, STEM, XPS, XRD and AFM. The WVTR has been determined using industry standard techniques (e.g. MOCON) but, for rapid screening of the deposited layers, an in-house permeation test was also developed. SEM, XRD and STEM results showed that the coatings exhibited a dense, amorphous structure with no evidence of columnar growth. However, all of the single and multilayer coatings exhibited relatively poor WVTRs of > 1 x 10-1 g/m2/day at 38 °C and 85 % RH. ...
A preferred embodiment of this invention comprises an oxidizable layer (e.g. TiN 50), an noble-metal-insulator-alloy barrier layer (e.g. Pd-Si-N 34) overlying the oxidizable layer, an oxygen stable layer (e.g. platinum 36) overlying the noble-metal-insulator-alloy layer, and a high-dielectric-constant material layer (e.g. barium strontium titanate 38) overlying the oxygen stable layer. The noble-metal-insulator-alloy barrier layer substantially inhibits diffusion of oxygen to the oxidizable layer, thus minimizing deleterious oxidation of the oxidizable layer.
The report segments the global SUB market by molecule type, type of cell, technology, end user, and region. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) segment accounted for the lions share of the global SUB market, by molecule type. However, the stem cell segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR in the forecast period, owing to an increased focus on research in this segment. On the basis of type of cell, the SUB market is categorized into mammalian cell, bacterial cell, yeast cell and others (insect cell and plant cell). The mammalian cell segment is expected to be the new revenue pocket in the market by type of cell. Increasing numbers of biologics are being based on mammalian cells due to their increased compatibility and bioactivity in humans. The technology segment is subsegmented into wave-induced motion SUBs, stirred SUBs, single-use bubble column bioreactors and others (single-use reactors with vertically perforated discs and single-use hybrid reactors). Wave-induced motion SUB technology ...
Oviparous: Eggscatters: Moderately Difficult. Sexual dimorphism: Males have more pointed swim bladders, longer dorsal and anal fins with blue-gray edging and intensified yellow coloration over their bodies, particularly during spawning conditions (Females have more rounded swim bladders and more muted colors.) Spawning typically happens during the monsoon season during warmer weather when with rain softening areas of standing water. As Indian glassy fish are prone to eating their own eggs, its advisable to set up a separate tank for spawning and raising the fry. Optimal conditions would include a tank with a mature sponge-filtered keeping the water at approximately 84 F with light water current. It should be heavily planted with java ferns or similarly broad-leaved plants. Choose healthy females and place them in the breeding tank for at least a week prior to spawning. During this time, feed them a diet high in live proteins to help them develop their roe. Maintaining a 1 male to 1 female ...
This coral does best in an established tank. It prefers a high water current and a high light level (400 to 600PAR), so does best in the middle to upper regions of the tank depending on the lighting. Needs stable water parameters to thrive, and adiquate calcium to grow ...
Animals such as whales, dolphins and jellies (jellyfish) all swim in the water column. In the case of animals like jellyfish and/or by the wind-sailors, water currents end up carrying a bunch of them onshore. Its not always clear what beaches whales and dolphins (or if there is a single reason in every case) but in these cases, we have animals that are in constant motion that get stranded based in part on the animals getting there on their own power ...
Researchers at MIT and the Weizmann Institute of Science discover the ultility of coral cilia in creating water currents that bring food and move molecules around the colonial organisms.. 0 Comments. ...
Originally Posted by obvious Child Why must direction imply consciousness? Water currents are directed by the shape and flow of a river the same way t
Increasingly people have been rising their each day consumption of resveratrol. General, a couple of third, 36{2f8f11be2d8dc4f77685eb88c1b2fddd329cab5c38e9c52e8cec5fa9b05e94e5}, of People get science news at least a few times per week, three-in-ten actively seek it out, and a smaller portion, 17{2f8f11be2d8dc4f77685eb88c1b2fddd329cab5c38e9c52e8cec5fa9b05e94e5}, do each. On this hustle and bustle life-style we lead, it is always a good suggestion to stop for a moment several instances throughout the day and touch base with your coronary heart.. Whereas clover slobbers will not be life-threatening, severe issues can arise if the horse is uncovered to the contaminated clover for a protracted time period, together with colic and founder. The water discovered on earth at the moment is similar water current since earths beginnings.. We can not skip the preparation of language, music and humanities for the mind and go on to memorization drills and hope for lengthy-term success in lecturers. Music and ...
Downstream of essentially all overflow and drop structures two distinct flow regimes are possible, one associated with a plunging flow, the other dominated by a flow that rides along the surface. Predicting the flow regime is important because diving-jet scouring rates are substantially faster than surface flow scouring rates, and diving-jet scour holes form nearer to the structure. A bi-stable region exists in which either flow is possible with the same upstream and downstream flow conditions. Bi-stable regime boundaries were delineated for a wide variety of fixed bed structures, based on both new experiments and reanalysis of others experiments with new dimensionless parameters, in an effort to form a generalized picture of regime phenomena. ^ Scour downstream of what was initially a backward-facing step was examined in greater detail for both bi-stable and non-bi-stable flows to better understand basic mechanisms. Experiments with both erodible and fixed downstream beds were conducted (the ...
The researchers are completing a series of riparian and groundwater-dependent ecosystem assessments for National Forests in the USFS Intermountain Region. Each assessment summarizes drivers, stressors, and current condition of these systems in relation to the natural range of variation within each forest. The reports directly inform the assessment phase of forest plan revision and continue to be produced on a schedule in line with the Regions forest planning process ...
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Orbit, a US-based provider of smart watering with B-hyve technology, has entered into a strategic partnership with Flume, a source for real-time home water data.
Lyt til sange og albums fra Flume, inkl. Never Be Like You (feat. Kai), Say It (feat. Tove Lo), Never Be Like You (feat. Kai) og mange flere. Gratis med et Apple Music-medlemskab.
Description. Erect plants, to 40 cm tall, with solid cylindrical branches, 2 - 3 mm wide, branched either sparingly to repeatedly. Main branches have short, determinate branches, irregularly shaped and spinose, with spines numerous and radially arranged. There are no spines on main axes. The plant grows from a large, irregularly shaped holdfast. In intertidal high-motion water areas, Acanthophora spicifera has short (4 - 10 cm), compact and very dense thalli. In moderate or low water motion areas, the thalli are tall (10 - 25 cm), more openly branched and occur in scattered clumps. Color is highly variable: can be shades of red, purple, yellow, orange, or brown. Are often very dark in color in intertidal, high motion areas. Usually lighter color in shallow areas with low water motion and reflective sandy or silty bottoms.. Structural Features. Apices are pyramidal, with incurved trichoblasts. Peri-central cells corticated densely, central axial cells usually evident. In older axes, central axial ...
Effective marine management and conservation planning require a better understanding of the movement of young marine animals, including small larvae, in part because such movements facilitate normal biological connections among geographically separate populations. Although tiny larvae are impossible to follow directly, advances in modeling ocean currents have made it possible to predict larval movements. However, until now it has remained difficult to test these movement predictions in the field by comparing the model to data from population genetic studies. The new work enables scientists to field-test such predictions and thereby hone our understanding of how marine larvae disperse in the environment and influence the structure of adult populations. In their study, the researchers coupled two types of models: One model predicts the movements of "virtual" coral larvae in the Caribbean Sea based on ocean currents, while the second model gives the virtual larvae a genetic tag. The researchers ...
A barrier layer is deposited over a layer of passivation including in an opening to a contact pad created in the layer of passivation. A column of three layers of metal is formed overlying the barrier layer and aligned with the contact pad and having a diameter that is about equal to the surface of the contact pad. The three metal layers of the column comprise, in succession when proceeding from the layer that is in contact with the barrier layer, a layer of pillar metal, a layer of under bump metal and a layer of solder metal. The layer of pillar metal is reduced in diameter, the barrier layer is selectively removed from the surface of the layer of passivation after which reflowing of the solder metal completes the solder bump of the invention.
Research interests: My research interests focus on the air-sea interactions and the oceans role in climate variations. Of special interest to me are air-sea exchange of heat and CO2, sea level rise, air-sea interactions at ocean fronts and mesoscale eddies, upper ocean heat and momentum balances, and atmosphere boundary layer dynamics. I have combined satellite and in-situ measurements and numerical modeling to address these topics in the Pacific and in the Southern Ocean. ...
Advection: The horizontal movement of an atmospheric property such as temperature, moisture or clouds entirely by the wind. Advection usually refers to movement over considerable distance, often
Disclosed is a two-stroke engine having a central scavenging system through which the scavenging mixture, regulated into a single stream at a scavenging port provided in the top wall of the piston, jets upwardly into the center of the top portion of the cylinder bore and then spreads radially outwards so as to provide a plurality of currents of scavenging mixture. These currents branch from the main stream of scavenging mixture and flow through shorter distance as well as undergo similar flow environment with respect to one another due to symmetry in regard to the center of the cylinder. Thus, the scavenging performance of the two-stroke engine can be greatly improved.
Therefore we thought that if a unifying mechanistic principle existed, it had to lie in the constraints that the flow environment poses to all its inhabitants," he continued. "And this is a purely physical problem, much easier to solve since it is not affected by biological vagaries. What I like about this paper is that in one line of algebra we derived a compact formula that accounts for 50 years of experiments. This is an example of how powerful minimal modeling can be.". "The basic relationship we wanted to understand was how the input variables - namely the size of the organism, the amount an organism moves and how quickly it moves - control the output variable, which is effectively the speed at which it moves," Mahadevan explained. "What we found is that there is a specific relationship, which can be described by in terms of a simple scaling law with two limits.". The first, which corresponds to creatures moving at intermediate speeds, describes situations where the bulk of the resistance ...
Blood plays an essential role in many physiological and pathological processes of the organism, which motivates large scientific efforts to understand its behavior at the macro-flow scale as well as at the level of single cells. Blood is a complex fluid that exhibits a number of non-Newtonian characteristics, including viscoelasticity, shear-thinning, and yield stress. These properties result from viscoelastic characteristics of blood cells and their intricate behavior in a complex flow environment. Modern in vivo and in vitro experimental techniques in combination with sophisticated computational approaches allow nowadays to describe blood flow at the macroscale and to relate it to the behavior and interactions of single blood cells. The main aim of the conference is to discuss current state of research on blood flow and its future prospects. This interdisciplinary conference will gather experimentalists and theoreticians to discuss mechanical, physical, and biomedical aspects of blood flow. ...
Orthopaedic surgeons may wear airtight suits and helmets, and work in alesse period early high velocity vertical air flow environment, which has al esse access to other personnel. Unexpected flap thickness in laser in situ keratornileusis.
Alex, it was your last sentence that seemed to bend too far towards drift. It is certainly not true as stated. But point taken, some leaf characters are better candidates for drift explanations than major floral characters. I dont think leaf margination is beyond selection, though. Different margins may have different abilities to dispose of guttation water, or shed dew or rain, or alter the duration of surface films of water on the leaf after rain, or deter specific herbivorous insects (who nearly always start eating at the margins), or cool more or less efficiently by affecting the laminar/turbulent flow regime of air passing over the leaf, or to imitate herbivory damage in order to attract visually-oriented parasites or predators of herbivores, etc. These are testable claims, either in the lab or by seeing whether certain habitats had an excess of one type of margination across families ...
Alex, it was your last sentence that seemed to bend too far towards drift. It is certainly not true as stated. But point taken, some leaf characters are better candidates for drift explanations than major floral characters. I dont think leaf margination is beyond selection, though. Different margins may have different abilities to dispose of guttation water, or shed dew or rain, or alter the duration of surface films of water on the leaf after rain, or deter specific herbivorous insects (who nearly always start eating at the margins), or cool more or less efficiently by affecting the laminar/turbulent flow regime of air passing over the leaf, or to imitate herbivory damage in order to attract visually-oriented parasites or predators of herbivores, etc. These are testable claims, either in the lab or by seeing whether certain habitats had an excess of one type of margination across families ...
The main environmental value of a building setback is to leave room for a ground cover of grass to slow the surface runoff, control erosion, and for bacterial de-nitrification. This can be as little as 3 feet and up to 20 feet (three ft. removes 99% of coliform - Tillamook, Oregon). A 15-foot vegetated filter strip reduces nitrogen by 90% (Maddison et al. 1992). Most nitrogen removal is by de- nitrification; 66% by soil bacteria, 33% by plants. Roots promote soil bacteria. Most de-nitrification occurs in the top 6 inches, 88% in the top 2 cm. Trees are more effective than herbaceous plants because tree roots penetrate deeply and produce more carbon at depths. The area closest to high water should be planted with salt-tolerant trees that remove pollutants and nitrogen, which they store. To be effective, trees must be harvested or their nitrogen is restored to the buffer after they die. Trees also stabilize soil and protect against erosion. This buffer provides animal and bird habitat and ...
The observation of ordered flow patterns in a weakly turbulent liquid may lead to new ways of predicting the evolution of turbulent flow.
The mean value of the calculated and measured density of distilled water was within 0.4% of the known value and the mean value for aluminum was exactly the known value. It was found that the standard deviation for density measurements is on the order of 0.6-1.0% of the measured value. The mean-measured sound speed. for distilled water at 23ºC was within 0.05% of the known value, and standard deviation of the distilled water velocity measurements is 0.16% about the mean measured value. The value of sound speed through aluminum is, at present, unknown. These statistic data indicate the very high accuracy and repeatability of the USGS multi-logger system.. Subsequently, sediment samples are taken from opened sections of cores after logging, and moisture contents are calculated using standard procedures presented by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and procedures developed at the USGS for the determination of water content of marine sediment. A comparison between USGS ...
Definition: An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt ...
Definition: An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt ...
INTRODUCTION. Turbulence is recognised as irregularly fluctuating and unpredictable motion which is composed of a number of small eddies that travel in the current. Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature but its measurement and analysis has not been easy. In the coastal regions of the ocean, turbulence is generated by breaking waves. The coastal regions are characterised by a sloping bottom. Waves moving from deep water towards the shore begin to slow down, due to the decreasing water depth, while at the same time increasing in wave height to maintain a constant energy flux. At a certain critical wave height the wave becomes unstable and breaking occurs. Breaking is characterised by the top of the crest falling onto the front face of the wave, forming a body of fluid, called the wave roller that rides on the wave front.. The roller interacts with the fluid below it in a complicated way, exchanging energy and momentum in the process. The roller will eventually dissipate and be completely absorbed by ...
The presence of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the hydrometallurgical processing of base metals is responsible for the contamination of the final product, high energy consumption and large bleed streams during electrowinning. This paper elaborates on the use of ammonium fluoride to precipitate Ca and Mg as their respective fluoride minerals, namely, fluorite and sellaite. The effects of residence time and mixing regimes on crystal growth characteristics and the derived particle size distributions were investigated. The mixing levels in a typical mixed-suspension-mixed-product-removal (MSMPR) were represented by 3 possible mixing regimes; micro-, meso- and macromixing. A three-zone experimentalsetup was used to study the effects of the micro-, meso-, and macromixing on the crystal size distribution and filterability of fluorite and sellaite. The ionic strength of the sulphate solutions used was similar to those found in base metal leach circuits. As a result, SEM-images of the formed crystals ...
Methods are disclosed for selective deposition on desired materials. In particular, barrier materials are selectively formed on insulating surfaces, as compared to conductive surfaces. In the context of contact formation and trench fill, particularly damascene and dual damascene metallization, the method advantageously lines insulating surfaces with a barrier material. The selective formation allows the deposition to be
The goal of this workshop is to have an open discussion on the impact of Fokker-Planck equation based approaches on turbulence modeling and simulation. Leading scientists will present the spectrum of possibilities to describe turbulence dynamics on this basis, and to use such models for turbulent flow predictions. The workshop offers plenty of opportunities for in-depth discussions of details, differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. Projections of desired future developments will be made with focus on a comprehensive understanding of the stochastic nature of turbulence and the ability to accurately predict real turbulent flows ...
This paper describes the application of a spatially distributed hydrological model WetSpa (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere) using…
Hydrodynamique et la mécanique de lhélium cryogéniques. Turbulence et Hydrodynamique aux temperatures cryogeniques, Institut NEEL CNRS, Grenoble
All of your hard work is just a small sacrifice now in trade-off for the huge returns youll earn in the future. Stay strong. Never give up on what is important to you. (The key is to know what REALLY is important to you. Dont fall for false goals. Know thyself!) Dont be satisfied with the norm. Its okay to want to achieve special results. The world needs folks who dream and achieve big things ...
An electronic device may include an electronic substrate, and an under bump seed metallurgy layer on the electronic substrate. A barrier layer may be provided on the under bump seed metallurgy layer so that the under bump seed metallurgy layer is between the barrier layer and the electronic substrate, and the barrier layer may include nickel and/or copper. Moreover, portions of the under bump seed metallurgy layer may be undercut relative to portions of the barrier layer. In addition, a solder layer may be provided on the barrier layer so that the barrier layer is between the solder layer and the under bump seed metallurgy layer.
For application of highly active La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-d (LSCO) and Pr0.6Sr0.4CoO3-d (PSCO) cathodes in the systems with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) membrane the ceria based chemical barrier layers have been used to prevent active reaction between Sr containing cathode and YSZ. However, even in thin chemical barrier layer the Sr has some mobility. The aim of this study was to clarify how the microstructure of chemical barrier layer influences the Sr mobility and how the electrochemical parameters of SOFC are related with these properties.. Gadolinium doped ceria Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-d (GDC) chemical barrier layers with thickness approximately 0.7 mm were deposited to the YSZ electrolyte using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), magnetron sputtering (MS) and spray pyrolysis (SP) method. One set of chemical barrier layers were studied as prepared (PLD GDC prepared at 600 °C; MS GDC prepared at 300 °C; SP GDC pre-sintered at 950 °C) and other set of samples were sintered for 30 h at 1300 °C before printing ...
The recent observed thinning of the glacier ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica) has been attributed to warm deep currents, possibly induced by along-coast winds in the vicinity of the glacial ice sheet. Here, high resolution maps of wind fields derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been studied and correlated with subsurface measurements of the deep water velocities in the Amundsen Sea area. Focus is on periods with low ice coverage in 2010 and 2011. In 2010, which had comparatively low ice coverage, the results indicate a more rapid response to wind forcing in the deep currents than in 2011. The SAR wind speed maps have better spatial resolution than available reanalysis data, and higher maximum correlation was obtained with SAR data than with reanalysis data despite the lower temporal resolution. The maximum correlation was R = 0.71, in a direction that is consistent with wind-driven Ekman theory. This is significantly larger than in previous studies. The larger correlation
Weather for UK, Ireland and the world. Sailing, Marine Weather, Weather maps, radar, satellite, climate, historic weather data, information about meteorology, reports, weather warning.
Weather for UK, Ireland and the world. Sailing, Marine Weather, Weather maps, radar, satellite, climate, historic weather data, information about meteorology, reports, weather warning.
Semiconductor light emitting devices, such as light emitting diodes, include a substrate, an epitaxial region on the substrate that includes a light emitting region such as a light emitting diode region, and a multilayer conductive stack including a reflector layer, on the epitaxial region. A barrier layer is provided on the reflector layer and extending on a sidewall of the reflector layer. The multilayer conductive stack can also include an ohmic layer between the reflector and the epitaxial region. The barrier layer further extends on a sidewall of the ohmic layer. The barrier layer can also extend onto the epitaxial region outside the multilayer conductive stack. The barrier layer can be fabricated as a series of alternating first and second sublayers.
abstract = {The fine-scale temporal patterns of water velocities, accelerations, and velocity gradients encountered by individual zooplankters carried in ambient flow can affect their dispersal, behavior, and interaction with other organisms, but have not yet been measured in realistic flow environments. We focused on zooplankton in wavy turbulent boundary layer flow near benthic communities because such flow affects important processes, including larval settlement and prey capture by benthic zooplanktivores. Flow across fouling communities measured in the field was mimicked in a wave flume, where time-varying velocity fields over biofouled surfaces were quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Trajectories of simulated zooplankters seeded into these flow fields were followed to quantify temporal patterns of velocity gradients and accelerations that individuals encountered. We found that such zooplankters are not subjected to steady velocities or velocity gradients, but rather ...
abstract = {The fine-scale temporal patterns of water velocities, accelerations, and velocity gradients encountered by individual zooplankters carried in ambient flow can affect their dispersal, behavior, and interaction with other organisms, but have not yet been measured in realistic flow environments. We focused on zooplankton in wavy turbulent boundary layer flow near benthic communities because such flow affects important processes, including larval settlement and prey capture by benthic zooplanktivores. Flow across fouling communities measured in the field was mimicked in a wave flume, where time-varying velocity fields over biofouled surfaces were quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Trajectories of simulated zooplankters seeded into these flow fields were followed to quantify temporal patterns of velocity gradients and accelerations that individuals encountered. We found that such zooplankters are not subjected to steady velocities or velocity gradients, but rather ...
Fish sense water motion the same way humans sense sound, according to new research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Researchers discovered a gene also found in humans helps zebrafish convert water ...
When poets and storytellers speak of the ocean they are often struck by its constant, restless motion, from the rolling deep of the open sea to the crashing coastal surf.. Even the most casual observer is impressed by the swirl of tides or the march of waves against the shore. But few note the silent, subtle passage of currents. Yet the power of currents to move and control the seas is unmatched. Currents are cohesive streams of seawater that circulate through the oceans. Some are short-lived and small, while others are vast flows that take centuries to complete a circuit of the globe. (The Gulf Stream Current, which shows up in this temperature coded satellite image as a broad dark orange swath, has followed this course through the North Atlantic for millennia.). In contrast, the small eddy currents that spin off the Gulf Stream die out within a few months.. Currents are caused by winds, gravity, and variations in water density in different parts of the ocean. There are two distinct current ...
Carbonate preservation in the oceans occurs at a depth called the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). The CCD is where the input rate of carbonate from the surface of the ocean is balanced by the dissolution rate. Factors controlling the CCD are the CO2 in the atmosphere, weathering, and productivity in the surface water, the depth of the lysocline and deep water currents (and their ocean circulation). Two previous studies have investigated the variation of the CCD through geologic time, one in the equatorial Pacific (Pälike et al., 2012) and the other compiled results from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Van Andel, 1975). The project consisted of compiling a database of sediment lithologies for many more sites in the Atlantic since the compilation by Van Andel, 1975, and together with a subsidence model of the ocean crust the systematic variations of CCD could be investigated. The results show that the CCD varies both spatially and temporally in accordance with previous studies. The ...
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys were done in Luikonlahti tailings impoundment area, Eastern Finland. Purpose of the measurements were to find the structure of the tailings impoundment area and possible seepage areas. Totally 5 ERT profiles and 4 TEM profiles were measured in the tailings area. ERT and TEM measurements revealed clearly the structure of tailings impoundment. Results of the both methods agreed and coincide with the drilling results.
One of the biggest and least recognized opportunities for sensitive level measurement and tight level control is overhead receivers on distillation columns. The most widely used column strategy control is the direct material balance scheme where temperature manipulates the distillate flow from the overhead receiver. The level in the receiver is controlled by the manipulation of reflux flow to the top of the column.. Vapor flow from the reboiler bubbles up through the column, condenses in the overhead exchanger, and accumulates in the overhead receiver. Reflux flows down the column and accumulates in the sump. A decrease in vapor flow from a decrease in steam to the reboiler or a sudden shift in wall temperature from a cold wind or cold rain will cause a decrease in overhead receiver level. For tight level measurement and control, a small change in level will quickly translate to a change in reflux flow that will balance the change in vapor flow. This inherent self-regulation provides some ...
A method to selectively deposit a barrier layer on a metal film formed on a substrate is disclosed. The barrier layer is selectively deposited on the metal film using a cyclical deposition process including a predetermined number of deposition cycles followed by a purge step. Each deposition cycle comprises alternately adsorbing a refractory metal-containing precursor and a reducing gas on the metal film formed on the substrate in a process chamber.
Turbidites are sediments which are transported and deposited by density flow, not by tractional or frictional flow.. The distinction is that, in a normal river or stream bed, particles of rock are carried along by frictional drag of water on the particle (known as tractional flow). The water must be travelling at a certain velocity in order to suspend the particle in the water and push it along. The greater the size or density of the particle relative to the fluid in which it is travelling, the higher the water velocity required to suspend it and transport it.. Density-based flow, however, occurs when liquefaction of sediment during transport causes a change to the density of the fluid. This is usually achieved by highly turbulent liquids which have a suspended load of fine grained particles forming a slurry. In this case, larger fragments of rock can be transported at water velocities too low to otherwise do so because of the lower density contrast (that is, the water plus sediment has a higher ...
Accurate flood predictions require high resolution inundation numerical models and detailed coastal and land topography data. However, such data are not always available. A new method to obtain topographic information of flood zones from remote sensing data is demonstrated here for Cook Inlet, Alaska, where tidal range reaches 8-10 m. The moving shoreline is detected from analysis of water coverage in satellite images taken at different tidal stages, and then the shoreline data from different times are combined with water level data from observations and models to produce new topographic maps of previously unobserved mudflats. The remote sensing-based analysis provides for the first time a way to evaluate the flood predictions of the inundation model of the inlet. The new flood-zone topography obtained from the remote sensing data will help to construct a more accurate inundation model in the future. Citation: Ezer, T., and H. Liu (2009), Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map
The determination of permeability K and form coefficient C, defined by the Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation of flow through a porous medium, requires the measurement of the total pressure drop caused by the porous medium (i.e., inlet, core, and outlet) per unit of porous medium length. The inlet and outlet pressure-drop contributions, however, are not related to the porous medium length. Hence, for situations in which these pressure drops are not negligible, e.g., for short or very permeable porous media core, the definition of K and C via the HDD equation becomes ambiguous. This aspect is investigated analytically and numerically using the flow through a restriction in circular pipe and parallel plates channels. Results show that inlet and outlet pressure-drop effects become increasingly important when the inlet and outlet fluid surface-fraction φ decreases and the Reynolds number Re increases for both laminar and turbulent flow regimes. A conservative estimate of the minimum porous medium ...
Human activities change the natural flow regimes in streams and rivers and this impacts ecosystems. In this talk I will mathematically investigate the impact of changes in water flow on biological populations. The approach I will take is to develop process-oriented advection-diffusion-reaction equations that couple hydraulic flow to population growth, and then to analyze the equations so as to assess the effect of impacts of water flow on population dynamics. The mathematical framework is based on new theory for the net reproductive rate $R_0$ as applied to advection-diffusion-reaction equations. I will then connect the theory to populations in rivers under various flow regimes.. This work lays the groundwork for connecting $R_0$ to more complex models of spatially structured and interacting populations, as well as more detailed habitat and hydrological data. This is achieved through explicit numerical simulation of two dimensional depth-averaged models for river population dynamics.. ...
Brazil has the Tropical Wet, Tropical Wet and Dry, Semiarid, Marine West Coast, and Humid Subtropical climate types. The region has the Tropical Wet and Tropical Wet and Dry climate types because of those parts of Brazils wetness and dryness - in a tropical area. It has a Semiarid climate type in some areas in the country because of those areas levels of dryness. It has Marine West Coast climate areas because of those areas nearness to water, and those areas getting of cool water currents from ocean, which influences their weather. Finally, Brazil has Humid Subtropical climate areas because of those areas hot wet summers and mild wet winters ...
...The growing number of dams and other impoundments is increasing the nu...The research team combined data on water chemistry the distribution o...The researchers looked at invaders like the Eurasian zebra mussel the...The study appears as the cover story in the September issue of Fron...,Biological,invasions,increasing,due,to,freshwater,impoundments,,says,CU-Boulder,study,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
As a naturally occurring substance, asbestos can be present in surface and ground water. Small fibers may be carried long distances by water currents before settling. Asbestos fibers do not bind to soils, but nevertheless do NT migrate to ground water through soils. Asbestos is not expected to accumulate in aquatic life.
Most sponges work rather like chimneys: they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top. Since ambient currents are faster at the top, the suction effect that they produce does some of the work for free. Sponges can control the water flow by various combinations of wholly or partially closing the osculum and ostia (the intake pores) and varying the beat of the flagella, and may shut it down if there is a lot of sand or silt in the water.[3] Although the layers of pinacocytes and choanocytes resemble the epithelia of more complex animals, they are not bound tightly by cell-to-cell connections or a basal lamina (thin fibrous sheet underneath). The flexibility of these layers and re-modeling of the mesohyl by lophocytes allow the animals to adjust their shapes throughout their lives to take maximum advantage of local water currents.[3] The simplest body structure in sponges is a tube or vase shape known as "asconoid", but this severely limits the size of ...
PROJECT SUMMARY There is an increasing public concern about monitoring water quality in the entire drinking water supply system especially at the point of use spurred by recent water catastrophes such as the one in Flint Michigan that has caused severe health issues for thousands of children due to the unsafe level of lead in contaminated drinking water Current quantitative detection methods .... ...
The pilot-scale Taylor-Couette UV unit was tested at turbulent vortices (TV), transitional (TRA) and Couette-Poisuille (CP) flow conditions to treat apple cider (pH 3.65, α = 17.41 cm−1), carrot juice (pH 6.31, α = 52.69 cm−1) and soy milk (pH 7.04, α = 162.01 cm−1) for inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The germicidal effectiveness of Taylor-Couette unit was dependent on Taylor and Reynolds numbers and flow regimes formed in the annulus. From all studied flow regimes the CP flow resulted in the lowest microbial inactivation. For instance at the flow rate of 1500 ml/min and rotation of 0 rpm the UV decimal reduction dose in apple cider was of 13.15 ± 0.45 mJ/cm2. On the contrary the superior E. coli inactivation was achieved at the TV flow (1500 mL/min, 200 rpm,), characterised by the least UV decimal reduction dose of 4.57 ± 0.35 mJ/cm2. Obtained results indicate that Taylor-Couette UV unit provided efficient mixing conditions capable of overcoming the low penetration of UV ...
Because of the simple cells that make up sponges, cell types and water currents used by the sponges to obtain food have been extensively studied. Sponges in general use flagellated cells called choanocyte cells to create a current. Choanocytes are located in the interior part of the sponge. In the asconoid structure, the water is drawn in through the ostium (outer pores), goes through the spongocoel or atrium, and out the osculum (the opening in the top of the sponge). Outer pores are 50 micrometers or less, so larger particles and animals are not ingested.. As food or particles are moved through the sponges, amoemoid cells surround and engulf it (pinocytosis and phagocytosis). Particles are caught in the collar part of the choanocyte cells. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003). ...
... to separate solids fractions using differences in their dry material specific gravities provides for highly efficient yield of valuable product. The PHOENIX HYDROSORT™ Hindered Settling Classifier utilizes a fluidized bed of slurry for density sorting of lightweight contaminants from sand, silica sand and heavier minerals. Precise overflow slurry density tracking and a controlled upward water current provides simple adjustment to meet product specifications ...
December 18, 2018) - NACWA wishes all of its members a very happy, health, and safe Holiday Season! The Clean Water Current will be on hiatus until the New Year - resuming its weekly publishing schedule on January 8, 2019. We hope you enjoyed the past year of clean water news, analysis and advocacy wins as chronicled by the Current, and we look forward to an even greater year of the same in 2019!. ...
Introduction. In 2009, the City of Cape Town (CoCT) adopted a stormwater policy with the aim of reducing the pollution load in storm-water runoff. Indirectly, the policy also intended to address mounting concerns about the general deterioration of urban green spaces and the loss of biodiversity (CoCT, 2009). The policy establishes water quality targets for all new and existing developments that are situated in catchments with sensitive freshwater systems, and includes the targets of reducing phosphorus and suspended solids by 45% and 80%, respectively (CoCT, 2009). The policy is consistent with the concept and principles of sustainable drainage systems (SuDS), which typically include the use of a treatment train of vegetated filters (i.e. biofilters) to reduce the rate of surface runoff and enhance the natural processes of infiltration, sedimentation and biological uptake of nutrients prior to being released into freshwater systems (Ghani, 2008; Melbourne Water, 2005; Villarreal et al., 2004; ...
Krishna River is significantly affected due to Srisailam dam from past 30 years. The impact of this hydraulic structure drastically reduced the minimum flow regime on the downstream, which made the river nearing to decaying stage. In the present paper, Environmental Flow called minimum flow values released for the dam are estimated with the help of three hydrological methods viz., Range of variability Approach (RVA), Desktop Reserve Model (DRM), and Global Environmental Flow Calculator (GEFC). DRM method suggested considering the intermediate values obtained from among the three methods to preserve the ecosystem on the downstream of the river, which amounts to an average annual allocation of 9378 Million Cubic Meter (MCM) which is equal to 23.11% of mean annual flow (MAF). In this regard GEFC and RVA methods accounted for 22% and 31.04% of MAF respectively. The results indicate that current reservoir operation policy is causing a severe hydrological alteration in the high flow season especially ...
Purdue University researchers have found evidence that tropical cyclones and hurricanes play an important role in the ocean circulation patterns that transport heat and maintain the climate of North America and Europe
Riparian zones play a significant role in the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration to mitigate the increasing atmospheric CO2. SOC storages vary spatially within and among riparian soils by the inf
Establishes there has been a 30-year trend showing an increase in Atlantic tropical cyclones strength related to an increase in ocean temperatures over the Atlantic Ocean and elsewhereStates trends in tropical cyclone intensity of less obvious over the rest of the tropics due to data limitationsThe paper overcomes these limitations by examining trends in the maximum intensities that cyclones achieve during their lifetimes, estimated from homogeneous data derived from an archive of satellite recordsFinds significant upward trends for wind speed quant
Tropical cyclone and hurricane formation probability Atlantic basin. Depression and invest tracker. Developed by the Regional and Mesoscale Meteorology Branch at CIRA.
Mesoscale eddies with very low-oxygen concentrations at shallow depth have been recently discovered in the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Our analysis shows that low oxygen eddies occur more frequent than expected and are found even close to the equator (8° N). From budget calculations we show that an oxygen reduction of 7 µmol/kg in the depth range of 50-150 m in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (peak reduction is 16 µmol/kg at 100 m depth) can be associated with the dispersion of these eddies ...
Eddy Avenue-playfully named after an actual street in Sydney, Australia, where all the researchers once waited for the bus-is a region within the Tasman Sea with an unusually high number of eddy formations. Eddies are little worlds of intense biological and physical productivity. "We suspect that commercial fishermen know eddies well and truly. They can look for certain features and efficiently target their catch," Oke said. "Were just filling in a bit of a gap.". Everett and his team set out to locate and quantify the eddies within the Tasman Sea, and then link ocean circulation to different biological elements: phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fisheries. Eddy Avenue was not part of the initial plan. "But when we started, Eddy Avenue jumped out," said Jason Everett, a postdoctoral researcher at UNSW. Located close to the southeast coast of Australia, Eddy Avenue has 20 to 30 percent more eddies than the surrounding waters. Here, the eddies deviate from the global average with higher sea levels, ...
A semiconductor device including a damascene superconducting interconnect, formed of a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconducting material. A method of forming a superconducting damascene interconnect structure, and the structure made thereby, the method including forming a cavity in an interlevel dielectric; forming a barrier layer in the cavity; forming a seed layer in the cavity over the barrier layer; forming a Cu-Ba alloy layer; filling the cavity by depositing a Cu-Ca-O film; and annealing in oxygen flow to form a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconductor on the barrier layer. In an alternate embodiment, no barrier layer is formed.
Article Water Quality Benefits of Grass Swales in Managing Highway Runoff. ABSTRACTGrass swales are a vegetated stormwater management technology that can remove surface runoff contamination through sedimentation, filtration by the grass blades, infil...
There are four stages of tropical cyclones, which are tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and hurricane or typhoon. In terms of the life cycle of a tropical cyclone, which on...
Oleg A. Godin NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., 4301 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149 Dmitry Yu. Mikhin P. P. Shirshov Oceanogr. Inst. of the Russian Acad. Sci., Moscow 117851, Russia A new, full field approach to acoustic monitoring of currents in the ocean---matched nonreciprocity tomography (MNT)---was recently put forward [Godin et al., in Full Field Inversion Methods in Ocean and Seismo-Acoustics, edited by O. Diachok et al. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1995), pp. 261--266]. The approach is based on inverting nonreciprocity in phase of a cw signal measured at a set of points in a given vertical plane. MNT was designed to overcome the problems with rays resolution and identification which make the traditional current tomography technique inapplicable in coastal regions. Results of numerical simulations of suggested MNT field experiments in the Strait of Florida will be presented. The possibility to increase resolution and robustness of the inversion with few transceivers by ...
Storm water is rainfall or any surface runoff that is discharged through storm drain. Before storm water is discharged through the storm drain, it may pick up debris, dirt, chemicals, or other pollutants as it flows through impervious streets, parking lots, facility yards, or building rooftops. Unlike regular sewer drain systems, any possible storm water contaminants discharged through the storm drain system are untreated and ultimately enters local waterways, such as rivers, lakes, and bays. The SWMP is designed to identify potential sources of environmental pollutants that would significantly alter stormwater discharge, and to provide Best Management Practices(BMP) to reduce the discharge of pollutants into the storm drain system. ...
anisotropy, magnetic susceptibility, B Overview:4; B4:1-22. ankerite, authigenesis, A:226. anorthite, X-ray diffraction data, B5:21. Antarctic Bottom Water, ocean circulation, A:7, 288; B Overview:6. aragonite, lithologic units, A:84, 91, 172-174. Argentine Basin, mud waves, A:9. Atlantic Ocean N, ocean circulation, A:7. Atlantic Ocean NW, Pliocene-Holocene, B Overview:1-15. augite, lithologic units, A:88. authigenesis. ...
There is little known about the origin and early distribution of the coconut. Its believed that since they can stay afloat due to their water content they traveled along ocean currents to land. It is often stated that coconuts can travel for 110 days, or 3,000 miles, by sea and still be able to germinate. Drift models based on wind and ocean currents have shown that coconuts could not have drifted across the Pacific unaided, providing some circumstantial evidence that Austronesian peoples carried coconuts across the ocean and that they could not have. dispersed around the world without human involvement.. Although the coconut is spelled with "nut" it is a drupe and consists of three layers: exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp. There are many different useful properties to the coconut such as normalizing digestion, relaxing muscles, protecting from ultraviolet radiation, moistening skin, boosting the immune system, and countless more.. Coconut palms are grown in more than 90 countries of the world, ...
As was mentioned earlier in the lab, the tropics are warmer than the poles because of differences in the angle at which solar radiation impacts the Earth. Very little solar radiation reaches higher …
ICE EFFECTS ON STREAMFLOW. The formation of ice on rivers can cause discharge values to appear unusually high. Display of these erroneous discharge data may result in improper assessment of flow conditions and misuse of the data. For this reason, display of discharge values for streams significantly affected by ice may be disabled from view. Display of discharge data will resume when ice conditions are no longer present. Discharge values for streams minimally affected by ice will continue to be displayed. Flows for streams with these conditions appear to increase during the night and decrease to near-base-line conditions around midday. To estimate the correct discharge for these streams, use the flow rate that corresponds to the bottom of the discharge curve, rather than the peak that corresponds to the top of the curve. Note that this method of estimation is possible only when no surface runoff is occurring. Daily mean discharges for periods of both significant and minimal ice-effect will be ...
Where an order of impoundment was entered in connection with affidavits in support of seven search warrants for the premises and bank accounts of the plaintiffs