Definition of water deprivation in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is water deprivation? Meaning of water deprivation as a finance term. What does water deprivation mean in finance?
Given that water withdrawal is one of the major stressors for animals during long-distance transports, it was the aim to study the effects of prolonged water deprivation on different blood and behavioural parameters of goats and sheep under stable conditions. Withdrawal periods corresponded to EU transport regulations, which allow sheep and goats to be transported for a maximum period of 14 hours, followed by a rest period of at least one hour sufficient for them to drink water, if a further 14-h travel is necessary. In the present study tools for authorities to approve the offer of water were evaluated. Fifteen Boer goats and 15 Blackhead mutton sheep were assigned in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to 1 of the following treatments: AL (ad libitum), SHORT (14 h withdrawal - 1 h access - 14 h withdrawal) or LONG (29 h withdrawal). The study was conducted under stable conditions without transporting the animals. Haematological parameters were analysed at 0, 14, 15, and 29 h. Standing, lying, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of TRPC4 in the vasopressin magnocellular system by water deprivation and hepatic cirrhosis in the rat. AU - Nedungadi, T. Prashant. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. PY - 2014/3/1. Y1 - 2014/3/1. N2 - Transient receptor potential canonical subtype 4 (TRPC4) is expressed in the magnocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. In this study, the regulation of TRPC4 expression was investigated in water deprivation and hepatic cirrhosis. We used laser capture microdissection technique for precise dissection of pure AVP cell population in the PVN and SON followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and immunodetection techniques by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Bile duct ligation elevated TRPC4 transcripts in the SON but not PVN with correlated changes in the protein expression in these regions, as well as increased colocalization with AVP in the SON, with no changes in the PVN. Water deprivation resulted in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral glucose utilization and glucose transporter expression. T2 - Response to water deprivation and restoration. AU - Koehler-Stec, Ellen M.. AU - Li, Kang. AU - Maher, Fran. AU - Vannucci, Susan J.. AU - Smith, Carolyn B.. AU - Simpson, Ian A.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - The relationship between local rates of cerebral glucose utilization (1CMR(glc)) and glucose transporter expression was examined during physiologic activation of the hypothalamoneurohypophysial system. Three days of water deprivation, which is known to activate the hypothalamoneurohypophysial system, resulted in increased ICMR(glc) and increased concentrations of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in the neurohypophysis; mRNA levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were decreased and increased, respectively. Water deprivation also increased 1CMR(glc) in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei; mRNA levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 appeared to increase in these nuclei, but the changes did not achieve statistical significance. ...
The Bureau of Meteorologys Water Restrictions website provides access to current water restrictions information for the whole of Australia. Water restrictions information can be searched by State or Territory, water agency and restriction name. Water restriction names and rules vary throughout Australia due to local requirements. ...
The Bureau of Meteorologys Water Restrictions website provides access to current water restrictions information for the whole of Australia. Water restrictions information can be searched by State or Territory, water agency and restriction name. Water restriction names and rules vary throughout Australia due to local requirements. ...
Sheep and cattle are frequently subjected to feed and water deprivation (FWD) for about 12 h before, and then during, transport to reduce digesta load in the gastrointestinal tract. This FWD is marked by weight loss as urine and faeces mainly in the first 24 h but continuing at a reduced rate subsequently. The weight of rumen contents falls although water loss is to some extent masked by saliva inflow. FWD is associated with some stress, particularly when transportation is added. This is indicated by increased levels of plasma cortisol that may be partly responsible for an observed increase in the output of water and N in urine and faeces. Loss of body water induces dehydration that may induce feelings of thirst by effects on the hypothalamus structures through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. There are suggestions that elevated cortisol levels depress angiotensin activity and prevent sensations of thirst in dehydrated animals, but further research in this area is needed. Dehydration ...
The rapid decreases in plasma VP and corticosterone that occur after dehydration-induced drinking have been well documented (19, 21, 26, 35, 49, 52, 62, 63). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that drinking after a period of chronic water restriction inhibits the activity of hypothalamic magnocellular and specific subpopulations of parvocellular neurons in the PVN that control pituitary-adrenal activity. We have shown that water restriction for 6 days results in increased Fos expression in VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons but not CRH parvocellular neurons. Because rehydration results in reduced Fos expression in the VP neurons, our results support the hypothesis that water restriction-induced drinking decreases pituitary-adrenal activity by inhibiting neural activity in VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons. In addition, rehydration in water-restricted rats that have also undergone acute restraint stress reduces plasma ACTH and Fos in VP magnocellular and ...
Behavioral effects of MKC-242 (5-{3-[((2,)-1,4-benzodioxan-2-ylmethyl)amino] propoxy}-1,3-benzodioxole CHl), a novel and selective serotonin 1A receptor agonist, were investigated in rats and mice and compared against those of diazepam, buspirone and tandospirone. MKC-242 (0.0625-0.25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased punished drinking in water-deprived rats. The reference compounds also increased punished drinking at doses of 10 to 40 mg/kg, p.o. The increase by MKC-242 was blocked by N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxypenyl)piperazin-1-yl) -2-phenylpropanamide, a serotonin 1A receptor antagonist. MKC-242 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) also increased social interaction under high light and unfamiliar conditions in rats. It had weak benzodiazepine-like side effects in mice. MKC-242 (1, 3 mg/kg, p.o.) attenuated the reduction of locomotion caused by restraint stress in rats, the same effects were observed on both buspirone (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and tandospirone (100 mg/kg, p.o.). In the forced swimming test in ...
The percentage of people with overweight / obesity in the United States has reached very high levels, with 65% of adults over the age of 20 being overweight. Recently, there have been a number of advances in our understanding of the underlying causes of obesity, including greater understanding of both the effects of the environment and effects that are hereditary (i.e., genetic).. One area in which obese versus lean individuals may be different is how their bodies handle water balance and thirst. Studies done in animals suggest that individuals with greater body fat may tolerate periods without water better than lean animals. Thus, at least in animals, others have found a link between ability to tolerate periods without water and increased body weight.. We are studying whether the ability to tolerate periods without water and ability to feel thirst might differ in lean versus obese individuals. To do so, we will ask lean and obese individuals to undergo tests that include a period of ...
The kidneys can normally concentrate urine to an Osmolality of , 800 mmol/kg within 12 h of fluid restriction (Water deprivation test).. Comparison of serum and urine osmolalities may help to determine the cause of polyuria, to diagnose SIADH and to distinguish pre-renal from renal causes of impaired renal function.. See Osmolality.. ...
The Victorian government is set to further ease water restrictions for Melbourne following good recent rains and rising water levels in the citys dams, Radio 3AW reports.
As drought-stricken California tries to wring every last drop from its half-empty reservoirs, regulators on Tuesday approved the states first mandatory water restrictions for its urban residents.
José Díaz-Balart talks with Jonathan Jarvis, director of the National Park Service, about the crippling drought conditions hitting California as Gov. Jerry Brown issues an executive order imposing unprecedented water restrictions across the entire state.
Artificially-inseminated New Zealand White rabbits were administered ethylene glycol by gavage on gestational days 6 through 19 at doses of 0, 100, 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/day , with 23-24 inseminated animals per group. Clinical signs were recorded daily during treatment and on gd 25 and 30 (animals were observed at least once daily throughout the study); maternal body weights were recorded on gd 0, 6-19, 25 and 30 and maternal water consumption was measured daily. At necropsy (gd 30), maternal body weight, liver weight, kidney weight and gravid uterine weight were recorded. Kidneys, from 10 animals/dose and all females who died, were examined histologically. Ovarian corpora lutea were counted; uterine implantation sites (total sites, resorptions, dead fetuses and live fetuses) were recorded. All live fetuses were weighed, sexed and examined for external, visceral, craniofacial and skeletal alterations.. EG administered by gavage to pregnant NZW rabbits during major organogenesis resulted in ...
Principal Investigator:AONO Hiroshi, Project Period (FY):1990 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Hygiene
On-farm hatching systems for broiler chicks are increasingly used in practice. We studied whether or not performance, health and welfare aspects differed between commercial flocks hatched on-farm or in a hatchery (control). In two successive production cycles on seven farms, a total of 16 on-farm hatched flocks were paired to 16 control flocks, housed at the same farm. Paired flocks originated from the same batch of eggs and were subjected to similar on-farm management. On-farm hatched and control flocks only differed with respect to hatching conditions, with on-farm hatched flocks not being exposed to, for example, chick handling, post-hatch feed and water deprivation and transport, in contrast to control flocks that were subjected to standard hatchery procedures, subsequently transported and placed in the poultry house. Day-old chick quality (navel and hock scores), 1st week mortality, total mortality, BW at day (d) 0, d7 and at depopulation, and (total) feed conversion ratio were determined. ...
The EPA Drinking Water Quality in Public Supplies Report 2019, released this week, shows that the quality of drinking water in public supplies remains high...
The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) in the Free State has made a clarion call to consumers to continue using water sparingly.
Challenges have bedeviled some of California water conservation efforts so far, and experts expect uneven levels of compliance and success.
Film Hardness: Following water resistance testing specified above and when tested in accordance with ASTM D 3363 the coating shall retain not less than (softer) a B rating (Pencil hardness) for scratching after 1/2 hour and after 6 hours, and; net less than a B rating for gouging after 1/2 hour and an HB rating after 5 hours ...
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Water deprivation test: Patients with NDI tend to produce urine that has a low concentration despite being deprived of water. On administration of AVP, patients with NDI will show little or no increase in urine concentration. During the water deprivation test, the patient is carefully monitored to make sure his or her body weight and blood plasma concentration stay within a safe range. The patient goes without water for less than six hours while the blood plasma concentrations and urine volume are measured. If the patient has NDI, he or she will be resistant to the antidiuretic action of AVP. Immediately following the water deprivation period, a patient with NDI will still have concentrated blood plasma and dilute urine despite the fact that he or she will be fairly dehydrated at that point. At the end of the water fast, the patients response to an infusion of DDAVP is measured. If the patient does not respond to DDAVP, he or she may have NDI. If the patient shows highly concentrated urine in ...
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Diabetes mellitus would have shown up on bloodwork if that was the problem. Cushings is also a cause of drinking and peeing a lot, as is prednisone if theyre on it. Theres also a disease called diabetes insipidus that causes them to drink and pee like mad with no bloodwork abnormalities. If all other tests are normal, the next step is to do a water deprivation test to differentiate diabetes insipidus from a behavioral thing. The good news is that its treatable. The bad news is that the hormone to treat it is kinda expensive ...
Mayor Kenneth Cockayne announced today that the Bristol Water Department, as a Department of the City of Bristol, is notifying customers that the citys reservoirs have declined to 70 percent capacity from the lack of rain and that the water department has issued voluntary water restrictions effective immediately.. "A lack of rain and unseasonably warm weather over the past few weeks has lowered our reservoirs along with the aquifers that our well fields draw water from to levels that require the Bristol Water Department to request conservation from our customers," said Robert J. Longo, superintendent of the Bristol Water Department in a press release from the city. Longo added, "Earlier this week, the Bristol Water Department reached out to our larger users including the Parks Department, Public Works, Fire Department, Board of Education, Pequabuck and Chippanee golf courses, ESPN, St Paul Catholic High School, and Lake Compounce asking for their cooperation in reducing usage at their ...
With the last significant rainfall in the Shoalhaven catchment occurring in June, the natural flows in the Shoalhaven River have dropped to below 90 megalitres per day and water restrictions may be necessary in the next month. The previous water restrictions were removed in December 2018 following significant rainfall and with regular falls since that time, there has been no need to impose restrictions. This is despite the drought conditions being experienced in other parts of NSW. Water restrictions are imposed in line with the Shoalhaven Drought Management Plan and are triggered by the first release of water from the backup storage at Danjera Dam. This first release occurs when Councils off-stream storage drops to 60% capacity, it currently sits at 87%.. The Acting Director of Shoalhaven Water Mr Robert Horner said, "the total combined Shoalhaven dam storage level is at 85% of capacity and the outlook for rain in the near future is not strong. We are therefore preparing for water restrictions ...
Adapting temperate fruit-tree cultivation to stressful environments is a considerable challenge for the breeder. This is especially true for water restriction (WR) which is likely to occur more frequently in the near future, not only in Mediterranean climates but also in several parts of the middle and high latitudes. Apple was chosen as an example of fruit tree distributed worldwide and also cultivated in semi-arid regions where irrigation is crucial for regular cropping. A range of apple genotypes sourced from a single-cross-population and trained as grafted one-year-old single shoots, grown in 4-L pots in controlled conditions were used. We investigated genotype variations in some morphological and leaf ecophysiological traits of shoots maintained in a severe WR in comparison to well-watered (WW) shoots. A Principal Component Analysis performed on all variables showed that the effects of WR on the two components of vegetative growth (i.e., stem and leaf) and on leaf ecophysiology strongly ...
WASHINGTON, July 18, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Census Bureaus OnTheMap Shows Potential Impact of Prince Georges County Water Restrictions.
Did a water change on my clown loach tank just now. Came back 45 minutes later to feed them and 2 of my 8 loaches are stone dead. No signs of distress whatsoever from the survivors, nor from the dozens of danios and the pleco in that tank. Water parameters check out just fine, 0/0/15. Im pretty crushed. What did I do? Did I forget to add prime (I have since added a double dose just in case)? I cant say with complete confidence that I remembered. You would think other fish would be
|strong|Author:|a title=Dr Abdul Raziq href=http://www.articlesbase.com/authors/dr-abdul-raziq/825282|Dr Abdul Raziq|/a||/strong||br /||p|Camel has adapted mechanisms that allow it to withstand prolonged water deprivation, high temperature, especially in the absence of readily available water, and survive when feed resources are scarce or of poor quality. Heat tolerance is in part due to its\ ability to minimize water loss. The camel…
Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, following water. With the large assortment of teas available today, it is often difficult to decide which type of tea is right for you. Black, Green, White, Oolong, Red, and Herbal teas have been appraised for their health and medicinal benefits. Furthermore, black, green, oolong,…
U.S. Drought Monitor reclassified cities as first metropolitan Texas area out of drought; Water restrictions expected to be eased
Background:. Plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) measurement is recommended for the differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus and polydipsia. However, AVP measurement is cumbersome. AVP is derived from a larger precursor peptide along with copeptin, which is a more stable peptide directly mirroring the production of AVP. Copeptin can be assayed readily in plasma.. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of copeptin levels in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus.. Design: Prospective, observational multicenter study.. Setting: Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Basel. Patients: Patients with suspected or known central (complete or partial), nephrogenic (complete or partial) or psychogenic diabetes insipidus undergoing a standardized water deprivation test.. Intervention: All patients with suspected or known diabetes insipidus will undergo an overnight water deprivation test and a standardized water deprivation test, as routinely performed in the ...
Two brothers, patient 1 with fever and vomiting, and patient 2 with failure to gain weight were studied. After 4 hr of water deprivation test, the urinary osmolality of the patient 1 was only 105 mOsm/liter and his body weight showed a 4.6% reduction. In response to desamino-8-D arginine vasopressin intranasal administration, no significant elevation of urinary osmolality of patient 1 occurred. After low dose vasopressin tests, the maximal urinary osmolality of their father was in the normal range, but that of their mother was below the normal range. Moreover, the patients showed no significant increase of urinary osmolality after the same tests. The brothers were diagnosed as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and their mother was diagnosed as a carrier. An early diagnosis of NDI is important, since adequate managements such as low-solute diet with restricted protein and salt intake or such as water intake at frequent intervals can prevent the hyperosmolality which would develop the delayed mental
A water deprivation test involves not drinking any liquid for several hours to see how your body responds. If you have diabetes insipidus, youll continue to pass large amounts of dilute urine, when normally youd only pass a small amount of concentrated urine.. During the test, the amount of urine you produce will be measured. You may also need a blood test to assess the levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in your blood.. Your blood and urine may also be tested for substances such as glucose (blood sugar), calcium and potassium. If you have diabetes insipidus, your urine will be very dilute, with low levels of other substances. A large amount of sugar in your urine may be a sign of type 1 or type 2 diabetes rather than diabetes insipidus.. ...
This study investigated the effects of excess cortisol on physiological mechanisms that resist dehydration in Bos indicus steers (n = 31, 2 yr of age, 193 ± 21.47 kg mean BW) during a 90-h period. Steers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: 1) no water/no cortisol (n = 8), 2) water/no cortisol (n = 8), 3) no water/cortisol (n = 8), and 4) water/cortisol (n = 7). Animals allocated to cortisol treatment groups were given 0.1 mg•kg BW-1•h-1 of hydrocortisone suspended in isotonic saline for the duration of the study. Total body water, osmolality, hematocrit, urine output, feed and water intake, and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (AII), electrolytes, total protein, and albumin were determined at 24-h intervals for 90 h. In the presence of excess plasma cortisol, total body water was maintained in the presence of a water deprivation insult for 90 h, whereas hydration indices, such as total plasma protein and albumin, did not change, supporting the ...
We investigated the physiological and behavioural strategies by which lactating Ethiopian Somali goats endure repeated periods of water deprivation. The experiment lasted for 32 days and was divided into four periods of 8 days each. Measurements were taken during the first 4 days in each period. Seven does (W1) were watered once daily and seven does (W4) were watered once every 4th day. Rectal temperature was taken at 0800 and 1715 h. Blood samples were taken in the evening and milk samples in the morning. The goats were on pasture between 0900 to 1215 h and 1315 to 1630 h with behaviour recorded every 5 min. The does were supplemented with 300 g of concentrates per head per day. Plasma and milk osmolality were determined by freezing point depression. Plasma total protein was measured on a TS refractometer. Plasma vasopressin concentrations were analysed by radio-immunoassay. The mean daily water intake of W1 was 1897 ml compared with the calculated mean of 1075 ml in W4 (P , 0.001). The mean ...
Question - Chest pain on taking fluids, dehydration on not drinking. How can I get overcome this?. Ask a Doctor about Vagus nerve, Ask a General & Family Physician
In plants, many cuticle-associated mutants have been reported (Kosma and Jenks, 2007), but none of these exhibited reduced transpiration rates, improved WUE, and elevated tolerance to drought-like conditions. The cer9 mutant reported here shows delayed leaf wilting when exposed to increasing water deprivation, which was associated with reduced whole plant transpiration rates regardless of whether stomata were open (in the light) or closed (in the dark). Moreover, the cer9 mutant had higher WUE (less-negative δ13C), while no other cuticle mutants we examined here (even those with known cuticle permeability defects) showed any change in WUE. Besides a dramatic elevation in the VLCFA pool of the cuticular waxes of the cer9 mutant, cer9 also possessed major changes in the cutin monomer composition and a highly modified cuticle membrane ultrastructure. The total cutin monomer amount on the stem of cer9 was 1.6-fold greater than on the wild type, and the stem cuticle membrane thickness was comparably ...
In the camel, it has also been demonstrated that the daily Ta cycle is able to entrain the master circadian clock, thus highlighting that Ta is a true zeitgeber (El Allali et al. 2013). The protocol validated in this study will also permit to test in these specific conditions, if the zeitgeber effect of Ta cycle with higher amplitude is able, as suggested by (El Allali et al. 2013), to counteract the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle, a fundamental question in mammalian circadian biology. It will also lead to determine more precisely the functioning of the master clock and the circadian network in dehydrated and heat‐stressed camels.. The use of data loggers over a long period of time has also facilitated understanding the interpretation of (Al‐Haidary 2005). In the present work, we observed that the increase in amplitude of Tb starts after 7 days under heat stress and water deprivation. In the work of (Al‐Haidary 2005), the analysis was only done after 4 days and the protocol used ...
The principal objective of this study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60g) were randomly divided into six groups namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic/Streptozotocin Control (STZ), Fructose-10 (FR10+STZ), Fructose-20 (FR20+STZ), Fructose-30 (FR30+STZ) and Fructose-40 (FR40+STZ) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg BW) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose ,300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ ...
The principal objective of this study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60g) were randomly divided into six groups namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic/Streptozotocin Control (STZ), Fructose-10 (FR10+STZ), Fructose-20 (FR20+STZ), Fructose-30 (FR30+STZ) and Fructose-40 (FR40+STZ) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg BW) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose ,300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ ...
Chemicals. The following chemicals were used: naphthalene (,99% purity; Fisher Scientific, Gibbstown, NJ); glycol methacrylate resin (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Fort Washington, PA); acetonitrile (EMD Chemicals, Gibbstown, NJ); triethylamine (Burdick and Jackson Division, Muskegon, MI); β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrate (β-NADP); l-glutathione, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO); paraformaldehyde (Fisher Scientific); formic acid (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany); and toluidine blue (Polysciences, Warrington, PA).. Animals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were purchased from Harlan (San Diego, CA). Animals were provided with food and water ad libitum and were housed in an Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care accredited facility in HEPA-filtered cages at the University of California, Davis, for at least 7 days before use in an experiment. Rats weighed 180 to 200 g at the time of necropsy.. Inhalation ...
Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments and were treated in accordance with the guidelines set by the National Institutes of Health for the humane treatment of animals. Attempts were made to minimize the number of animals used. Animals had access to food and water ad libitum; they were housed with their litter until weaning at postnatal day 21 (P21), after which they were grouped in plastic cages under diurnal lighting conditions with 12 hr on and 12 hr off. In all experiments, littermates were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control groups. Experimental and control animals remained together with the dam until weaning.. Sixteen rats were used for a pilot study of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (BrdU) dosage and 126 immature rats [experimental (exp.), n = 63; control (con.),n = 63] were used for the time course study of neurogenesis in immature rats. Twelve rats (exp., n = 6; con., n = 6) were used to determine the consequence of a single seizure on ...
Animals and surgery. Young adult female Sprague Dawley rats (B & K Universal, Stockholm, Sweden), weighing 200-250 gm at the beginning of the experiment, were housed under a 12 hr light/dark cycle with access to food and water ad libitum. Two stereotaxic injections of 6-OHDA were made under equithesin anesthesia into the right striatum using a 10 μl Hamilton microsyringe fitted with a 26 gauge steel cannula. A total amount of 6-OHDA (20 μg) dissolved in 4 μl of 0.2 mg/mll-ascorbate-saline (10 μg in 2 μl per site) was injected at the following coordinates (in mm, with reference to bregma and dura): (1) anterior-posterior, 0.5; lateral, −2.5; and ventral, −5.0 [tooth bar (TB), 0] and (2) anterior-posterior, −0.5; lateral, −4.2; and ventral, −5.0 (TB, 0). The injection rate was 1 μl/min, and the cannula was left in place for additional 2 min before slowly retracting it.. During the same surgery session, animals received implants of 22 gauge guide cannulae (Plastics One, Roanoke, VA) ...
Millet is an indispensable food for millions of people inhabiting the semi-arid tropics. It is used primarily for human food and remains a major source of calories and a ..
What are we going to do once all the water is gone? Thanks to the worst drought in more than 1,000 years, the western third of the country is facing the greatest water crisis that the United States has ever seen. Lake Mead is now the lowest that it has ever been since the Hoover Dam was finished in the 1930s, mandatory water restrictions have already been implemented in the state of California, and there are already widespread reports of people stealing water in some of the worst hit areas. But this is just the beginning. Right now, in a desperate attempt to maintain somewhat "normal" levels of activity, water is being pumped out of the ground in the western half of the nation at an absolutely staggering pace. Once that irreplaceable groundwater is gone, that is when the real crisis will begin. If this multi-year drought stretches on and becomes the "megadrought" that a lot of scientists are now warning about, life as we know it in much of the country is going to be fundamentally transformed and ...
Xanthea Limberg, mayoral committee member for informal settlements, water and waste services & energy speaks on water restriction rules 
As Massachusetts endures its worst drought in more than a decade, many of the states cities and towns have issued outdoor water restrictions or bans to conserve water.