Landström, U. , Knutsson, A. & Lennernäs, M. (2000). Field studies on the effects of food content on wakefulness. Nutrition and Health, vol. 14: 4, ss. 195-204.. Landström, U. , Knutsson, A. , Lennernäs, M. & Söderberg, L. (2000). Laboratory studies of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on wakefulness. Nutrition and Health, vol. 13: 4, ss. 213-225.. Bögglid, H. & Knutsson, A. (2000). Meta-analyse epidemiologischer literatur über schicharbeit und herzerkrankungen.. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft., vol. 54: 3/4, ss. 330-334.. Knutsson, A. (2000). The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, vol. 26: 5, ss. 455-455.. Peter, R. , Alfredsson, L. , Knutsson, A. , Siegrist, J. & Westerholm, P. (1999). Does a stressful psychosocial work environment mediate the effects of shift work on cardiovascular risk factors. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, vol. 25: 4, ss. 376-381.. Nilsson, E. , Pitkänen, P. & Knutsson, A. ...
Scientists already know the chemical histamine sends signals to the brain to make it awake. The new research suggests that the chemical GABA acts against histamine, like a chemical brake preventing wakefulness being too intense.. Researchers from the Imperial College London altered the levels of the GABA produced by the mices brains and measured what changes this had on their brain activity over the day and night.. They found that compared with normal mice, those without GABA ran twice as far and twice as fast, and maintained or even increased their overall activity over a 30 minute period.. The affected mice also stayed awake much longer in the day, and when they did sleep, the mice experienced just 65 per cent of normal sleep.. Wakefulness stimulated by histamine may be too much of a good thing, and so the brain has a built in brake on histamines wake-inducing actions, said Stephen Brickley, who participated in the study.. This discovery could help researchers to develop new drugs that ...
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The study of sleep and wakefulness is essential in understanding several symptoms or conditions of disorders associated to behavioural neuroscience.
If youve ever lost your keys or stuck the milk in the cupboard and the cereal in the refrigerator, you may have been the victim of a tired brain region that was taking a quick nap.
Vanda Pharmaceuticals announced that tasimelteon was shown in the Phase 3 RESET study to reset the body clock and to align it to a constant 24-hour day in patients suffering from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24-Hour Disorder).
Napping can help restore a sense of wakefulness during your work day, but is it right for you? Find out whether or not napping is the right tool to help you feel rested.
We have had Calvin for one month now. He hasnt learned too much yet besides how to efficiently eat, excrete, and make everyone melt because of his cuteness. He seems to be very close to smiling at people, but right now the only time he smiles is right after he eats, when he is tipsy with milk. He has had many visitors in the past month and is now lonely with just Tyler and me. We try to keep him busy with tummy time, swing time, wake time, etc. We hope you enjoy these pictures of highlights in the past month ...
Whenever you see 11:11 it is really a positive thing, said Solara , a visionary author and lecturer who appeared on Tuesday nights show. She believes that seeing this number combination is a pre-encoded trigger that is meant to activate you when you reach a certain level of awakening. Its like a huge wake-up call, she said. That must have been good news to George Noory and the numerous listeners who have been seeing 11:11 with unusual frequency lately.
So, I have searched the forum and I do not know of any FAQ sources, so I have no idea where anything aboit this may have been already written. That is why I pos
Modern society enables a shortening of sleep times, yet long-term consequences of extended wakefulness on the brain are largely unknown. Essential for optimal alertness, locus ceruleus neurons (LCns) are metabolically active neurons that fire at increased rates across sustained wakefulness. We hypothesized that wakefulness is a metabolic stressor to LCns and that, with extended wakefulness, adaptive mitochondrial metabolic responses fail and injury ensues. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin type 3 (SirT3) coordinates mitochondrial energy production and redox homeostasis. We find that brief wakefulness upregulates SirT3 and antioxidants in LCns, protecting metabolic homeostasis. Strikingly, mice lacking SirT3 lose the adaptive antioxidant response and incur oxidative injury in LCns across brief wakefulness. When wakefulness is extended for longer durations in wild-type mice, SirT3 protein declines in LCns, while oxidative stress and acetylation of mitochondrial ...
Orexins (also known as hypocretins), which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), orexin 1 (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R). In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA) and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA), and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m), and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sleep/wake state on arterial blood pressure in genetically identical mice. AU - Schaub, C. D.. AU - Tankersley, C.. AU - Schwartz, A. R.. AU - Smith, P. L.. AU - Robotham, J. L.. AU - ODonnell, C. P.. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - Genetic determinants may contribute to the large variability in arterial blood pressure responses to changes in sleep/wake state in humans. In this study, we developed techniques to examine the relationship between sleep/wake state and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in unrestrained, genetically identical mice (C57BL/6J; n = 9). The left common carotid artery was catheterized, and arterial blood gases were analyzed 24-48 h postsurgery to verify normal respiratory and metabolic function. The animals were then allowed to cycle naturally through sleep/wake states over a 3- to 4-h period while continuous polysomnography and arterial pressure measurements were made. The MAP decreased from quiet wakefulness to non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (9.8 ± 1.3 ...
Irregular breathing with sudden changes in both amplitude and frequency at times interrupted by central apneas lasting 10-30 seconds are noted in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. (These are physiologic changes and are different from abnormal breathing patterns noted in sleep disordered breathing). These breathing irregularities are not random, but correspond to bursts of eye movements. This breathing pattern is not controlled by the chemoreceptors, but is due to the activation of behavioral respiratory control system by REM sleep processes. Quantitative measure of airflow is quite variable in this sleep stage and has been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged. Tidal volume has also been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged by quantitative measures in REM sleep. So breathing during REM sleep is somewhat discordant. In a study of 19 healthy adults, the minute ventilation in REM sleep was 6.46 +/- 0.29(SEM) liters/minute compared to 7.66 +/- 0.34 liters/minute when awake.[1] ...
Our experiments aimed to investigate whether different degrees of mental activity have a distinct effect on recovery processes during subsequent sleep. Sleep EEGs of 13 subjects, experiencing different degrees of mental activity, were scored visually. Also, the amount of SWA in the sleep EEG was calculated. The results indicate that light and heavy mental activity do not differentially affect sleep stages except for wakefulness after sleep onset. Subjects were less often awake shortly after sleep onset following heavy workload than after light mental activity. However, SWA, an indicator of sleep depth, did not reveal any difference between the light (A) and heavy condition (B). Neither the total amount of SWA expressed during the night, nor the amount of SWA in the first 120 min of NREM sleep, when recovery processes supposedly peak, showed a difference between the conditions. Even when the time course of SWA during sleep was studied in detail, the nights following light and heavy mental ...
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sle
Sleep-wake patterns observed by a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. White bar: light cycle, Black bar: dark cycle, Gray bar: dark cycle during disruption ph
Video created by Universidad de Míchigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. Unit 2 continues the lecture from Helen Baghdoyan, Ph.D. on the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness. PLEASE NOTE: This content is only ...
Video created by University of Michigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. This unit begins with a Course Overview video from Ralph Lydic, Ph.D., followed by the first portion of the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness ...
Advances in single-cell technologies have revealed vast differences between cells once thought to be in the same category, calling into question how we define cell type in the first place ...
In chapter 3, "The Sense of Sensibility," author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
An investigation of the effects of an acute 180 degree reversal of the sleep/wake cycle on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion was studied in three pubertal boys and the data collected was combined with that from the study of a fourth boy. Two 24 hour periods of blood sampling every 20 minutes were carried out in each of the boys, aged 14 to 15 years. The first study was conducted during a normal s
Rats exposed to novel objects during periods of wakefulness generate neural activity that is correlated with patterns observed in subsequent sleep episodes.
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The Mathematical Structure of the Human Sleep-Wake Cycle by Steven Strogatz, 9780387171760, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
The sleep-wake cycle encompasses approximately 8 hours of sleep and 16 hours of wakefulness. It is important to understand that ideally the sleep period would be at night while the waking hours would be during the day. The darkness and sunlight are conducive to aiding with each state but this is not always practical, like in shift workers who may need to be awake at night and sleep during the day.. It is important to understand the factors that influence the sleep-wake cycle as it provides key ways to stay awake.. ...
AKA: (RS)-2- benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid. This powerful supplement is perfect for staying alert during sleep deprivation. Adrafinil is a prodrug to modafinil. Modafinil is a drug prescribed to people who work swing shifts as well as people suffering from narcolepsy. [1] Adrafinil and Modafinil have nearly identical pharmacological effects. [1] Mental clarity and general wakefulness can become apparent within 45-60 minutes of consumption. [1] The half-life of Modafinil is 15 hours. [2] Effects tend to become more pronounced after taking Adrafinil for several days due to its long half-life.. Adrafinil can cause wakefulness and alertness without the jitters. [2] Adrafinil works by increasing overall brain activity. [2] The overall increase in brain activity is likely the result of Adrafinil augmenting Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, suppressing GABA (an anxiolytic neurotransmitter), and increasing dopamine and glutamate (stimulatory neurotransmitters). [3]. Adrafinil can have cognitive ...
Studies show that light promotes wakefulness and that computer screens and small electronic devices can miscue the brain and promote wakefulness. Photoreceptors in the retina signal our brain about...
Participation in this study will require outpatient screening in addition to a 3 day/2 night stay at the clinical research unit. Participants will be randomized to either take placebo or a sleep aid at bedtime on both nights. A lumbar catheter (similar to a spinal tap or an epidural given at childbirth) will be in place for 36 hours and CSF will be drawn from the catheter every 2 hours. Wires will be applied to the scalp and face to monitor sleep/wake cycles.. ...
Experiments were conducted with 20 subjects on 9 evenings to study the effects of caffeine (150 mg and 300 mg) as compared with placebo upon objective tests of alertness and psychomotor coordination. Simultaneously, mood was assessed by means of a self-rating inventory. The same 20 subjects had also participated in an earlier study on the effects of caffeine upon sleep.. Caffeine had no demonstrable effect upon either objectively measured performance although at the same time it made the subjects feel more alert and physically active.. In some subjects caffeine caused a feeling of nervousness rather than of alertness.. There was a strong positive association between a subjects sensitivity to a mood-elevating effect of caffeine in this experiment and his sensitivity to the wakefulness caused by the drug in earlier experiments on sleep.. ...
University of Tsukuba-led researchers identified roles for SIK3 and NALCN proteins in controlling sleep/wakefulness in mice, through a large-scale genetic screen.
Your reasoning is correct. The two-processes model of sleep propensity does not explain why we best nap at mid-day. The two-processes model can be understood as the first iteration of the ultimate model of sleep and wakefulness. Borbely, Achermann and other researchers continue to enhance the model to better explain various phenomena without making the model overly complex. The "optimum nap time" is a concept that is best explained by mathematics. The optimum nap time is the time, somewhere in the middle of your waking day in free running sleep, that produces the maximum probability of falling asleep or the minimum average sleep latency. You can easily plot your optimum nap time with SleepChart. SleepChart collects your sleep block statistics and can accurately point to the time of day where your naps might be most beneficial. The only conditions you need to meet are: (1) you need to free run your sleep (SleepChart uses a technique of predicting your homeostatic and circadian sleepiness that ...
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In a study of worms, MIT neuroscientists have discovered a gene that plays a critical role in controlling the switch between alternative behavioral states, which for humans include hunger and fullness, or sleep and wakefulness.. This gene, which the researchers dubbed vps-50, helps to regulate neuropeptides - tiny proteins that carry messages between neurons or from neurons to other cells. This kind of signaling is important for controlling physiology and behavior in animals, including humans. Deletions of the human counterpart of the vps-50 gene have been found in some people with autism.. "Given what is reported in this paper about how the gene works, coupled with findings by others concerning the genetics of autism, we suggest that the disruption of the function of this gene could promote autism," says H. Robert Horvitz, the David H. Koch Professor of Biology and a member of MITs McGovern Institute for Brain Research.. Horvitz and Martha Constantine-Paton, an MIT professor of brain and ...
Samples meeting the 1994 Fukuda criteria were used; will findings hold true for patients meeting Canadian or International ME/CFS criteria?
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Doctors prescribe modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil, to improve wakefulness in adults who are experiencing excessive sleepiness.
Every parent knows first hand the importance of a good nights sleep for a childs behavior and wellbeing. While most kids experience the occasional night of tossing and turning, some are affected by disorders that routinely disturb their sleep and correspondinglytheir ability to function during the day. Sleep-wake disorders is an umbrella name for upwards of a dozen specific conditions that impair the quality or quantity of sleep a child gets enough to undermine her overall health and functioning. ...
1 January 2383. …a spark…. …a single glimpse of something…. …realization, a reality lost in swirling darkness recognized for what it was for the first time only because, in that single moment, the spark had illuminated the shadow eternity in which he lay, suspended in time…. …consciousness, slowly forming like an undulating tide moving unseen beneath a dark sea, breaching on shores of light which flooded the walls of his reality. Sensation striking him for the first time, though he knew not what it was; only that it was excruciating. Every fiber of his being suddenly ripped from out of darkness and thrust into the light. It was pain. Total, complete agony. It was wakefulness…. …it was a birth…. "Initiating independent respiratory response.". …sound, another sensation. Audible tones without meaning, soon replaced by a different sound; that of air being sucked in. Muscles tensing beneath the layers of flesh and exo-armor, the boy felt his jaw pop open as the lungs within him ...
Just curious how many naps they take? My lo has taken 3 for the last 3 months or so and is now fighting his last one lately and so Im just curious if anyones baby is on 2 yet? Or do you get them to cat nap in the evening by holding them or what...also what are their wake times? Thx! My lo just turned 5 months and my first ds (dear son) took 3 naps for 7 months so diff babies are confusing me
Adrafinil is a common nootropic used to increase your level of alertness and wakefulness. Its also the precursor to the pharmaceutical, Modafinil.
... is critical for learning, wakefulness, sleep, mood, hormonal regulation and maintenance of the circadian clock.
Though managing to keep himself from falling again into sleep, Einar spent a good while drifting in a hazy state somewhere between dream and wakefulness, brush bars before him, stars overhead and rock at his back, everything taking on strange and terrifying new meaning so that the task of keeping reality separated from dream-image soon became impossible, and all he wanted was to be out of the cramped confines of that little rock alcove. Wanted it awfully bad, and he struggled, fighting the screen of boughs before him and then when they seemed unwilling to yield turning his attention to the rock itself, bashing with knees, elbows, clawing with his fingers until they were raw and bloody but making no progress. He tried to climb then, wedging himself between the walls and seeking with counter-pressure of hands, feet, knees against opposing surfaces of rock to make some upward progress and at first he thought he might be getting somewhere but then he hit an impasse-of course, doggone cage has a ...
Echo of Time: Awakening By: WarG-X Hello and welcome to Echo of Time: Awakening. This is a sequel to my previous RP and so the original cast was given the option to retain their slots, which most did. I did open up a couple more slots for those who are interested in playing, I assure we left off in a very good place to pick up for those newcomers that do decide this is something they are interested in. Please let me know if you have any questions as my goal is to make this a great and fun
The Awakening literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Awakening.
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How will he know to one day wake himself from these lows to treat himself?? The think that gets me about last nights situation, is that as usual, I slightly woke him and got him to drink milk, and with his slight lows and back to bed he goes, but this time, I wanted to wake him enough to see how conscious he was.. and with a bright smile (yes this is rare when I wake him from a dream.. ) when I asked him how he felt, he said " great momma, I love you.. good nite" I asked him did he feel low, he said no, he felt fine... hummm... so low and did not feel it.... yikes ...
Big thanks to Soul-Farstrider, our latest supporter!. Were 14 people from our target today. Why dont you be one of them?. You can support NG too and get tons of perks for just $2.99.. ...
In collaboration with Dr. Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, we tested the role of nitric oxide (NO) in sleep homeostasis by using in vivo microdialysis to administer compounds into the rat basal forebrain that increase or decrease concentrations of NO. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that nitric oxide production is required for the production of NREM recovery sleep following sleep deprivation. However, using specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases, we found that iNOS rather than nNOS produced the nitric oxide involved in homeostatic sleep regulation. The generation of NREM recovery sleep was tightly associated with increases in adenosine levels in the BF: when adenosine concentration was not elevated, recovery sleep was not induced while all cases of recovery sleep induction were preceded by adenosine increases. These results suggest that the elevation of NO in the BF during prolonged wakefulness is a specific mechanism for producing NREM recovery sleep. We are now interested in the ...