During the development of the egg-laying system in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites, central gonadal cells organize the alignment of the vulva with the sex myoblasts, the progenitors of the egg-laying muscles. A fibroblast growth factor [EGL-17(FGF)] and an FGF receptor [EGL-15(FGFR)] are involved in the gonadal signals that guide the migrations of the sex myoblasts. Here we show that EGL-17(FGF) can act as an instructive guidance cue to direct the sex myoblasts to their final destinations. We find that egl-17 reporter constructs are expressed in the primary vulval cell and that EGL-17(FGF) expression in this cell correlates with the precise positioning of the sex myoblasts. We postulate that EGL-17(FGF) helps to coordinate the development of a functional egg-laying system, linking vulval induction with proper sex myoblast migration.. ...
An EGF gradient induces the equipotent C. elegans vulval precursor cells (VPCs) to assume the 3˚-3˚-2˚-1˚-2˚-3˚ pattern of cell fates. EGF triggers the LET-60/Ras-LIN-45/Raf-MEK-2/MEK-MPK-1/ERK canonical MAP kinase cascade to induce 1˚ fate and synthesize of DSL ligands for the lateral Notch signal. In turn, LIN-12/Notch induces neighboring cells to become 2˚. In response to lower dose of EGF signal, LET-60/Ras switches effectors to use the RGL-1/RalGEF-RAL-1/Ral modulatory signaling cascade to promote 2˚ fate in support of LIN-12. The goals of this research are to define principles by which signaling networks function and to identify an effector cascade downstream of RAL-1. RAL-1 signals through EXOC-8/Exo84, an established Ral binding partner, GCK-2, a CNH domain-containing MAP4 Kinase, and PMK-1/p38 MAP kinase to promote 2˚ fate. We also show that RGL-1 plays opposing and genetically separable roles in VPC fate patterning. RGL-1 promotes 2˚ fate via canonical GEF-dependent ...
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
Rimann, I. Screens for Components of the lin-12 Notch Pathway during Vulval Development and Regulation of Anchor Cell Invasion and Uterine Cell Fates by the egl-43 Evi1 Proto-Oncogene in C. elegans. 2008, University of Zurich, Faculty of Science. ...
The spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression during development occurs at the level of both gene transcription and gene translation. Now, Walser and colleagues reveal that three members of the PUF family of translational repressors that regulate certain aspects of germline development in C. elegans also negatively regulate vulval development in this organism (see p. 3461). PUF proteins - socalled because the first to be identified were the Drosophila Pumilio and the C. elegans FBF proteins - bind to their target mRNAs through PUF repeat motifs. Using detailed genetic analyses, the researchers show that fbf-1 and fbf-2 act redundantly to inhibit the specification of the primary vulval cell fate, which is induced by MAPK signalling. puf-8, they report, plays a distinct role in vulval development by temporally restricting the response of vulval precursor cells to this and other patterning signals. Because PUF proteins are highly conserved, the researchers suggest that these translational ...
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) acts in a conserved pathway that is deregulated in most human cancers. Inactivation of the single Rb-related gene in Caenorhabditis elegans, lin-35, has only limited effects on viability and fertility, yet causes changes in cell-fate and cell-cycle regulation when combined with inactivation of specific other genes. For instance, lin-35 Rb is a synthetic multivulva (synMuv) class B gene, which causes a multivulva phenotype when inactivated simultaneously with a class A or C synMuv gene. We used the ORFeome RNAi library to identify genes that interact with C. elegans lin-35 Rb and identified 57 genes that showed synthetic or enhanced RNAi phenotypes in lin-35 mutants as compared to rrf-3 and eri-1 RNAi hypersensitive mutants. Based on characterizations of a deletion allele, the synthetic lin-35 interactor zfp-2 was found to suppress RNAi and to cooperate with lin-35 Rb in somatic gonad development. Interestingly, ten splicing-related genes were found to function
Involved in several cell fate decisions that require cell-cell interactions. It is possible that lin-12 encodes a membrane-bound receptor for a signal that enables expression of the ventral uterine precursor cell fate. Activity in cell fate decisions and tumorigenesis is negatively regulated by sel-10.
We have developed a Petri net model of C. elegans vulval development process. The model is available in the following formats: ...
In a biblical worldview it is recognized that God created creatures according to their kinds and blessed them to reproduce and fill the earth (Genesis 1:20-22; 8:15-19). The adaptation which occurs in so doing is expected to point to the Provider who cares for his creation (Psalm 147:7). Thus, genetic changes in populations, especially of animals like vertebrates, should not be expected to arise by the naturalistic methods of chance mutations and natural selection. In fact, several other probable mechanisms for such changes have been reviewed in the creation literature.19 This suggests to me that the term drift is probably not accurate; instead we are observing developmental system shift.. When I first started reading on DSD, I did wonder if it was somehow related to adaptation. I reasoned that it could modify the genetic background and allow adaptive mutations to arise that might not be adaptive on a different genetic background. Thus, I was encouraged when I found two research papers where ...
... , also known as labiaplasty or labioplasty, involves reducing the size of the labia minora for less bulk of the inner lips of the vagina
Course format: Lecture: 9:05A-9:55A, MWF, JH A100. In addition to lecture, students must attend a one hour discussion each week (times to be arranged). Course description: Principles underlying the heritability of traits will be covered prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (i.e. bacteria, plants, and animals). The dynamics of genes in individuals and populations, as well as environmental influences upon these, will be addressed. Further understanding of these issues will be drawn from the study of model developmental systems, their contributions to human disease, genetic diseases in humans and genome projects. Required text: TBA. Weekly assignments: TBA. Exams/papers: Three exams plus a comprehensive final ...
Ninety-five mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans altered in the cell lineages of the vulva have been isolated on the basis of their displaying one of two phenotypes, Vulvaless or Multivulva. In Vulvaless mutants, which define 12 genes, no vulva is present. In Multivulva mutants, which define ten genes, one or more supernumerary vulva-like protrusions are located along the ventral side of the animal. A single recessive mutation is responsible for the phenotypes of most, but not all, of these strains. Fifteen of these 22 genes are represented by multiple alleles. We have shown by a variety of genetic criteria that mutations that result in a Vulvaless or Multivulva phenotype in six of the 22 genes most likely eliminate gene function. In addition, Vulvaless or Multivulva mutations in seven of the other genes most likely result in a partial reduction of gene function; the absence of the activity of any of these genes probably results in lethality or sterility. Our results suggest that we ...
Question - Had intercourse, swollen and itchy labia minora, feeling discomfort. Whats wrong?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Bacterial vaginosis, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Question - Painful small hard lump in left labia minora, on periods, shaved today. What could be this? . Ask a Doctor about Bartholin gland, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Labiaplasty is a cosmetic procedure for natal women to reduce redundant floppy labia minora and at times a drooping clitoral hood, and in transgender patients to produce or refine labia already created.. Most American women seem to prefer labia minora that are not excessively large because of protuberance and chaffing problems. Labia minora normally have a mucosal pink inner side and an outer pigmented or epidermal side. They are generally confluent with the sides of the clitoral hood. When approaching a natal female it is important to identify exactly their goals. Equally important is to pre-mark before injection of local anesthesia as anesthetic injections always swell and distort tissue. So called arc plasties done at the area of greater width may leave a scar in the mid section where the radii of the incision are made and approximated. I prefer a smooth trim along the border from end to end with modification as needed. For transgendered in the Orient, labia are made from penile skin and to ...
Ostwal, Y.: Regulation of binding of HP1 associated complexes to chromatin and their role in transcription regulation in C. elegans vulva development. Dissertation, xii, 170 pp., Georg August Universität, Göttingen (2015 ...
Ostwal, Y.: Regulation of binding of HP1 associated complexes to chromatin and their role in transcription regulation in C. elegans vulva development. Dissertation, xii, 170 pp., Georg August Universität, Göttingen (2015 ...
Either member of two pairs of fleshy folds that form part of the vulva. The outer and larger pair, the labia majora, are covered by pubic hair and contain adipose tissue; the smaller labia minora lack adipose tissue and pubic hair. Both pairs of labia contain sebaceous glands. ...
Labiaplasty, also referred to as Labioplasty, labial reduction, and labia minora is a surgical procedure that alters the inner and outer labia.
Pain to the manhood during perineo-vulval stimulation can be avoided by removing the womans pubic hair.. The woman participates in the practice of kunyaza by cooperating with her partner during the choosing of the forms of kunyaza and the intensity of the rhythm to be used and by showing him the zones of her genital area that best respond to the sexual stimulation.. Should the man tire before the end of the sexual encounter, she can take his manhood in her hand and continue the process until he is rested.. If he has difficulties stimulating the vestibule, she can help him by spreading apart the labia minora with her fingers until the whole vestibular area is accessible to the manhood.. To allow him to comfortably stimulate the area between the labium minus and the labium majus, she can also spread them apart with the fingers until the area between them is laid out.. The opened labia are released when it comes to internal stimulation.. In which positions is kunyaza practised? Kunyaza is ...
Dear browniegal27,. I share your worries about this trend in some circles where women feel they should mutilate themselves so they can have a vulva of a child again. But the fact that labiaplasty surgery exists is not a bad thing in itself and I dont think something should be done against it. Its an option and thats all it is. I just feel that women-and some men-should be enlightened about the sexiness of large labia. Not just to spare women from the possible side effects of labia surgery and the loss of something pleasurable, but-being a man-I see things from the males perspective as well and its nothing good. If all women were to surgically reduce their vulvas to kiddy-style pussies, then the biggest losers would be us men. Any guy who enjoys eating pussy would be very disappointed to say the least. Imagine, instead of feeling the soft touch of full meaty labia against his mouth, he would be licking the hardened edges of insensitive scar tissue. Recently I was reading a discussion where a ...
Skivepitelcancer. Ca 5% r malignt melanom. Ovanlig, ldersrelaterad (topp vid 80 r). HPV 16, 18, 32 predisponerar liksom vervikt, diabetes, r kning och immunosuppressiv behandling (yngre kvinnor). Ger s r p labia minora, kl da, sveda, flytningar och bl dningar. Stansbiopsi visar VIN. Vulvektomi med lglutrymning, ev postop str lning (brachyterapi). Cytostatika. ...
Dr. Jeffrey Palmer of Long Island and Cleveland, Ohio specializes in circumcision, labia minora reduction and cosmetic and reconstructive genital surgery of men and women.
BE 150: Quantitative studies of cellular and developmental systems in biology, including the architecture of specific genetic circuits controlling microbial behaviors and multicellular development in model organisms. Specific topics include chemotaxis, multistability and differentiation, biological oscillations, stochastic effects in circuit operation, as well as higher-level circuit properties such as robustness. Organization of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks at the genomic scale. Topics are approached from experimental, theoretical and computational perspectives. Bi 250b: The class will focus on quantitative studies of cellular and developmental systems in biology. It will examine the architecture of specific genetic circuits controlling microbial behaviors and multicellular development in model organisms. The course will approach most topics from both experimental and theoretical/computational perspectives. Specific topics include chemotaxis, multistability and ...
I get bumps on my labia randomly every few months. They look like big pimples, the kind that you can feel even as a bump under the skin. They are normal skin color, no discharge or crust or anything. But they hurt like the dickens when I touch them...any ideas ...
Diagnosis of labia asymmetry (costs for program #220007) ✔ Luisenhospital ✔ Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
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Video created by Utrecht University for the course Understanding child development: from synapse to society. In the first week of this course, we explained the developmental systems approach and introduced you to Dynamics of Youth as an example ...
VPC 32183(S) is a competitive antagonist at the LPA1 and LPA3 receptors. VPC 32183 is devoid of agonist activity at the human LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3 receptors, and
Are you uncomfortable or maybe you do not like the look of your labia? This intimate surgery sculpts and reduces the size of your labia.
ފަރުޖުގެ ތުންފަތް ނުވަތަ (އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Labium) މިއީ އަންހެނާގެ ކުރިމަތި ފަރާތުގައި ޖިންސީ ގުނަވަން އަދި ފަރުޖު ހިމެނޭ ހިސާބުގައިވާ ދެތުންފަތެވެ. ބޭރު ބޮޑު ތުންފަތް ވާއިރު އެއަށްވުރެ އެތެރެއިން ވަނީ ކުޑަ ތުންފަތެވެ. ބޮޑު ތުންފަތް އެކުލެވިގެންވަނީ ހަން އަދި ފެޓް އެކުލެވޭ ޓިޝޫ އިންނެވެ. ބާލިޣުވުމަށްފަހު ބޮޑު ތުންފަތުގެ ހަންގަނޑުގައި އާންމުކޮށް އިސްތަށި ފަޅައެވެ. އަންހެނަކު ކޮޅަށް ހުންނައިރު ފަރުޖުގެ ބޮޑު ބައެއް ބޮޑު ތުންފަތުން ނިވާކޮށްދެއެވެ. ޢާންމު ގޮތެއްގައި ބޮޑު ތުންފަތުގެ ހަމުގެ ކުލަ އާދައިގެ ހަމުކުލަ އާއި އެއްގޮތެވެ. ނަމަވެސް ...
The labiaplasty is a cosmetic urology procedure that improves the structure of the labia. The labia make up the outer portion of the vagina. The labia consists of the labia majora, or the outer lips of the vagina, and the labia minora, which are the inner and smaller lips of the vagina.. In most cases, the labiaplasty will improve the labia minora by reducing the size of these smaller lips. When the labia minora are longer or larger than the labia majora, the female patient may feel discomfort during intercourse. In some cases, this situation occurs because the woman was born with labia minora that were too large.. In other cases, the labia minora increases in size, as a result, of pregnancy. Labia minora that are too long will also make routine activities such as walking, exercising or riding a bike quite uncomfortable.. In rare cases, liposuction or alterations need to be performed on the labia majora as well. The cosmetic urologist will make personalized recommendations for each individual ...
The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva. In humans, there are two pairs of labia: the labia majora (or the outer labia) are larger and fattier, while the labia minora are folds of skin between the outer labia. The labia surround and protect the clitoris and the openings of the vagina and the urethra. Labium (plural labia) is a Latin-derived term meaning "lip". Labium and its derivatives (including labial, labrum) are used to describe any lip-like structure, but in the English language, labium often specifically refers to parts of the vulva. The labia majora, also commonly called outer labia or outer lips, are lip-like structures consisting mostly of skin and adipose (fatty) tissue, which extend on either side of the vulva to form the pudendal cleft through the middle. The labia majora often have a plump appearance, and are thicker towards the anterior. The anterior junction of the labia majora is called the anterior commissure, ...
prolonged fatigue that interferes with daily life.. The vulva is a womans external genital area. It includes two hair covered folds of skin called the labia majora, which surround two inner folds called the labia minora**. The labia majora and labia minora over lap and protect the opening of the vagina and the urethra (the tube through which urine is passed) and the clitoris. As a natural consequence of menopause the fullness of the labia minora thin and become more fragile; a condition noted as vulvar atrophy.. ...
View Notes - Week 2 - Phy Sex Appendix B from PHY 230 at University of Phoenix. the hood. Fluid comes out of the glands of Bartholin. The labia minora and uterus gets even bigger. An orgasmic
Hi Everyone, I tried to get in to see a doctor, but it seems like all of the gynecologists around here are booked for about a month out. Anyway, this is the first time that this has ever happened to me, but I have a tender, hard lump on my labia minora. I read about Bartholins gland…
C elegans Lin-3 protein: amino acid sequence given in first source; lin-3 encodes an inductive signal for vulval development; from Caenorhabditis elegans
Enlargement of the labia minora (inner vaginal lips) is a true medical condition that affects many women. The medical term for this is called Labial hypertrophy. Many women that have enlarged labia minora that are much larger and protrude beyond the labia majora (the typically larger outer lips) may suffer from multiple symptoms because of…
A fundamental issue in developmental biology is how cells that are initially equivalent in developmental potential ultimately adopt different fates. Genetic studies have indicated that cells within a developmental equivalence group often adopt different fates in response to the combined action of multiple and sometimes competing signals (reviewed by Freeman and Gurdon 2002). For example, the initial step of R8 photoreceptor specification in ommatidial development in Drosophila melanogaster uses both positive and negative signals to properly select presumptive R8 photoreceptors from a field of developmentally equivalent cells in the eye imaginal disc (reviewed by Frankfort and Mardon 2002). An overlay of such signals can make a response in binary cell-fate decisions more precise or can increase the number of fates available to a particular cell.. Vulval development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans involves a set of ectodermal Pn.p cells that initially have similar developmental potentials ...
Sherwood began his developmental biology career as a graduate student with David McClay at Duke University, studying Notch signaling in sea urchin embryos (1-3). After switching to nematodes, he discovered that a specialized gonadal cell, called the anchor cell, crosses the basement membranes separating the uterus and vulva at a specific stage of larval development (4). The anchor cell sends out active processes that attach to the vulval cells while remaining connected to its neighboring gonadal cells, providing a genetically and visually tractable model for examining cell invasion in vivo. Its a model that Sherwood has used to uncover the importance of the transcription factor FOS-1 for basement membrane removal (5) and, having returned to Duke to start his own laboratory in 2005, the role of netrin signaling in orienting the anchor cell to invade in the right direction (6).. ...
Cell invasion is a tightly controlled process occurring during development and tumor progression. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a genetic model to study cell invasion during normal development. In the third larval stage, the anchor ce
Vulva ali zunanje žensko spolovilo je del ženskih spolnih organov. Zgrajen je iz velikih (labia majora) in malih sramnih ustnic (labia minora), nadsramja (mons pubis ali mons veneris), ščegetavčka (clitoris) in nožničnega preddvora (vestibulum vaginae).[1] ...
... , Asian Vagina Pics, Vulva Pictures, Clitoris Images for Closeup Examination as well as Labia Minora Photography for Educational Purpose.
... , Asian Vagina Pics, Vulva Pictures, Clitoris Images for Closeup Examination as well as Labia Minora Photography for Educational Purpose.
Labiaplasty (labioplasty) is a surgical procedure to reduce the size of the inner lips (labia minora) around the vagina. Women either see gynaecologists or plastic surgeons for this operation.I have b...
Fordyce spots are ectopic sebaceous glands, and are seen primarily on the labia minora and the shaft of the penis. They are large sebaceous glands seen through
This 36 year old woman complained that her labia minora were hanging down and were excessively large. She underwent labial reduction surgery and is seen nine months following the procedure.. ...
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