TY - JOUR. T1 - Adaptive laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli under acid stress. AU - Du, Bin. AU - Olson, Connor A.. AU - Sastry, Anand V. AU - Fang, Xin. AU - Phaneuf, Patrick V.. AU - Chen, Ke. AU - Wu, Muyao. AU - Szubin, Richard. AU - Xu, Sibei. AU - Gao, Ye. AU - Hefner, Ying. AU - Feist, Adam M. AU - Palsson, Bernhard O. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The ability of Escherichia coli to tolerate acid stress is important for its survival and colonization in the human digestive tract. Here, we performed adaptive laboratory evolution of the laboratory strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 at pH 5.5 in glucose minimal medium. After 800 generations, six independent populations under evolution had reached 18.0 % higher growth rates than their starting strain at pH 5.5, while maintaining comparable growth rates to the starting strain at pH 7. We characterized the evolved strains and found that: (1) whole genome sequencing of isolated clones from each evolved population revealed mutations in rpoC appearing ...
L-serine is a promising building block biochemical with a high theoretical production yield from glucose. Toxicity of L-serine is however prohibitive for high-titer production in E. coli. Here, E. coli lacking L-serine degradation pathways was evolved for improved tolerance by gradually increasing L-serine concentration from 3 to 100 g/L using adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). Genome sequencing of isolated clones revealed multiplication of genetic regions, as well as mutations in thrA, thereby showing a potential mechanism of serine inhibition. Other mutations were evaluated by MAGE combined with amplicon sequencing, revealing role of rho, lrp, pykF, eno, and rpoB on tolerance and fitness in minimal medium. Production using the tolerant strains resulted in 37 g/L of L-serine with a 24% mass yield. The resulting titer is similar to the highest production reported for any organism thereby highlighting the potential of ALE for industrial biotechnology ...
Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). ALE can be performed in the laboratory by (a) sequential serial passages in shake flasks, where nutrients will not be limit
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a well-established chassis in industrial biotechnology. To increase the substrate spectrum, we implemented three alternative xylose utilization pathways, namely the Isomerase, Weimberg, and Dahms pathways. The synthetic operons contain genes from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas taiwanensis. For isolating the Dahms pathway in P. putida KT2440 two genes (PP_2836 and PP_4283), encoding an endogenous enzyme of the Weimberg pathway and a regulator for glycolaldehyde degradation, were deleted. Before and after adaptive laboratory evolution, these strains were characterized in terms of growth and synthesis of mono-rhamnolipids and pyocyanin. The engineered strain using the Weimberg pathway reached the highest maximal growth rate of 0.30 h−1. After adaptive laboratory evolution the lag phase was reduced significantly. The highest titers of 720 mg L−1 mono-rhamnolipids and 30 mg L−1 pyocyanin were reached by the evolved strain using the Weimberg or an engineered strain using
Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) has emerged as a valuable method by which to investigate microbial adaptation to a desired environment. Here, we performed ALE to 42 °C of ten parallel populations of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 grown in glucose minimal media. Tightly controlled experimental conditions allowed selection based on exponential-phase growth rate, yielding strains that uniformly converged toward a similar phenotype along distinct genetic paths. Adapted strains possessed as few as 6 and as many as 55 mutations, and of the 144 genes that mutated in total, 14 arose independently across two or more strains. This mutational recurrence pointed to the key genetic targets underlying the evolved fitness increase. Genome engineering was used to introduce the novel ALE-acquired alleles in random combinations into the ancestral strain, and competition between these engineered strains reaffirmed the impact of the key mutations on the growth rate at 42 °C. Interestingly, most of the ...
The large surplus of crude glycerol, as main low-value waste stream in biodiesel production, has led to the investigation of new possibilities for the production of value-added chemicals from this feedstock. New and efficient (bio-) catalysts are needed that are able to convert glycerol to versatile chemical building blocks. This would contribute to further develop away from a mainly petroleum based, to a sustainable, bio-based industry. One promising group of discussed building block chemicals are dicarbonic acids. Here, we report the efficient synthesis of malate from glycerol using Ustilago trichophora RK089, which was identified in a screening of 74 Ustilaginaceae. For economically feasible production that can compete with existing processes, a high productivity is required. By adaptive laboratory evolution, the growth and production rate were increased by 2.5- and 6.6-fold, respectively. Further medium optimization increased the final titer, yield, and overall production rate to 196 g L−1, 0.82
Ben Griffin is a microbial physiologist with 15 years of experience who currently heads SGIs Heterotrophic Cell Systems division, responsible for non-photosynthetic microbial technology development. His team advances a portfolio of programs from ideation to pilot-ready technology that has included nutritional products, bio-based chemicals, natural products, biologics, agricultural microbes and engineering tools development. His groups cover key functions of early stage R&D including bio-prospecting, protein engineering, biocatalysis, adaptive laboratory evolution, metabolic engineering, and small-scale fermentation. In previous roles during his eight years at Synthetic Genomics, Ben was Senior Director of Bio-based Chemicals and Director of Hydrocarbons Research where he focused on leading partner-funded joint development programs. He received a PhD from Michigan State University in Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at the Center for Microbial Ecology and was a postdoctoral fellow at the ...
Sang J. Lee is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Loss- and Gain-of-function Approach to Investigate Early Cell Fate Determinants in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos, Procedure for Adaptive Laboratory Evolution of Microorganisms Using a Chemostat
Peps primary research focus is the development and implementation of novel methods to discover new therapeutics against drug-resistant microbial pathogens. A secondary research focus is the application of systems biology methods to study mechanisms underlying infection and antibiotic resistance in the pathogens.. One of Peps specific research projects involves the use of adaptive laboratory evolution of one microbe against another to overproduce known antibiotics. This method also has the potential to yield compounds with new molecular structures as well. He demonstrated that this method can lead to a series of mutant Streptomyces clavuligerus strains that produce inhibitors against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) where none existed initially. The work has now been published (Charusanti et al, PLoS One, 2012), and is the subject of two provisional patents (see below). Importantly, however, this technique is a general, systematic platform that in theory can be used against ...
Serrano, M., Hannon, G. J., Beach, D. (1993) A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4. Nature, 366 (6456). pp. 704-707. ISSN 00280836 (ISSN) Sordella, R., Classon, M., Hu, K. Q., Matheson, S. F., Brouns, M. R., Fine, B., Zhang, L., Takami, H., Yamada, Y., Settleman, J. (May 2002) Modulation of CREB activity by the Rho GTPase regulates cell and organism size during mouse embryonic development. Developmental Cell, 2 (5). pp. 553-65. ISSN 1534-5807 Sordella, R., Jiang, W., Chen, G. C., Curto, M., Settleman, J. (April 2003) Modulation of Rho GTPase signaling regulates a switch between adipogenesis and myogenesis. Cell, 113 (2). pp. 147-58. ISSN 0092-8674 (Print) Spector, M. S., Desnoyers, S., Hoeppner, D. J., Hengartner, M. O. (February 1997) Interaction between the C. elegans cell-death regulators CED-9 and CED-4. Nature, 385 (6617). pp. 653-6. ISSN 0028-0836 (Print) Stasiv, Y., Regulski, M., Kuzin, B., Tully, T., Enikolopov, G. (November 2001) The ...
The aquatic block of lectures starts with an examination of the physiological adaptations for invertebrate marine life living within sea water, arguably the most trouble-free stable environment for animals on the planet. The lectures progress onto marine vertebrates (Myxiniformes, Chondrichthyes and teleosts), then moves to deal with brackish water, and on into the freshwater environment from both an invertebrate and vertebrate perspective. After which, the thermal adaptation of aquatic organisms within a variety of habitats is discussed, covering the open ocean, polar regions, intertidal etc. Specialised topics, such as regional endothermy are also discussed. Locomotion within the aquatic environment is governed by organism size and Reynolds forces; the lectures will discuss swimming in relation to viscosity and inertia, across a range of aquatic organisms both invertebrate and vertebrate. The cheap alternative to swimming employed by many aquatic invertebrates, employing buoyancy and increased ...
Understanding how cells grow and divide is a fundamental problem in biology. During animal development the proper regulation of cell growth is essential for controlling organ and organism size. While in cancer, deregulated cell growth is often an early event in tumor formation. We use a combination of molecular and genetic approaches to study cell, tissue and body growth, using Drosophila as a model system ...
Spectrally averaged light absorption cross section of Dunaliella tertiolecta during the cultivations. Squares: 1.25 cm light path; circles: 2.15 cm light path
Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve diatoms for value-added products. In this study, we utilized UVC radiation to induce mutations in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and screened strains with enhanced accumulation of neutral lipids and carotenoids. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was also used in parallel to develop altered phenotypic and biological functions in P. tricornutum and it was reported for the first time that ALE was successfully applied on diatoms for the enhancement of growth performance and productivity of value-added carotenoids to date. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was utilized to study the composition of major pigments in the wild type P. tricornutum, UV mutants and ALE strains. UVC radiated strains
The multicellular obligately photoautotrophic alga Volvox is composed of only two types of cells, somatic and reproductive. Therefore, Volvox provides the simplest model system for the study of multicellularity. Metabolic labeling experiments using radioactive precursors are crucial for the detection of stage- and cell-type-specific proteins, glycoproteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. However, wild-type Volvox lacks import systems for sugars or amino acids. To circumvent this problem, the hexose/H+ symporter (HUP1) gene from the unicellular alga Chlorella was placed under the control of the constitutive Volvox beta- tubulin promoter. The corresponding transgenic Volvox strain synthesized the sugar transporter in a functional state and was able to efficiently incorporate 14C from labeled glucose or glucosamine. Sensitivity toward the toxic glucose/mannose analogue 2-deoxy-glucose increased by orders of magnitude in transformants. Thus we report the successful transformation of Volvox with a gene ...
Paddington Complexity Scale and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. With the recent developments in rat genetic engineering, the rat has become an excellent model system to study aspects of the molecular etiology of breast cancer. These findings suggest that these novel ORFs may play a role in recombination in these two closely related bacteria. Microcirculatory parameters in compensated and decompensated type 2 diabetes mellitus Anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) modes are wedge viagra without doctor prescription waves with their particle motion anti-symmetric with the apex mid-plane. Self-Healable and Reprocessable Polysulfide Sealants Prepared from Liquid Polysulfide Oligomer and Epoxy Resin.. Mortality from lung cancer among hospital porters (185) was more than fivefold that seen in doctors (33) and dentists (37). These tests utilize three properties of the coloured boundary: colour, length and direction of movement. In this work, we report a molecular ...
A first factor underlying TAG and total lipid hyperaccumulation in the l−N stage becomes evident from the transcriptional regulation of FA synthesis. Its regulation was not uniform in the l−N stage, in contrast to the r+N stage, in which almost all enzymatic steps of FA synthesis were uniformly transiently down-regulated (Fig. 4, ACCase, MCMT, KASI, KASII, KAR, HAD, ENR, ACP, and FAT). In the l−N stage, a strong transcriptional induction of FAT and a gentle induction of ACCase were observed (Fig. 4), while several intermediate steps of FA synthesis were repressed, although the extent was moderate compared to the r+N stage (Fig. 4, MCMT, KASIII, and KAR). At the same time, the transcript levels of ACP were maintained in the l−N stage, which were among the most abundant transcripts (Additional file 2). ACP prevents the growing acyl chain from degradation [91]. High expression of ACP is in accordance with data for E. coli showing that ACP belongs to the most abundant proteins [91]. As an ...
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA
Nowadays, biodiversity represents a major scientific, societal, economic and political issue. Therefore, beyond its core activities on fundamental research, the laboratory is committed to the transfer of knowledge through college education, communication events oriented towards the general public, as well as interactions with the administrators and guardians of biodiversity and biological resources, of sustainable development or of public health ...
Biodiesel or ethanol derived from lipids or starch produced by microalgae may overcome many of the sustainability challenges previously ascribed to petroleum-based fuels and first generation plant-based biofuels. The paucity of microalgae genome sequences, however, limits gene-based biofuel feedstock optimization studies. Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for the non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production. Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to D. tertiolecta transcripts produced 1,363,336 high quality reads with an average length of 400 bases. Following quality and size trimming, ~ 45% of the high quality reads were assembled into 33,307 isotigs with a 31-fold coverage and 376,482 singletons. Assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology
The availability of only limited number of microalgae genome sequences hinders the efforts of optimization and metabolic engineering studies in biofuel production from microalgae. Here we describe a comprehensive sequencing, and de novo assembly of a non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, transcriptome, and provide its pathway descriptions along with identified key genes of importance related to biofuel production. D. tertiolecta transcriptome was sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing technology with Titanium chemistry. Assembled sequences were subjected to BLAST similarity search against "nr" databases of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology (KO) identifiers. These target-based analyses identified the majority of biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids and starch pathways in D. tertiolecta. The presented work describes the first de novo sequencing and analysis of a ...
Summary: Caesium accumulation by Chlorella salina, from buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 50 μM-CsCl and 137Cs, continued for approximately 15 h and displayed first-order kinetics, indicating a single rate-limiting transport process. Efflux of Cs+ from Cs+-loaded cells occurred in two distinct phases: a rapid initial loss, representing approximately 11% of total cellular Cs+, corresponded to release from the cell surface, whereas a second, slower, phase of efflux corresponded to loss from the cytoplasm and vacuole. Analysis of subcellular Cs+ compartmentation revealed that most Cs+ was accumulated into the vacuole of C. salina, with lesser amounts being associated with the cell surface or located in the cytoplasm. Uptake of Cs+ into the vacuole was correlated with a stoichiometric exchange for K+. However, no loss of K+ from the cell surface or cytoplasm was evident nor was Cs+ or K+ associated with insoluble intracellular components. Calculated values for the Cs+ flux across the vacuolar membrane were
Light micrograph of a colony of Volvox containing six asexual daughter colonies within. Volvox is an organism that lies between the plant & animal kingdom, being variously classified with the green algae (plant) or flagellates (animal). The colony contains from hundreds to thousands of cells arranged at the surface of a watery matrix. The individual cells have two flagella & eyespots. They reproduce both asexually & sexually. In the former case cells in the rear of the colony divide to form daughter colonies. Once released the parent colony dies. In the latter case male & female gametes are produced & a sexual union occurs. Magnification x75 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z100/0057
And what do they do in return? Now is discovered the skeleton in the flagellated cells cupboard-they cannot reproduce the colony. They are sterile, and must leave reproduction to the big lazy-seeming cells who are only lazy, however, because they must store up food-materials to start the new colony fairly on its way. The grow and grow, bulge inwards, and finally come to float free in the centre space, where they still grow, meanwhile dividing up into a number of cells. In the end, they become perfect miniature colonies, burst out of their parent and swim happily away.. Volvox is thus a real individual; of the two kinds of cells each has given up something the better to fulfil its own special duty. There is division of labour, and, from the point of view of the species, each kind is meaningless without the other.. The division of labour in Volvox is that usually first seen in compound individuals-between the reproductive functions on the one side and all the rest on the other. In other words, ...
Some travel awards will be granted to students and postdocs attending the Fourth International Volvox Conference (Volvox 2017) in St. Louis. Applications are due July 1, 2017. If you are planning to attend the meeting as a student or postdoc, you really should apply.. The application procedure is not too onerous, basically fill out a form and email it in. The size and number of awards are a bit vague, but if years past are any indication, theyll cover a substantial portion of the costs:. ...
Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substances. Dunaliella salina was named by E.C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by ...
The 5th International Volvox Conference brought together international scientists working on volvocine algae together at the University of Tokyo to expand and strengthen the Volvocales research community.
Volvox colony. Light micrograph of a colony of the freshwater green alga Volvox sp. The colony is a hollow sphere made up from thousands of cells connected by cytoplasmic threads and arranged in a single layer. Each cell has two flagella, which point outwards, and are used for locomotion. The green spheres within the colony are daughter colonies, which are produced asexually. - Stock Image C010/5437
HTF Market Intelligence released a new research report of 121 pages on title Global Dunaliella Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, F
A single-celled biflagellate. The cell wall is separated from the protoplast, connected only by thin cytoplasmic strands. Cl/100 Desired Date of Arrival can be entered during …
Nozaki, H. (1988). Morphology, sexual reproduction and taxonomy of Volvox carteri f. kawasakiensis f. nov. (Chlorophyta) from Japan. Phycologia 27((2)): 209-220.. Created: 13 March 2006 by M.D. Guiry. Verified by: 19 May 2010 by Wendy Guiry. Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 590 times since it was created.. Verification of data ...
In Chapter 4, laboratory evolution was utilized to recover the catalytic activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) after replacement of isoleucine by 5TFI. Upon global incorporation of 5TFI into CAT, the catalytic efficiency, k[subscript cat]/K[subscript m], was reduced by more than 2-fold, from 10.2 ± 0.8 μM[superscript -1] to 3.9 ± 0.5 μM[superscript -1] min[superscript -1]. Four rounds of random mutagenesis, enrichment, and screening were performed, yielding a 7-fold fluorinated mutant, tfi-G4, whose activity in fluorinated form was 2.8-fold higher than that of the fluorinated parent enzyme, tfi-WT. The total number of isoleucines decreased only by one in the 7-fold mutant, and the gap in activity between the hydrogenated (ile-G4) and fluorinated (tfi-G4) forms narrowed. Despite similar secondary structure, the incorporation of fluorinated amino acids decreased the stability of CAT for both the wild- type and G4 pairs based on both functional and structural analysis. Fluorinated ...
Combining the POWER of Nature & Science. O8 skincare products are enriched with Dunaliella salina reborn (DSR), a single cell algae that lives in the Dead Sea, and is considered one of the wonders of the modern-day cosmetics and medicine worlds. Ideal for babies, kids and adults alike! Oeight Baby, the best skincare from Israel
The sex-inducer of the spherical green alga Volvox carteri is one of the most potent biological effector molecules known: it is released into the medium by sexual males and triggers the switch to the sexual cleavage program in the reproductive cells of vegetatively grown males and females even at concentrations as low as 10 (-16) M. In an adult Volvox alga, all cells are embedded in an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM), which constitutes >99% of the volume of the spheroid. There exist no cytoplasmic connections between the cells in an adult alga, so any signal transduction between different cells or from the organisms environment to a reproductive cell must involve the ECM. Recently, a small cysteine-rich extracellular protein, VCRP, was identified in Volvox and shown to be quickly synthesized by somatic cells in response to the sex-inducer. Due to its characteristics, VCRP was speculated to be an extracellular second messenger from somatic cells to reproductive cells. Here a related ...
A method apparatus wherein a plurality of electric fields and of orthogonal spray configurations of vaporized analyte are so combined as to enhance the efficiency of analyte detection and mass analysis. The method and apparatus provides reduced noise and increased signal sensitivity in both API electrospray and APCI operating modes.
In this application Volvox which has localized cellular density due to its internal daughter colonies, was measured to obtain absorption spectra and fixed-wavelength mapping. ...
Ahn, C.Y., A.S. Chung and H.M. Oh (2002). Diel rhythm of algal phosphate uptake rates in P-limited cyclostats and simulation of its effect on growth and competition. J. Phycol. 38, 695-704. Anderca, M.I., T. Furuichi, R. Pinontoan and S. Muto (2002). Identification of a mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase from the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Cell Physiol. 43, 1276-1284. Apt, K.E., L. Zaslavkaia, J.C. Lippmeier, M. Lang, O. Kilian, R. Wetherbee, A.R. Grossman and P.G. Kroth (2002). In vivo characterization of diatom multipartite plastid targeting signals. J. Cell Sci. 115, 4061-4069. Bennoun, P. (2002). The present model for chlororespiration. Photosynth. Res. 73, 273-277. Bohne, F. and H. Linden (2002). Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in response to light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Gene Struct. Expression 1579, 26-34. Cepak, V., M. Zobacova and V. Zachleder (2002). The effect of cadmium ions on the cell cycle of the green flagellate ...
The project covers the whole process chain from optimized biomass production to product development and exploitation. In a first step, two industrial bioproduction platforms will be explored: the green alga Botryococcus braunii and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to which the unique hydrocarbon and polysaccharides producing genes from Botryococcus will be transferred. Biomass cultivation is targeted to reach a pilot scale.
The determination of volume of dunaliella cells by transmission electron microscopy and image analysis. Annals of Botany 73 (5) , pp. 481-491. 10.1006/anbo.1994.1060 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a subunit of a cytokine that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. The cytokine is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of the 35-kD subunit encoded by this gene, and a 40-kD subunit that is a member of the cytokine receptor family. This cytokine is required for the T-cell-independent induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma, and is important for the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. The responses of lymphocytes to this cytokine are mediated by the activator of transcription protein STAT4. Nitric oxide synthase 2A (NOS2A/NOS2) is found to be required for the signaling process of this cytokine in innate immunity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Straddling the plant and animal kingdoms, the protist Volvox forms stunning bright green colonial balls in water bodies that are enriched in nitrates.
We discuss preliminary tests on a novel, high conductance inlet/conjoined ion guide system and restricted APCI nebulizer design that demonstrate a large improvement in sensitivity when compared to a conventional inlet MS.
One of the invitees was a friend and colleague of ours, Ms. Leutisha Stills, now at Jack and Jill Politics. Observing that the White House hadnt called Black bloggers in since the 2008 presidential campaign, she opined that the bloggers were being, as she put it, "pimped." We think Ms. Stills was correct, but for the wrong reasons. To be "pimped" is to be manipulated for some underhanded and shameful purpose. Whether bloggers, or journalists are shamefully used once every couple years, or three times every week is a difference only in the frequency of the act, not in the roles of the players or of the played ...
Amoroso, G., D. Sueltemeyer, C. Thyssen and H.P. Fock (1998). Uptake of HCO3- and CO2 in cells and chloroplasts from the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Physiol. 116, 193-201. Asleson, C.M. and P.A. Lefebvre (1998). Genetic analysis of flagellar length control in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A new long-flagella locus and extragenic suppressor mutations. Genetics 148, 693-702. Bhattacharya, D. and L. Medlin (1998). Algal phylogeny and the origin of land plants. Plant Physiol. 116, 9-15. Boschetti, A. and K. Schmid (1998). Energy supply for ATP-synthase deficient chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Plant Cell Physiol. 39, 160-168. Brosch-Salomon, S., M. Hoeftberger, A. Holzinger and U. Luetz-Meindl (1998). Ultrastructural localization of polysaccharides and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the secretory pathway of green algae (Desmidiaceae). J. Exp. Bot. 49, 145-153. Calenberg, M., U. Brohsonn, M. Zedlacher and G. Kreimer (1998). Light- and Ca2+-modulated ...
We analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the colony-forming green microalga Botryococcus braunii in response to several stress inducers such as NaCl, NaHCO3, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and acetic acid. A staining assay using the fluorescent dye CellROX Green was used. CellROX Green is a fluorogenic probe used for measuring oxidative stress in live cells. The dye is weakly fluorescent inside cells in a reduced state but exhibits bright green photostable fluorescence upon oxidation by ROS and subsequent binding to DNA. The large amount of liquid hydrocarbons produced and excreted by B. braunii, creates a highly hydrophobic extracellular environment that makes difficult to study short times defense responses on this microalga. The procedure developed here allowed us to detect ROS in this microalga even within a short period of time (in minutes) after treatment of cells with different stress inducers.
Biomass management is one of the most important issues in modern natural science as it is the basic category which spans through various disciplines of biotechnology. Whether animal, plant or microbial by its origin, biomass presents a vast source of food components, fine chemicals and bioactive molecules, which extraction, characterization and formulation can result in interesting new products destined for human consumption or as new materials in biomedicine. In the scope of this work, two natural biomass types were investigated - chicken skin as a source of collagen type I, and green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana biomass enriched in selenomethionine (SeMet). Chicken skin is a good alternative to traditional sources of collagen such as pork, bovine and carp that have some limitations. In the first part of this thesis, collagen type I from chicken skin was isolated, identified and characterized and molecular properties were compared to collagen from other animal skins. New methods ...
Healthy Origins Astaxanthin Triple Strength Description: Natural Non-GMO Healthy Origins Natural Bioastin Astaxanthin is a carotenoid produced from Haematococcus Pluvialis microalgae. One Natural Triple Strength Astaxanthin softgel capsule features a total 12 mg of Astaxanthin, three times the strength of Healthy Origi
Interleukin-12 subunit alpha (IL-12 p35) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL12A gene. This gene encodes a subunit of the cytokine Interleukin 12 (IL-12) that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. The cytokine is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of the 35-kD subunit encoded by this gene, and a 40-kD subunit that is a member of the cytokine receptor family. This cytokine is required for the T-cell-dependent induction of interferon gamma (INF-γ), and is important for the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. The responses of lymphocytes to this cytokine are mediated by the activator of transcription protein STAT4. Nitric oxide synthase 2A (NOS2A/NOS2) is found to be required for the signaling process of this cytokine in innate immunity. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168811 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027776 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wolf SF, ...
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2:30-3:05: Ru Zhang, Exploring functional genomic landscapes of heat sensing in photosynthetic cells by using algal high-throughput and quantitative ...