1. Minchinton AI, Tannock IF. Drug penetration in solid tumours. Nature reviews Cancer. 2006;6:583-92 2. Iyer AK, Khaled G, Fang J, Maeda H. Exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect for tumor targeting. Drug discovery today. 2006;11:812-8 3. Li Y, Wang J, Wientjes MG, Au JL. Delivery of nanomedicines to extracellular and intracellular compartments of a solid tumor. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2012;64:29-39 4. Hobbs SK, Monsky WL, Yuan F, Roberts WG, Griffith L, Torchilin VP. et al. Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998;95:4607-12 5. Matsumura Y, Maeda H. A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs. Cancer Res. 1986;46:6387-92 6. Meng H, Xue M, Xia T, Ji Z, Tarn DY, Zink JI. et al. Use of size and a copolymer design feature to ...
The fate and transport of nitrogen compounds in urea-fertilized soils has historically been a topic of great interest. At present, several models exists for simulating the various transformations involved. A major constraint in the application of these models is the assignment of numerical values to the coefficients that quantify these transformations. This study attempts to characterize the processes linked to the hydrolysis of urea, adsorption and volatilization of ammonia, and nitrification in agricultural soils. We followed the temporal sequence of volatilization of ammonia in two different soils fertilized with urea under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The amounts of nitrate and ammonia in soil were also measured at the end of each trial. Several modeling alternatives were analyzed in order to accurately reproduce the results. Among these alternatives, the most successful approaches included the kinetics of urea hydrolysis and ammonia adsorption and desorption processes. Urea ...
A study was set up to investigate the environmental effects of anaerobic digestion and separa-tion of slurry. Volatilisation of odour and ammonia from treated and untreated slurry were compared both during storage and following land application. It was found that ammonia volatilisation was higher from uncovered stores of anaerobically digested and separated slurry than from untreated slurry, however, when slurry stores were covered efficiently, the loss rate was low and equal for treated and untreated slurry. Ammonia volatilisation following land application was found to be lower from both anaerobically digested and separated slurry compared to untreated slurry. Treatment of slurry by anaerobic digestion and separation did not reduce odour nuisances during storage, however, odour nuisance from slurry stores was found to be efficiently reduced by an artificial crust cover of the slurry stores. During land application the odour nuisances were found to be lower for anaerobically digested and ...
Contaminants in indoor air resulting from vapor intrusion are often estimated using the concentrations in a sub-slab sample multiplied by an attenuation factor (AF). An AF accounts for the reduction in concentration that occurs when vapors enter a building and mix with indoor air. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) is using a very protective AF of 0.1, (or 10% of the soil vapor found in the sub-slab will be in indoor air). The amount of soil vapor that enters a building is different for every building, but this AF overestimates indoor air concentrations in most homes.. EPA recently recommended an AF of 0.03 for screening sub-slab soil vapor at vapor intrusion sites throughout the U.S. (USEPA, 2015). EPA derived the AF of 0.03 after looking at data from numerous homes across the country. 95 percent of the homes studied had (basement) indoor air concentrations less than or equal to 0.03 times the sub-slab concentration, and 50 percent of the homes had (basement) indoor air ...
Device offers enhanced patient safety through less bleeding and increased procedural efficiencies through new design. CENTER VALLEY, Pa., (May 4, 2016) - Olympus, a global technology leader in designing and delivering innovative solutions for medical and surgical procedures, among other core businesses, announced today the launch of its FDA cleared Plasma-OvalButton for urologic procedures including minimally invasive surgery to reduce enlarged prostate as well as treatment of bladder cancer. The Plasma-OvalButton uses Olympus plasma technology in a revolutionary electrode shape designed to maximize O.R. efficiency and enhance clinical outcomes.. With a 25 percent increase in width and 31 percent increase in vaporization area from Olympus present vaporization device, the Plasma-OvalButton is designed to increase tissue removal rates for enhanced procedural efficiency. Lab testing has demonstrated a 21% increase in tissue vaporization from Olympus existing vaporization electrode. The ...
This paper starts by explaining how the vapour phase hydrogen peroxide rapid sporicidal process works and continues with a description of the present methods of cycle development. The paper continues with some suggestions as to how cycle development can be speeded up considerably and introduces enzyme indicators (EIs) as a recent development to add to chemical indicators (CIs) and possibly replace biological indicators (BIs). The paper offers practical solutions to both the problems mentioned above, based on long experience with the design, construction and validation of vapour phase hydrogen peroxide generators ...
An empirical equation of the volatilization of kraft black liquor droplets during burning. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Definition of vaporization in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is vaporization? Meaning of vaporization as a legal term. What does vaporization mean in law?
Data set including sea level, temperature, salinity, and current from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) is used in this study to estimate the mean net annually and seasonally evaporation rates. Then wind data is used to examine its impact on the evaporation. This work calculated the seasonal and annual evaporation rates based on assumption of that there is no net mass transport (balanced). Hence, the difference in the transport supposed to be equal to the water that has evaporated. Therefore data of water in-flow and out-flow used to examine the net mass transport with the obtained evaporation rate. Results revealed that the net annual mean evap- oration was 1.24 m/yr and the net seasonal mean was 1.3 m/yr and the evaporation rate in winter months was permanently higher than summer and autumn with min- imum value in August. The annual wind impact is masked but, it is clearer for the monthly, particularly in June and October. The monthly water exchange through Bab al-Mandeb Strait accompanied ...
View Notes - LECT6 (ET) from AOE 4643 at University of Florida. AOM 4932 Evaporation and Transpiration Evaporation - change of water from its liquid to its vapor phase Potential Evaporation -
A process for the vapor phase graft copolymerization of a monomer vapor onto a polymeric substrate in the presence of a source of light at low energy levels and a photosensitive vapor (e.g. a diketone) activated by such low energy. The product of said process.
The advantage of ceria loading over V2O5-Al2O3 catalyst for vapor phase oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene using CO2 as a soft oxidant. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A process for improved vapor phase silylation of photoresist is disclosed. The process uses silylation materials which either produce a strong base such as dimethylamine upon reaction with a resist film or which contain an improved chemical leaving group such as acetate. The process is effective at temperatures of 135 C. and below. Preferred silylation materials are N,N-dimethylaminotrimethylsilane and trimethylsilylacetate.
Find vapor phase hg monitor articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Reference list on the plastics, pesticides and other solvent vapors which contribute to poor air quality, allergies, illness, airborne toxicity and carcinogenic risk.. NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS. VOCs - can be classified by boiling points (VVOC, SVOC, VOC and POM) or by chemical structure such as aliphatic / aromatic hydrocarbons or functional R group composition such as oxygenated / halogenated hydrocarbons. Low volatility, high potency organic compounds and those with high polarity can be expected to preferentially take on the form of solid particles rather than remain in a vapor phase. Settled house dust or respirable suspended particles (such as those in the PM2.5 and PM10 size regimes) can also serve as reservoirs for both vapor phase SVOCs and POMs by adsorption. Exposure can be through inhalation, digestion or direct skin contact.. May come from a variety of sources including building materials, pesticides, air fresheners / aerosols, carpeting and linens. (including drapes). Ozone ...
TEG Vaporization Losses In this Tip of The Month (TOTM), the effect of striping gas rate and triethylene glycol (TEG) circulation ratio on the TEG vaporization loss from the regenerator top and conta
Pacholski, A., Cai, Gx., Fan, Xh., Ding, H., Chen, Dl., Nieder, R. and Roelcke, M. (2008): Comparison of different methods for the measurement of ammonia volatilization after urea application in Henan Province, China, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171(3):361-369. Article (pdf) ...
Our work explores the volatility of particles produced from two diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) modes proposed for high-efficiency compression ignition engines. It also explores mechanisms of particulate formation and growth upon dilution in the near-tailpipe environment. Moreover, the number distribution of exhaust particles from low- and mid-load dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and single-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) modes were experimentally studied over a gradient of dilution temperature. Particle volatility of select particle diameters was investigated using volatility tandem differential mobility analysis (V-TDMA). Evaporation rates for exhaust particles were compared with V-TDMA results for candidate pure n-alkanes to identify species with similar volatility characteristics. The results show that LTC particles are mostly comprised of material with volatility similar to engine oil alkanes. V-TDMA results were used as inputs to an ...
Herein, an approach for simulating phase diagrams of binary mixtures is presented, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapour phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarisation. Time-averaged density profiles for the pure compounds and mixtures at different mole fractions provide information about the spatial distribution in the bulk liquid and the amount of evaporated species in the adjacent vapour phase. The activities in the liquid phase are calculated from the mean vapour phase densities at a given composition, providing a good qualitative agreement compared to experimental data and the precision of the method follows a previously developed Poisson model of evaporation. With the Redlich-Kister approach for the activities in a binary mixture, the directly obtained activities are fitted providing corrected activity coefficients of the two species. This method is applied to ethanol water mixtures at different mole fractions. The obtained structural data are in good
A study was conducted to examine whether there are significant differences between organic vapor concentrations measured using charcoal tubes with three different configurations: uncovered sample holder (open tube), SKC, and Buck brand covered sample holders. A fractional factorial experimental design was used with the following factors and levels: vapor (n-hexane vs. m-xylene), pump type (pulsati
The high vapor densities of the halogenated solvents make it possible to maintain a definite vapor level in the degreaser, keeping solvent vapor concentrations in the operators breathing zone below the maximum recommended time-weighted average (TWA) concentration with both manual and automatic degreasers. Items to check to ensure a steady vapor line are the following ...
Two experiments using calves fed 176 days from November to May (WINTER) and yearlings fed 117 days from May to September (SUMMER) were conducted to compare conventional CP levels to phase-fed diets balanced for degradable intake protein and undegradable intake protein on performance and N volatilization. Phase fed diets were formulated to balance degradable intake protein and metabolizable protein. Phase feeding resulted in greater ADG and better F:G in WINTER and similar performance in SUMMER than traditional feeding methods. Nitrogen excretion was significantly reduced in both WINTER and SUMMER which translated into significantly less N volatilization without impacting N removed in manure.
Solvent extraction and evaporation is a widely used unit operation in the manufacturing of micro and nano-particles.. Due to the weak bond of the API to the protein, the product is highly sensitive to temperature, mechanical mixing and extraction/evaporation rate. A slow extraction/evaporation rate leads to changes of the particle size, which may result in blockage of the sterile filter and failure of the batch. In situations similar to this one, mathematical modeling is becoming a promising tool to improve the understanding and control of the CPPs and reduce the development time and cost.. The purpose of this work is to determine the sensitivity of different process parameters related to the solvent extraction/evaporation unit operation. A mathematical model was developed and applied to predict the duration required to accomplish the solvent extraction/evaporation process.. Turbulent Flow and Rotating Machinery physics interfaces in the CFD Module of COMSOL Multiphysics® were used to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrothermal vaporization coupled with inductively coupled plasma array-detector mass spectrometry for the multielement analysis of Al 2O3 ceramic powders. AU - Peschel, Birgit U.. AU - Andrade, Francisco. AU - Wetzel, William C.. AU - Schilling, Gregory D.. AU - Hieftje, Gary M.. AU - Broekaert, José A.C.. AU - Sperline, Roger. AU - Denton, M. Bonner. AU - Barinaga, Charles J.. AU - Koppenaal, David W.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - An electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system useful for the analysis of solutions and slurries has been coupled with a sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) equipped with an array detector. The ability of this instrument to record the transient signals produced for a number of analytes in ETV-ICP-MS is demonstrated. Detection limits for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga are in the range of 4-60 pg μL- 1 for aqueous solutions and in the low μg g- 1 range for the analysis of 10 mg mL- 1 slurries of Al2O3 powders. The ...
Downloadable! How to measure and model volatility is an important issue in finance. Recent research uses high-frequency intraday data to construct ex post measures of daily volatility. This paper uses a Bayesian model-averaging approach to forecast realized volatility. Candidate models include autoregressive and heterogeneous autoregressive specifications based on the logarithm of realized volatility, realized power variation, realized bipower variation, a jump and an asymmetric term. Applied to equity and exchange rate volatility over several forecast horizons, Bayesian model averaging provides very competitive density forecasts and modest improvements in point forecasts compared to benchmark models. We discuss the reasons for this, including the importance of using realized power variation as a predictor. Bayesian model averaging provides further improvements to density forecasts when we move away from linear models and average over specifications that allow for GARCH effects in the innovations to
Abstract: This study presents new analytic approximations of the stochastic-alpha-beta-rho (SABR) model. Unlike existing studies that focus on the equivalent Black-Scholes (BS) volatility, we instead derive the equivalent volatility under the constant-elasticity-of-variance (CEV) model, which is the limit of the SABR model when the volatility of volatility approaches 0. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the CEV volatility approximation for a wide range of parameters. Moreover, in our approach, arbitrage occurs at a lower strike price than in existing BS-based approximations ...
Decomposing volatilities into a common market-driven component and an idiosyncratic itemspecific one is an important issue in financial econometrics. This, however, requires the statistical analysis of large panels of time series, hence faces the usual challenges associated with highdimensional data. Factor model methods in such a context are an ideal tool, but they do not readily apply to the analysis of volatilities. Focusing on the reconstruction of the unobserved market shocks and the way they are loaded by the various items (stocks) in the panel, we propose an entirely non-parametric and model-free two-step general dynamic factor approach to the problem, which avoids the usual curse of dimensionality. Applied to the S&P100 asset return dataset, the method provides evidence that a non-negligible proportion of the market-driven volatility of returns originates in the volatilities of the idiosyncratic components of returns.. ...
We, DIDAC INTERNATIONAL are manufacturer and supplier of Programmable Temperature Vaporization Injector based in New Delhi, India
Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other "precleaned" XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other "precleaned" XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.This results in savings in both lab time and hazardous solvent waste generation, disposal and associated costs. Characterisation by GC-MS has also shown Supelpak-2SV resin an excellent choice for semivolatile priority pollutants, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins/ furans. A study of extraction efficiencies using a wide range of semivolatile compounds demonstrated recoveries ,90% even for substituted phenols. Table 2 shows typical recoveries of substituted phenols from Supelpak-2SV compared to competitive products. Customers also appreciate other aspects of the product such as the availability of large single-lot batches of up to 10 kg. This significantly reduces ...
Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other "precleaned" XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other "precleaned" XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.This results in savings in both lab time and hazardous solvent waste generation, disposal and associated costs. Characterisation by GC-MS has also shown Supelpak-2SV resin an excellent choice for semivolatile priority pollutants, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins/ furans. A study of extraction efficiencies using a wide range of semivolatile compounds demonstrated recoveries ,90% even for substituted phenols. Table 2 shows typical recoveries of substituted phenols from Supelpak-2SV compared to competitive products. Customers also appreciate other aspects of the product such as the availability of large single-lot batches of up to 10 kg. This significantly reduces ...
Droplet lasing spectroscopy has been applied to the measurement of droplet size and evaporation rate in a spray. A single droplet, doped with laser dye, was injected along the centerline of a liquid spray. Filters were used to block the strong elastic-scattering signal. The lasing emission from the doped droplet could be detected against the background with mass loadings of liquid in the spray as high as 20%. An analysis of the spectrum of droplet lasing was used to evaluate the droplet diameter. The evaporation rate of the droplet was obtained from consecutive lasing spectra that were obtained from the same droplet. An error analysis of the drop size and drop evaporation measurements was carried out and showed that accurate measurements of evaporation rates were feasible.. © 1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel.A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel. A pre-combustion of reactants filling the vessel ...
The present invention relates to a method of producing a microstructured device, as well as a method of processing a microstructured substrate to heal surface defects therein, a method of bonding substrates and healing surface defects in a substrate, and microstructured devices produced by these methods.
Downloadable ! Author(s): M. Ayhan Kose & Eswar S. Prasad & Marco E. Terrones. 2004 Abstract: The influential work of Ramey and Ramey (1995) highlighted an empirical relationship that has now come to be regarded as conventional wisdom-that output volatility and growth are negatively correlated. We reexamine this relationship in the context of globalization-a term typically used to describe the phenomenon of growing international trade and financial integration that has intensified since the mid-1980s. We employ various econometric techniques and a comprehensive new dataset to analyze the link between growth and volatility. Our findings suggest that, while the basic negative association between growth and volatility has been preserved during the 1990s, both trade and financial integration attenuate this negative relationship. Specifically, countries that are more open to trade appear to face a less severe tradeoff between growth and volatility. We find a similar, although slightly less robust, result for
Spikes in Volatility - Above we see a chart from 1990 to the present, mapping out the ratio of the average daily high-low range over the past five sessions in the S&P 500 Index ($SPX) to the average daily range over the past 200 days. Spikes in this measure of relative volatility have occurred in August, 1990; April, 1994; July, 1996; October, 1997; September/October, 1998; July, 2002; and August, 2007. On the whole, these were good times for intermediate-term stock purchase. We are currently seeing another such spike at present. Going back to 1990 (N = 4535 trading days), we have had 80 occasions in which the ratio of five-day volatility to 200-day volatility was above 2.0. Ten days later, the S&P 500 Index averaged a sizable gain of 1.95% (57 up, 23 down). That is much stronger than the average ten-day gain of .32% (2584 up, 1871 down) for the remainder of the sample ...
About this Index: This index lists the names of all compounds found in the IR - Flavors & Fragrances (Vapor Phase) - Bio‑Rad Sadtler spectral database. Bio-Rad is the world leader in spectral databases. They offer over 2.3 million high-quality IR, Raman, NIR, NMR, MS and UV-Vis spectra. Please visit our website for a complete listing. ...
About this Index: This index lists the names of all compounds found in the IR - Pollutants (Vapor Phase) - Bio‑Rad Sadtler spectral database. Bio-Rad is the world leader in spectral databases. They offer over 2.3 million high-quality IR, Raman, NIR, NMR, MS and UV-Vis spectra. Please visit our website for a complete listing. ...
In instances where stable aerosol formation is expected, a value of 10 mg/m3 will be used as an operational control limit for inhalation exposure. Toxicological studies of the substances to be registered or similar materials used for read-across purposes have been conducted to assess the hazard properties. There were no effects in these studies even though they were carried out to maximally attainable vapor concentrations, limit doses, or to other limits imposed by safety considerations. As no effects were demonstrated, the data are not appropriate for DNEL derivation. As the substances are demonstrably not hazardous for effects which are quantifiable, human health exposure assessments have not been conducted. Aspiration is a potential hazard, but a DNEL calculation is not appropriate for an aspiration hazard. Workers are expected to have infrequent and short-term exposures. ...
Abstract. Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. PM2.5 is insensitive to changes in ammonia but is to acidic semivolatile species. For particle sizes up to 1μm diameter, semi-volatile partitioning requires 15-30 min to equilibrate; longer time is typically required during the night and early morning hours. Aerosol and gas-phase speciation always exhibits substantial temporal variability, so that aerosol composition measurements (bulk or size-resolved) obtained over large integration periods are not reflective of its true state. When the aerosol sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio is less than unity, predictions improve substantially if the aerosol is assumed to follow the deliquescent ...
A computational procedure for calculating the coupled flow and chemistry within both can-annular and annular gas turbine combustors is presented. The procedure solves the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with coupled chemistry including the effects of turbulence and droplet vaporization and burning, using a novel field relaxation method developed at the United Aircraft Research Laboratories. Although a relatively simple turbulence model is employed in the procedure, modification to this model is easily implemented within the framework of the computational method. Computations of the flow and chemistry within both can-annular and annular gas turbine combustors, conducted using the procedure, are presented and compared with experimental data. The results of the comparisons with data are obscured by three-dimensional effects present in real gas turbine combustors. However, the indications are that, for combustors where has considerable potential. (Author)*Combustors
SW-846 does not contain formal definitions for volatiles or semivolatiles and there is no official definition of volatile or...
An approach to cleanup that uses natural processes to contain the spread of contamination from chemical spills and reduce the concentrations and amounts of pollutants in contaminated soil and groundwater. Natural subsurface processes, such as dilution, volatilization, biodegradation, adsorption, and chemical reactions with subsurface materials, are allowed to reduce concentrations of contaminants to acceptable levels. See technology description of Natural Attenuation. ...
What are peoples views on the best N source in a no till system. With no tillers presumeably thinking harder about their soils and their biology, i wonder if more go towards urea as a supposedly friendlier N source which is also less leachable. Is there too much scaremongering about volatilisation?
2-[2-Hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-octylphenyl]-2H-benzotriazole exhibits outstanding efficacy in protecting organic substrates from light induced deterioration as well as good resistance to loss by volatilization or exudation during the high temperature processing of stabilized compositions. The combination of the benzotriazole UV absorber with a hindered amine light stabilizer is particularly efficacious in protecting thermoset and thermoplastic acrylic resin automotive finishes and enamels.
Methods for the simultaneous collection of air vapors and particles were described. The OSHA sampler employing a glass tube containing two beds of XAD-2 sorbent for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in both the particle and vapor phases was described. The determination of fluoride (16984488) in occupational settings was presented as another example in which sampling of both vapors a
Insect herbivores that have more than one generation per year and reproduce on different host plants are confronted with substantial seasonal variation in the volatile blends emitted by their hosts. O
The VIX term structure is a series of calculations of implied volatility on SPX options stretching out months and years into the future. The terms structure highlights how future expectations of volatility in the SPX as derived from IV data reflect changing expectations about how volatility will evolve over time.. The concept is best illustrated with an example.. In the chart below, I have plotted the VIX term structure from November 20, 2008 and again at the close on last Friday, December 12. November 20th marks the high water mark for the term structure, when implied volatility for the SPX options closed at their highest levels of the year. The current data shows how implied volatility has fallen dramatically in the front months and incrementally in the second half of 2009 and beyond.. At this stage, market participants are anticipating market volatility will peak in February at about 57, then gradually decline to a level in the 43-44 range by the end of 2010. In contrast, back in November, ...
The Wilshire Risk Parity Index - 15% Target VolatilitySM (Wilshire Risk Parity IndexSM) is designed to measure the performance of a multi-asset risk parity strategy that allocates risk equally among three risk baskets: equity, rates and inflation while targeting an ex-ante volatility level of 15%. Each risk basket is designed to contain a diverse, yet still representative set of highly-liquid futures to help not only capture main asset class risk drivers, but also minimize index turnover. To maximize risk diversification while maintaining asset class exposure as specified, baskets are risk-weighted at the individual basket, then main asset class level. To leverage a proxy for rates and inflation that is both widely accepted and highly liquid, U.S. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are incorporated. Additionally, a long- and short-term realized variance-covariance matrix not only anchors the index to long-term volatility trends, but also provide responsiveness to short-term shifts; ...
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The Passive Soil-gas samplers (PSG samplers) are used to determine the concentration of VOCs (Volatil Organic Compounds) and SVOC s (Semi Volatil Organic Compounds) in the vadose zone. This samplers use activated carbon to adsorb the vapour phase. Does somebody knows any information about the type of activated carbon that is used in this type of samplers? ( some properties our studies). Has anyone done the analysis of this ...
0003]The multilayer systems currently available on the market are mostly manufactured using techniques that are normally grouped under the term Physical Vapor Deposition. In all cases, deposition takes place under vacuum conditions, and the solid is condensed directly from the vapor phase. Optical coatings obtained through this kind of technique have great stability against variations in ambient conditions, in addition to high mechanical resistance. There is another large group of multilayer formation methods based on sol-gel type processes. These methods have allowed the development of multilayer coatings, which are highly resistant to damage caused by intense laser radiation, having much higher damage thresholds than other types of structures. However, these multilayer coatings have low mechanical stability, and their properties vary according to the ambient conditions, both phenomena being related to their mesoporosity, due to which they are not suitable as passive optical elements, even ...
Under the direction of the regulatory agencies, samples are being collected and analyzed. We recently installed a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system along the east side of Roxana and near the Village Public Works Yard that draws in and eliminates soil vapors. We look forward to finalizing, without further delay, the terms of an Access Agreement with the Village, which would allow us to tie the Public Works Yard property into the SVE system ...
Gu S, Zhang R, Shi Y, Zheng Y, Zhang L, Kuech TF. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN on sapphire with ZnO buffer layers. Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing. 2002 ;74:537-540. ...
Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (2013) 催化学报 2013 年第 34 卷第 6 期 available at journal homepage: Article Vapor phase selective dehydration
An electric oil refining apparatus for motor vehicle internal combustion engines designed to remove liquid and solid contaminants from oil which is then recycled. The oil exits from a single small orifice into a vaporization chamber where, due to sudden change of temperature and pressure, the liquid contaminants separate from the oil. The stream of oil is then deflected against a heated concave cup which vaporizes liquid contaminants, and allows oil to flow over the floor of the vaporization chamber and back to the internal combustion engine of the motor vehicle for reuse. A filter is provided at the input to the orifice, thereby avoiding clogging of the orifice.
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This is an excellent discussion of the topic by Caitlin Long via Forbes. If anyone is still on the fence as regards the utility of Bitcoin, this should go...
Learn the differences between an oils volatility and flash point, including how these properties correlate to each other, as well as the best methods for determining them.
ANALYSIS - Price volatility is something that farmers are going to have to live with as it is going to be a feature of farming given the impacts of climate change and swings in production across the globe, writes Chris Harris.
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Q. So this has become a very popular theme in portfolio construction- allocation according to risk, rather than by asset class. A. Yep, especially since 2000, this has been a super hot topic. Most basically, it was driven by the observation that, in a 60-40 portfolio, the vast majority of the volatility was driven by stocks, and when they crashed (in 2000 and 2008), the losses totally overwhelmed the bond allocation, and the overall portfolio was cratered.. Q. Well, that sounds pretty logical…. A. It sounds great, but as usual the theory is not the same as the practice. What all these sorts of approaches do is allocate today in response to historic performance- they essentially assume that historic volatility is predictive of future volatility. Makes you feel good, because you have some math to point at, but youre still basically looking forward by looking backward.. Q. And the basic idea that bonds are not volatile has certainly been challenged by the last six weeks of action in that market. ...
Our evaporation specialists knows all about efficient evaporation from vapour velocity, wetting rates and the perfect temperature to prevent harming the product
Flipit. The Flipit indicator is a stop and reverse indicator based on the high and low price values. It is used for generating both entry and exit signals. For the uptrend, the Bottom line is plotted in the chart, for the downtrend, the Top line is plotted. This indicator has a step-like appearance. Each indicator value is displayed in.]
Osborne, N.S.; Ginnings, D.C., Measurements of heat of vaporization and heat capacity of a number of hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1947, 39, 453-477. 58 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
volatility w/ milling vs. mined rock. I suspect (only a ... The road construction guy who supplied the heavy ... up this sticky stiff on tires and made the ruts worse. The road .... ...
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Solvent vapor annealing of block copolymer thin films can produce a range of morphologies different from the equilibrium bulk morphology. By systematically varying the flow rate of two different solvent vapors (toluene and n-heptane) and an inert gas, phase maps showing the morphology versus vapor pressure of the solvents were constructed for 45 kg/mol polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane diblock copolymer films of different thicknesses. The final morphology was correlated with the swelling of the block copolymer and homopolymer films and the solvent vapor annealing conditions. Self-consistent field theory is used to model the effects of solvent swelling. These results provide a framework for predicting the range of morphologies available under different solvent vapor conditions, which is important in lithographic applications where precise control of morphology and critical dimensions are essential.. ...
Click here to access the recording from this webinar.. "Vapor intrusion" is the process whereby volatile chemicals present in groundwater or soil underneath a building may migrate up into the structure and potentially expose occupants to the subsurface contamination. Many parties - including regulatory agencies, potentially responsible parties, developers, and the media - view vapor intrusion as a serious problem in need of immediate attention. New regulatory policies regarding vapor intrusion are likely to complicate many real estate transactions, lead to the reopening of contaminated sites that have previously received regulatory closure, and result in a new wave of regulatory, clean-up, and tort litigation ...
Microbubble (MB) contrast agents have positively impacted the clinical ultrasound (US) community worldwide. Their use in molecular US imaging applications has been hindered by their limited distribution to the vascular space. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of nanoscale superheated perfluorocarbon nanodroplets (NDs) demonstrates potential as an extravascular contrast agent that could facilitate US-based molecular theranostic applications. However these agents are metastable and difficult to manufacture with high yields. Here, we report a new formulation technique that yields reliable, narrowly dispersed sub-300 nm decafluorobutane (DFB) or octafluoropropane (OFP)-filled phospholipid-coated NDs that are stable at body temperature, using small volume microfluidization. Final droplet concentration was high for DFB and lower for OFP (,10¹² vs. ,10¹⁰ NDs per mL). Superheated ND stability was quantified using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DFB NDs ...
The solvent vapor treatment (SVT) for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PAT6) films and its application to interpenetrating heterojunction organic solar cells have been studied. It was found that SVT could improve the crystallinity and electrical characteristics of the PAT6 films. We fabricated organic solar cells with an interpenetrating structure of PAT6 and fullerenes utilizing the SVT process, and discuss the improved performance of the solar cells by taking the film crystallinity, optical properties, and morphology into consideration.
A plan was developed to apply biosolid to soil of the former lake Texcoco to fertilize the pioneer vegetation. Because, no information exists about how differences in electrolytic conductivity (EC) might affect mineralization of biosolid and dynamics of C and N in soil, 20 soil samples forming a gradient in EC ranging from 22 to 150 dS m?1 were characterized, amended with 500 mg biosolid C kg?1 dry soil and incubated aerobically at 22 2 C while production of CO2, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2?), and nitrate (NO3?), and NH3 volatilization were monitored at 22 2 C for 70 days. Soil characteristics showed large variations with maximum values often >10-times larger than minimum values. The production of CO2 in the unamended soil ranged from 25 to 159 mg CO2-C kg?1 day?1 and NH3 volatilization from 0 to 189 ?g NH3-N kg?1 day?1. Application of biosolid increased production of CO2 significantly 1.4-fold and volatilization of NH3 11.5-fold. The EC explained most of the variation in ...
Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled. DEVELOPMENT OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYST AL DETECTORS FOR SENSING BACTERIA IN WATER AND DETERMINING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR. Submitted by. WongYukYan. for the Degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong. in January 2000. The applicability of piezoelectric (P/Z) crystal sensors as detectors for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, and sensing bacteria in water, has been investigated in the present study. The detectors developed provide a simple and sensitive on-site method for determining total organic vapours in air for occupational health protection, and provide a specific and economic method for determining Salmonella in water for food poisoning. cases.. For VOC determination in workplace air, a light and portable P/Z crystal detector has been developed. To reduce the interference of high humidity on the monitoring of organic vapours, the moisture content in the air. sampled was removed by two different drying ...
article{5bc6e8af-49e6-46da-8e48-1a370f027ebe, abstract = {We have studied GaP/GaAs/GaP and GaAsxP1-x/GaAs/GaAsxP1-x double-barrier resonant tunnelling diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. We find that GaP tensile strained barriers in GaP/GaAs/GaP diodes may be grown with a barrier thickness below the critical thickness of about 12 monolayers. However, a corrugation of the strained barrier is observed by transmission electron microscopy. This variation may explain the low peak-to-valley ratio of the diodes (about 2). In contrast, GaAsxP1-x/GaAs/GaAsxP1-x resonant tunnelling diodes have been grown with a homogeneous thickness of the barriers, consequently showing a substantially improved electrical performance compared to the GaP diodes with peak-to-valley ratios >5.}, author = {Wernersson, Lars-Erik and Borgström, Magnus and Gustafson, Boel and Gustafsson, Anders and Pietzonka, I and Pistol, Mats-Erik and Sass, T and Seifert, Werner and Samuelson, Lars}, issn = {0003-6951}, ...
Graphical abstract: Layer-stack hexagonal cadmium oxide (CdO) micro-rods were prepared. - Highlights: • Novel hexagonal layer-stack structure CdO micro-rods were synthesized by a thermal evaporation method. • The pre-oxidation, vapor pressure and substrate nature play a key role on the formation of CdO rods. • The formation mechanism of CdO micro-rods was explained. - Abstract: Novel layer-stack hexagonal cadmium oxide (CdO) micro-rods were prepared by pre-oxidizing Cd granules and subsequent thermal oxidation under normal atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to characterize the phase structure and microstructure. The pre-oxidation process, vapor pressure and substrate nature were the key factors for the formation of CdO micro-rods. The diameter of micro-rod and surface rough increased with increasing of thermal evaporation temperature, the length of micro-rod increased with the increasing of evaporation time. The formation of ...
Article What is a Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)?. What is a Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)? Our products are known for monitoring many different gases, but if you look closely at the description of some of them, you will see that it mentions the ...
0023] Under conditions, such as that of a hot soak, in which the two-phase fuel may separate into a liquid phase and a vapor phase, the configuration of the fuel rail 100 may prevent the introduction of the fuel that has separated into the vapor phase from being introduced into the engine for two reasons. First, to the extent that fuel in the injector cavity 110 separates into a vapor phase, the vapor-phase fuel may be inclined to migrate upwards, away from the fuel gallery 111, and towards the upper portion of the injector cavity 110. Since the upper portion of the injector cavity 110 is in the vicinity of the outlet channel overlap 113, the vapor-phase fuel is less likely to be sent through the injection port 104 at the bottom the injector cavity 100, and the liquid-phase fuel in the fuel gallery 111 is more likely to be sent through the injection port 104, upon a restart. Second, upon a restart, fresh liquid-phase fuel will flow from a fuel tank through the inlet port 102 and into the inlet ...
Application of anaerobic swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) lagoon liquid onto cropland by irrigation is a common method of waste disposal and treatment. Currently, the application rate of swine lagoon liquid is based on the N concentration of the lagoon liqu id and the N required by the receiver crop to obtain a realistic yield. In North Carolina, only 50% of the total N in the swine lagoon liquid applied by irrigation is considered available for plant use during the first year after application. Uncertaint y exists as to whether this coefficient accurately predicts the amount of plant-available N. Therefore, research was conducted in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina to determine the efficiency of N uptake by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max M errill) receiving swine lagoon liquid through irrigation. The line-source sprinkler irrigation method was used to provide a continuous variable N rate, ranging from 0 to 290 kg N/ha, across the field during 1999 and 2000. Ammonia volatilization ...
Free Online Library: Laboratory evaluation of volatile organic compounds emissions from coated and uncoated oriented strandboard. by Forest Products Journal; Business Forest products industry Emissions (Pollution) Case studies Oriented strand board Volatile organic compounds Influence
The current standard is developed for the purpose of implementation of Environmental Protection Law of the Peoples Republic of China and Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Waste, protecting the environment, ensuring human health and standardizing the methods for determination of volatile organic compounds in solid waste. The current standard specifies the headspace-gas chromatography method for determination of volatile organic compounds in solid waste. The current standard is released for the first time.. ...
The exposure to MMA vapor concentration realized during percutaneous vertebroplasty (, 5 ppm) is well below the published recommended standard of 100 ppm (7). This recommended exposure level is a time-weighted average for an 8-hour workday. The measured values represent exposures during a period of approximately 1 hour. If each persons exposure is averaged over an 8-hour day, accounting for 7 hours of no exposure, the calculated time-weighted average exposure would be reduced by a factor of seven eighths. Under the conditions of this survey, the levels are, therefore, well within an acceptable range.. McLaughlin et al (8) also found occupational exposure of medical personnel to MMA to be at an acceptable level. These investigators measured MMA vapor concentrations achieved during total hip arthroplasty procedures in the operating room at 277 ppm immediately after the time of mixing, dropping exponentially thereafter, with concentrations of less than 10 ppm by 6 minutes after mixing. Our study ...
To investigate the effects of F and S on the transport and concentration of Mo in granite molybdenite deposits, we prepared four synthetic granite compositions with Mo, S, and F. Each composition was run at 1000 °C and 100 MPa with 6 wt % H2O to stabilize the phase assemblage liquid + aqueous vapor. In all compositions, Mo is partitioned into the vapor phase and deposited on the capsule walls, in vapor bubbles in the quenched glasses, or in silica-rich spherules. F and S do not affect the partitioning of Mo. However, S plays a critical role in the deposition of Mo from the vapor phase. Thus, the initial water content of the magma, which controls the timing of vapor phase evolution, and the presence of S are primary controls on Mo ore deposition in these deposits.. ...
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The source of the vapor intrusion in Riversides Valley Pike neighborhood has been traced back to Mullins Rubber Products and Mullins Land Co.
The use of argon as an environment for the dc arc results in marked prolongation of volatilization, increased initial electrode currents, and enhancement of lines of many elements, particularly volatile ones, when samples are burnt to extinction and compared to helium and argon-helium mixtures. An interdependent relationship between total time necessary for complete volatilization of samples, percentage helium and argon composition of the atmosphere, and sample concentrations is demonstrated. Independently, a relationship between the electrode current, percent helium and argon, and concentration of the sample exists.. © 1952 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
A winter and a summer nitrogen mass balance experiment were conducted to analyze effects of feeding clinoptilolite zeolite clay to steers. No differences were found in steer ADG, F/G or carcass characteristics. Nitrogen mass balance and volatilization were not affected by a 1.2% addition of clinoptilolite in feedlot diets. These experiments indicate clinoptilolite zeolite clay does not have a large enough cation exchange potential to be effective in reducing N volatilization in open feedlot pens.
Go to Home Depot. Grab a 12 oz. drop cloth (Walmart only has 10 oz.)of whatever size or better yet grab a friend and do two with splitting a large cloth in half. Buy a gallon of Valspar Oil Gloss porch and Floor in Brick Red. Also pick up gal. of Boiled Linseed Oil(you will only need half of that and put the other half on shelf to use for everything else in the world and make sure its boiled for the evaporation process)and a quart of Olympic Maximum waterproof sealant(for its parafin wax(it dries fine),UV protection and sunblock). Split the gal. of porch paint, add quart of Linseed Oil to each and split the quart of Olympic Maximum between the two. Throw the cloth over a fence post or hitchn rail, put on some good music and start brushing it on. Let it sit overnight and then do the other side.KEEP IT OUTSIDE!DO NOT PUT INSIDE DUE TO POSSIBLE AUTO COMBUSTION UNTIL DRIED(evaporation process). In a couple of days it will be good to go and have a beautiful frontier color. Then grab a round ...
We aim to calibrate stochastic volatility models from option prices. We develop a Tikhonov regularization approach to recover the risk ne-utral drift term and diffusion term of the volatility (or variance) process which are presumed to be a deterministic function of instantaneous volatility (or v-ariance) and time, as well as the correlation coefficient as a function of time. In contrast to the most existing literature, we do not assume that these terms in the general stochastic volatility model have special structures. A modified Dupires equation associated with stochastic volatility models is first proposed, which allows us to formulate the calibration problem as a standard inverse problem of partial differential equations. Then a Tikhonov regularization method can be used to recover these three terms respectively. The necessary condition that the optimal solution satisfies is derived for each term. We further simplified these necessary conditions. Then we propose a gradient descent algorithm ...
Rice has been fermented to enhance its application in some foods. Although various microbes are involved in rice fermentation, their roles in the formation of volatile compounds, which are important to the characteristics of fermented rice, are not clear. In this study, diverse approaches, such as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), metabolic pathway-based volatile compound formations, and correlation analysis between volatile compounds and microbes were applied to compare metabolic characteristics according to each microbe and determine microbe-specific metabolites in fermented rice inoculated by molds, yeasts, and lactic acid bacteria. Metabolic changes were relatively more activated in fermented rice inoculated by molds compared to other microbes. Volatile compound profiles were significantly changed depending on each microbe as well as the group of microbes. Regarding some metabolic pathways, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids, it could be observed that ...
Altech provides accurate and fast measurements of VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds). We offer complete VOC CEMS or discrete analyzers.
An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into headspace over discrete electronic components including resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and transformers were i..
The FLIR GF320 is an IR camera for optical gas imaging. It visualizes and pinpoints leaks of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), without the need to shut down the operation. This portable camera can greatly improve operator safety, by detecting emissions at a safe distance.
The scope of this diploma thesis is to examine the four generations of asset pricing models and the corresponding volatility dynamics which have been devepoled so far. We proceed as follows: In chapter 1 we give a short repetition of the Black-Scholes first generation model which assumes a constant volatility and we show that volatility should not be modeled as constant by examining statistical data and introducing the notion of implied volatility. In chapter 2, we examine the simplest models that are able to produce smiles or skews - local volatility models. These are called second generation models. Local volatility models model the volatility as a function of the stock price and time. We start with the work of Dupire, show how local volatility models can be calibrated and end with a detailed discussion of the constant elasticity of volatility model. Chapter 3 focuses on the Heston model which represents the class of the stochastic volatility models, which assume that the volatility itself is ...