Ammonia gas can be lost from the soil and return to the atmosphere. Visit our site to learn about Nitrogen in the Environment: Ammonia Volatilization.
1. Minchinton AI, Tannock IF. Drug penetration in solid tumours. Nature reviews Cancer. 2006;6:583-92 2. Iyer AK, Khaled G, Fang J, Maeda H. Exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect for tumor targeting. Drug discovery today. 2006;11:812-8 3. Li Y, Wang J, Wientjes MG, Au JL. Delivery of nanomedicines to extracellular and intracellular compartments of a solid tumor. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2012;64:29-39 4. Hobbs SK, Monsky WL, Yuan F, Roberts WG, Griffith L, Torchilin VP. et al. Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998;95:4607-12 5. Matsumura Y, Maeda H. A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs. Cancer Res. 1986;46:6387-92 6. Meng H, Xue M, Xia T, Ji Z, Tarn DY, Zink JI. et al. Use of size and a copolymer design feature to ...
The fate and transport of nitrogen compounds in urea-fertilized soils has historically been a topic of great interest. At present, several models exists for simulating the various transformations involved. A major constraint in the application of these models is the assignment of numerical values to the coefficients that quantify these transformations. This study attempts to characterize the processes linked to the hydrolysis of urea, adsorption and volatilization of ammonia, and nitrification in agricultural soils. We followed the temporal sequence of volatilization of ammonia in two different soils fertilized with urea under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The amounts of nitrate and ammonia in soil were also measured at the end of each trial. Several modeling alternatives were analyzed in order to accurately reproduce the results. Among these alternatives, the most successful approaches included the kinetics of urea hydrolysis and ammonia adsorption and desorption processes. Urea ...
A study was set up to investigate the environmental effects of anaerobic digestion and separa-tion of slurry. Volatilisation of odour and ammonia from treated and untreated slurry were compared both during storage and following land application. It was found that ammonia volatilisation was higher from uncovered stores of anaerobically digested and separated slurry than from untreated slurry, however, when slurry stores were covered efficiently, the loss rate was low and equal for treated and untreated slurry. Ammonia volatilisation following land application was found to be lower from both anaerobically digested and separated slurry compared to untreated slurry. Treatment of slurry by anaerobic digestion and separation did not reduce odour nuisances during storage, however, odour nuisance from slurry stores was found to be efficiently reduced by an artificial crust cover of the slurry stores. During land application the odour nuisances were found to be lower for anaerobically digested and ...
Pashchenko L. L., Miroshnichenko E. A. Thermodynamics of vaporization of 3-isopropylbiphenyl. to an equation on temperature dependence of vaporization enthalpies // Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. - 2015. - Vol. 120, no. 2. - P. 1375-1381. Abstract Enthalpies of vaporization,ΔglH∘m,were determined for 3-isopropylbiphenyl in the temperature range from 323 to 373 K. Measurements were performed on an isothermal heat conducting Calvet microcalorimeter according to the standard procedure with an estimated accuracy of 0.7 per cent. The average values of the standard enthalpies of vaporization were adjusted to 298.15 K. The latter has been used to calculate the standard formation enthalpy for 3-isopropylbiphenyl in the gaseous state. A second-order group additivity method has been applied to predict the vaporization enthalpies of some cyclic compounds. The contributions of tert-butyl, methyl, and isopropyl group to the vaporization enthalpies of the aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives are ...
Contaminants in indoor air resulting from vapor intrusion are often estimated using the concentrations in a sub-slab sample multiplied by an attenuation factor (AF). An AF accounts for the reduction in concentration that occurs when vapors enter a building and mix with indoor air. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) is using a very protective AF of 0.1, (or 10% of the soil vapor found in the sub-slab will be in indoor air). The amount of soil vapor that enters a building is different for every building, but this AF overestimates indoor air concentrations in most homes.. EPA recently recommended an AF of 0.03 for screening sub-slab soil vapor at vapor intrusion sites throughout the U.S. (USEPA, 2015). EPA derived the AF of 0.03 after looking at data from numerous homes across the country. 95 percent of the homes studied had (basement) indoor air concentrations less than or equal to 0.03 times the sub-slab concentration, and 50 percent of the homes had (basement) indoor air ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solvent vapor annealing of block polymer thin films. AU - Sinturel, Christophe. AU - Vayer, Marylène. AU - Morris, Michael. AU - Hillmyer, Marc A.. PY - 2013/7/23. Y1 - 2013/7/23. N2 - This Perspective provides a critical analysis of the current knowledge concerning solvent vapor annealing (SVA) of block polymer thin films. Herein, we identify key challenges that will be important to overcome for future development of SVA as a practical, reliable, and universal technique for the valorization of block polymer thin films in a wide range of technologies. The Perspective includes a brief background on thin film block polymer self-assembly, a historical account of the SVA technique, an overview of the SVA fundamentals that are necessary to develop a more comprehensive picture of the overall process, and summaries of relevant and important contributions from the recent literature. We also offer our outlook on SVA and suggest important future directions.. AB - This Perspective provides ...
Device offers enhanced patient safety through less bleeding and increased procedural efficiencies through new design. CENTER VALLEY, Pa., (May 4, 2016) - Olympus, a global technology leader in designing and delivering innovative solutions for medical and surgical procedures, among other core businesses, announced today the launch of its FDA cleared Plasma-OvalButton for urologic procedures including minimally invasive surgery to reduce enlarged prostate as well as treatment of bladder cancer. The Plasma-OvalButton uses Olympus plasma technology in a revolutionary electrode shape designed to maximize O.R. efficiency and enhance clinical outcomes.. With a 25 percent increase in width and 31 percent increase in vaporization area from Olympus present vaporization device, the Plasma-OvalButton is designed to increase tissue removal rates for enhanced procedural efficiency. Lab testing has demonstrated a 21% increase in tissue vaporization from Olympus existing vaporization electrode. The ...
Ecosorb - 130 CFM - Vapor Phase Unit for Odor Neutralizers by OMI Industries (OMI). The OMI 130 CFM unit uses vapor phase dispersion to produce sub-micron ...
This paper starts by explaining how the vapour phase hydrogen peroxide rapid sporicidal process works and continues with a description of the present methods of cycle development. The paper continues with some suggestions as to how cycle development can be speeded up considerably and introduces enzyme indicators (EIs) as a recent development to add to chemical indicators (CIs) and possibly replace biological indicators (BIs). The paper offers practical solutions to both the problems mentioned above, based on long experience with the design, construction and validation of vapour phase hydrogen peroxide generators ...
An empirical equation of the volatilization of kraft black liquor droplets during burning. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Definition of vaporization in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is vaporization? Meaning of vaporization as a legal term. What does vaporization mean in law?
Data set including sea level, temperature, salinity, and current from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) is used in this study to estimate the mean net annually and seasonally evaporation rates. Then wind data is used to examine its impact on the evaporation. This work calculated the seasonal and annual evaporation rates based on assumption of that there is no net mass transport (balanced). Hence, the difference in the transport supposed to be equal to the water that has evaporated. Therefore data of water in-flow and out-flow used to examine the net mass transport with the obtained evaporation rate. Results revealed that the net annual mean evap- oration was 1.24 m/yr and the net seasonal mean was 1.3 m/yr and the evaporation rate in winter months was permanently higher than summer and autumn with min- imum value in August. The annual wind impact is masked but, it is clearer for the monthly, particularly in June and October. The monthly water exchange through Bab al-Mandeb Strait accompanied ...
View Notes - LECT6 (ET) from AOE 4643 at University of Florida. AOM 4932 Evaporation and Transpiration Evaporation - change of water from its liquid to its vapor phase Potential Evaporation -
A process for the vapor phase graft copolymerization of a monomer vapor onto a polymeric substrate in the presence of a source of light at low energy levels and a photosensitive vapor (e.g. a diketone) activated by such low energy. The product of said process.
The advantage of ceria loading over V2O5-Al2O3 catalyst for vapor phase oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene using CO2 as a soft oxidant. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1R)-(-)-10-camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline∕R-camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-vis spectroscopy, four-point probe conductivity measurement, Raman spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The poly aniline films grown by this method not only showed high electrochemical activity, supported by CV and Raman spectrum, but also exhibited optical activity corresponding to the polymer chains as observed by circular dichroism spectra.
A process for improved vapor phase silylation of photoresist is disclosed. The process uses silylation materials which either produce a strong base such as dimethylamine upon reaction with a resist film or which contain an improved chemical leaving group such as acetate. The process is effective at temperatures of 135 C. and below. Preferred silylation materials are N,N-dimethylaminotrimethylsilane and trimethylsilylacetate.
Find vapor phase hg monitor articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Reference list on the plastics, pesticides and other solvent vapors which contribute to poor air quality, allergies, illness, airborne toxicity and carcinogenic risk.. NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS. VOCs - can be classified by boiling points (VVOC, SVOC, VOC and POM) or by chemical structure such as aliphatic / aromatic hydrocarbons or functional R group composition such as oxygenated / halogenated hydrocarbons. Low volatility, high potency organic compounds and those with high polarity can be expected to preferentially take on the form of solid particles rather than remain in a vapor phase. Settled house dust or respirable suspended particles (such as those in the PM2.5 and PM10 size regimes) can also serve as reservoirs for both vapor phase SVOCs and POMs by adsorption. Exposure can be through inhalation, digestion or direct skin contact.. May come from a variety of sources including building materials, pesticides, air fresheners / aerosols, carpeting and linens. (including drapes). Ozone ...
Reference list on the plastics, pesticides and other solvent vapors which contribute to poor air quality, allergies, illness, airborne toxicity and carcinogenic risk.. NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS. VOCs - can be classified by boiling points (VVOC, SVOC, VOC and POM) or by chemical structure such as aliphatic / aromatic hydrocarbons or functional R group composition such as oxygenated / halogenated hydrocarbons. Low volatility, high potency organic compounds and those with high polarity can be expected to preferentially take on the form of solid particles rather than remain in a vapor phase. Settled house dust or respirable suspended particles (such as those in the PM2.5 and PM10 size regimes) can also serve as reservoirs for both vapor phase SVOCs and POMs by adsorption. Exposure can be through inhalation, digestion or direct skin contact.. May come from a variety of sources including building materials, pesticides, air fresheners / aerosols, carpeting and linens. (including drapes). Ozone ...
TEG Vaporization Losses In this Tip of The Month (TOTM), the effect of striping gas rate and triethylene glycol (TEG) circulation ratio on the TEG vaporization loss from the regenerator top and conta
Author(s): Kastl, C; Chen, CT; Kuykendall, T; Shevitski, B; Darlington, TP; Borys, NJ; Krayev, A; Schuck, PJ; Aloni, S; Schwartzberg, AM | Abstract: © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are commonly grown by chemical vapor deposition using transition metal oxides as solid precursors. Despite the widespread use of this technique, challenges in reproducibility, coverage, and material quality are pervasive, suggestive of unknown and uncontrolled process parameters. In this communication, we demonstrate the impact of water vapor on this growth process. Our results show a direct correlation between gas phase water content and the morphology of TMD films. In particular, we show that the presence of water enhances volatilization, and therefore the vapor transport of tungsten and molybdenum oxide. Surprisingly, we find that water not only plays an important role in volatilization but is also compatible with TMD growth. In fact, carefully controlled humidity can consistently
The core experiments in this work were conducted in an experimental microcosm, or flux chamber. The chamber was constructed of 1 in anodized aluminum blocks, 30 cm long by 9 cm wide to which a sediment chamber measuring 10 cm long, 3 cm wide and 2 cm deep is attached. An air gap of about 0.2 cm is used to pass air of varying relative humidities. The contaminants that may vaporize into this moving air phase arecollected on an adsorbent trap in the effluent. Inoculated or field-contaminated sediment may be placed in the flux chamber and the potential for volatilization of contaminants measured. The observed vaporization rates were compared to models of the process. The experiments were able to reproduce a wide range of conditions that may apply in the field, from air-side to sediment-side mass transfer resistance controlled, to moisture content controlled volatilization. To illustrate, the air emissions of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pyrene and phenanthrene) and one heterocyclic compound ...
Acute oral toxicity (acute toxic class method, method B1 of directive 2004/73/EC) and acute dermal toxicity (method B3 of directive 2004/73/EC) were determined in the rat. In both studies the test substance was administered neat at 2000 mg/kg bwt. Both studies were GLP-compliant, and the information is reliable and fully adequate for evaluation. There were no deaths, unusual clinical signs or necropsy findings in either study. The acute inhalation toxicity of a series on C9-C13 n-alkanes was investigated in male SD rats following a single 8-hr exposure to vapour. A calculated LC50 of 4467 ppm (equivalent to 23.4 mg/l) was determined for n-nonane. Given the extended duration of exposure used in these studies, the 4 -hr LC50 is likely to exceed this value. No mortality was recorded for C10 -C13 n-alkanes after exposure to the maximum achievable vapour concentration in air. The maximum saturated vapour concentration decreased in a predictable manner with increasing C-number. It is concluded, based ...
Pacholski, A., Cai, Gx., Fan, Xh., Ding, H., Chen, Dl., Nieder, R. and Roelcke, M. (2008): Comparison of different methods for the measurement of ammonia volatilization after urea application in Henan Province, China, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171(3):361-369. Article (pdf) ...
BASIC WOODEN DIFFUSERModel: L1The wooden diffusers are a genuine Italian design and fit well in an elegant setting such as offices, waiting rooms, shops and public spaces. They shares the same working process and efficacy as the basic diffusers.They selectively and entirely diffuse the volatile fraction of propolis.They take the very best organic Italian propolis and slowly release its components gradually and consistently into the air throughout the capsule duration.The diffusers warm up the propolis contained in the capsules, initially reaching wax fraction fusion and, subsequently, regulating the temperature in order to free the volatile fraction. The alternation between these two temperatures allows the release of all volatile substances within the propolis.Replacement capsules available on the page: replacement capsules
Our work explores the volatility of particles produced from two diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) modes proposed for high-efficiency compression ignition engines. It also explores mechanisms of particulate formation and growth upon dilution in the near-tailpipe environment. Moreover, the number distribution of exhaust particles from low- and mid-load dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and single-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) modes were experimentally studied over a gradient of dilution temperature. Particle volatility of select particle diameters was investigated using volatility tandem differential mobility analysis (V-TDMA). Evaporation rates for exhaust particles were compared with V-TDMA results for candidate pure n-alkanes to identify species with similar volatility characteristics. The results show that LTC particles are mostly comprised of material with volatility similar to engine oil alkanes. V-TDMA results were used as inputs to an ...
Manufacturing of Niacinamide and use may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) is a precursor of the coenzymes NAD and NADP. If released to air, an estimated vapor pressure of 0.00045 Pa at 25 °C indicates nicotinamide will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the atmosphere. Particulate-phase nicotinamide will be removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition. If released to soil, nicotinamide is expected to have very high mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 15. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process based upon an estimated Henrys Law constant of 2.9E-12 atm-cu m/mole. Nicotinamide was determined to be readily biodegradable in an aerobic screening test. If released into water, nicotinamide is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process ...
Herein, an approach for simulating phase diagrams of binary mixtures is presented, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapour phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarisation. Time-averaged density profiles for the pure compounds and mixtures at different mole fractions provide information about the spatial distribution in the bulk liquid and the amount of evaporated species in the adjacent vapour phase. The activities in the liquid phase are calculated from the mean vapour phase densities at a given composition, providing a good qualitative agreement compared to experimental data and the precision of the method follows a previously developed Poisson model of evaporation. With the Redlich-Kister approach for the activities in a binary mixture, the directly obtained activities are fitted providing corrected activity coefficients of the two species. This method is applied to ethanol water mixtures at different mole fractions. The obtained structural data are in good
A study was conducted to examine whether there are significant differences between organic vapor concentrations measured using charcoal tubes with three different configurations: uncovered sample holder (open tube), SKC, and Buck brand covered sample holders. A fractional factorial experimental design was used with the following factors and levels: vapor (n-hexane vs. m-xylene), pump type (pulsati
The high vapor densities of the halogenated solvents make it possible to maintain a definite vapor level in the degreaser, keeping solvent vapor concentrations in the operators breathing zone below the maximum recommended time-weighted average (TWA) concentration with both manual and automatic degreasers. Items to check to ensure a steady vapor line are the following ...
Two experiments using calves fed 176 days from November to May (WINTER) and yearlings fed 117 days from May to September (SUMMER) were conducted to compare conventional CP levels to phase-fed diets balanced for degradable intake protein and undegradable intake protein on performance and N volatilization. Phase fed diets were formulated to balance degradable intake protein and metabolizable protein. Phase feeding resulted in greater ADG and better F:G in WINTER and similar performance in SUMMER than traditional feeding methods. Nitrogen excretion was significantly reduced in both WINTER and SUMMER which translated into significantly less N volatilization without impacting N removed in manure.
Solvent extraction and evaporation is a widely used unit operation in the manufacturing of micro and nano-particles.. Due to the weak bond of the API to the protein, the product is highly sensitive to temperature, mechanical mixing and extraction/evaporation rate. A slow extraction/evaporation rate leads to changes of the particle size, which may result in blockage of the sterile filter and failure of the batch. In situations similar to this one, mathematical modeling is becoming a promising tool to improve the understanding and control of the CPPs and reduce the development time and cost.. The purpose of this work is to determine the sensitivity of different process parameters related to the solvent extraction/evaporation unit operation. A mathematical model was developed and applied to predict the duration required to accomplish the solvent extraction/evaporation process.. Turbulent Flow and Rotating Machinery physics interfaces in the CFD Module of COMSOL Multiphysics® were used to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrothermal vaporization coupled with inductively coupled plasma array-detector mass spectrometry for the multielement analysis of Al 2O3 ceramic powders. AU - Peschel, Birgit U.. AU - Andrade, Francisco. AU - Wetzel, William C.. AU - Schilling, Gregory D.. AU - Hieftje, Gary M.. AU - Broekaert, José A.C.. AU - Sperline, Roger. AU - Denton, M. Bonner. AU - Barinaga, Charles J.. AU - Koppenaal, David W.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - An electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system useful for the analysis of solutions and slurries has been coupled with a sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) equipped with an array detector. The ability of this instrument to record the transient signals produced for a number of analytes in ETV-ICP-MS is demonstrated. Detection limits for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga are in the range of 4-60 pg μL- 1 for aqueous solutions and in the low μg g- 1 range for the analysis of 10 mg mL- 1 slurries of Al2O3 powders. The ...
Downloadable! How to measure and model volatility is an important issue in finance. Recent research uses high-frequency intraday data to construct ex post measures of daily volatility. This paper uses a Bayesian model-averaging approach to forecast realized volatility. Candidate models include autoregressive and heterogeneous autoregressive specifications based on the logarithm of realized volatility, realized power variation, realized bipower variation, a jump and an asymmetric term. Applied to equity and exchange rate volatility over several forecast horizons, Bayesian model averaging provides very competitive density forecasts and modest improvements in point forecasts compared to benchmark models. We discuss the reasons for this, including the importance of using realized power variation as a predictor. Bayesian model averaging provides further improvements to density forecasts when we move away from linear models and average over specifications that allow for GARCH effects in the innovations to
Abstract: This study presents new analytic approximations of the stochastic-alpha-beta-rho (SABR) model. Unlike existing studies that focus on the equivalent Black-Scholes (BS) volatility, we instead derive the equivalent volatility under the constant-elasticity-of-variance (CEV) model, which is the limit of the SABR model when the volatility of volatility approaches 0. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the CEV volatility approximation for a wide range of parameters. Moreover, in our approach, arbitrage occurs at a lower strike price than in existing BS-based approximations ...
Abstract: This study presents new analytic approximations of the stochastic-alpha-beta-rho (SABR) model. Unlike existing studies that focus on the equivalent Black-Scholes (BS) volatility, we instead derive the equivalent constant-elasticity-of-variance (CEV) volatility. Our approach effectively reduces the approximation error in a way similar to the control variate method because the CEV model is the zero vol-of-vol limit of the SABR model. Moreover, the CEV volatility approximation yields a finite value at a zero strike and thus conveniently leads to a small-time asymptotics for the mass at zero. The numerical results compare favorably with the BS volatility approximations in terms of the approximation accuracy, small-strike volatility asymptotics, and no-arbitrage region ...
Decomposing volatilities into a common market-driven component and an idiosyncratic itemspecific one is an important issue in financial econometrics. This, however, requires the statistical analysis of large panels of time series, hence faces the usual challenges associated with highdimensional data. Factor model methods in such a context are an ideal tool, but they do not readily apply to the analysis of volatilities. Focusing on the reconstruction of the unobserved market shocks and the way they are loaded by the various items (stocks) in the panel, we propose an entirely non-parametric and model-free two-step general dynamic factor approach to the problem, which avoids the usual curse of dimensionality. Applied to the S&P100 asset return dataset, the method provides evidence that a non-negligible proportion of the market-driven volatility of returns originates in the volatilities of the idiosyncratic components of returns.. ...
In this paper, Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) is utilized to investigate the evaporation of low molecular weight alcohol. Evaporation rates as well as the diffusion rates of methanol are determined with a surfactant monolayer on the surface of the liquid; while nitrogen acts as carrier gas, at 313 K. The precision (,99.9) and accuracy of this investigation demonstrates the potential of current methodologies for environmental impact studies; this is further verified when the results are compared with the available literature. The varying evaporation rates of methanol in the presence of varying amounts of Triton X-100 reflects that application of surfactants do damper the evaporation rates of liquid pollutants; without interference with the formers diffusion coefficients. High amounts of Triton X-100 are required for retardation of evaporation rates, suggesting the formation of a densely packed surface monolayer or the formation of an insoluble monolayer.. ...
We, DIDAC INTERNATIONAL are manufacturer and supplier of Programmable Temperature Vaporization Injector based in New Delhi, India
Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.This results in savings in both lab time and hazardous solvent waste generation, disposal and associated costs. Characterisation by GC-MS has also shown Supelpak-2SV resin an excellent choice for semivolatile priority pollutants, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins/ furans. A study of extraction efficiencies using a wide range of semivolatile compounds demonstrated recoveries ,90% even for substituted phenols. Table 2 shows typical recoveries of substituted phenols from Supelpak-2SV compared to competitive products. Customers also appreciate other aspects of the product such as the availability of large single-lot batches of up to 10 kg. This significantly reduces ...
Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.This results in savings in both lab time and hazardous solvent waste generation, disposal and associated costs. Characterisation by GC-MS has also shown Supelpak-2SV resin an excellent choice for semivolatile priority pollutants, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins/ furans. A study of extraction efficiencies using a wide range of semivolatile compounds demonstrated recoveries ,90% even for substituted phenols. Table 2 shows typical recoveries of substituted phenols from Supelpak-2SV compared to competitive products. Customers also appreciate other aspects of the product such as the availability of large single-lot batches of up to 10 kg. This significantly reduces ...
Droplet lasing spectroscopy has been applied to the measurement of droplet size and evaporation rate in a spray. A single droplet, doped with laser dye, was injected along the centerline of a liquid spray. Filters were used to block the strong elastic-scattering signal. The lasing emission from the doped droplet could be detected against the background with mass loadings of liquid in the spray as high as 20%. An analysis of the spectrum of droplet lasing was used to evaluate the droplet diameter. The evaporation rate of the droplet was obtained from consecutive lasing spectra that were obtained from the same droplet. An error analysis of the drop size and drop evaporation measurements was carried out and showed that accurate measurements of evaporation rates were feasible.. © 1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel.A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel. A pre-combustion of reactants filling the vessel ...
The present invention relates to a method of producing a microstructured device, as well as a method of processing a microstructured substrate to heal surface defects therein, a method of bonding substrates and healing surface defects in a substrate, and microstructured devices produced by these methods.
Downloadable ! Author(s): M. Ayhan Kose & Eswar S. Prasad & Marco E. Terrones. 2004 Abstract: The influential work of Ramey and Ramey (1995) highlighted an empirical relationship that has now come to be regarded as conventional wisdom-that output volatility and growth are negatively correlated. We reexamine this relationship in the context of globalization-a term typically used to describe the phenomenon of growing international trade and financial integration that has intensified since the mid-1980s. We employ various econometric techniques and a comprehensive new dataset to analyze the link between growth and volatility. Our findings suggest that, while the basic negative association between growth and volatility has been preserved during the 1990s, both trade and financial integration attenuate this negative relationship. Specifically, countries that are more open to trade appear to face a less severe tradeoff between growth and volatility. We find a similar, although slightly less robust, result for
Spectroscopic measurements have been made of the nitric oxide and water vapor concentrations in the stratosphere at an altitude of 28 kilometers. The measurements, carried out in situ with the use of a spin flip Raman laser, represent the first accurate determination of nitric oxide as a function of time (as the sun rose) from about 6: 30 to 14: 00 C. D. T. ...
Spikes in Volatility - Above we see a chart from 1990 to the present, mapping out the ratio of the average daily high-low range over the past five sessions in the S&P 500 Index ($SPX) to the average daily range over the past 200 days. Spikes in this measure of relative volatility have occurred in August, 1990; April, 1994; July, 1996; October, 1997; September/October, 1998; July, 2002; and August, 2007. On the whole, these were good times for intermediate-term stock purchase. We are currently seeing another such spike at present. Going back to 1990 (N = 4535 trading days), we have had 80 occasions in which the ratio of five-day volatility to 200-day volatility was above 2.0. Ten days later, the S&P 500 Index averaged a sizable gain of 1.95% (57 up, 23 down). That is much stronger than the average ten-day gain of .32% (2584 up, 1871 down) for the remainder of the sample ...
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research ...