‎Preview, buy, and download songs from the album Babys Song (Ares) - Single, including Babys Song (Ares), Babys Song (Ares) [Acapella], and Babys Song (Ares) [Instrumental]. Buy the album for $2.97. Songs start at $0.99.
Vocal learning - the ability to imitate complex vocalizations - is a relatively rare ability in the animal kingdom. Humans obviously are excellent vocal learners, and this ability is central to both singing and speech. Surprisingly, vocal learning of complex sounds (like speech or songs) has not been found in ANY other nonhuman primate.. However, vocal learning is common among birds, and at least three major bird groups have evolved vocal learning, probably independently: the songbirds (oscine passerines), parrots, and hummingbirds. This has led to songbirds becoming the major group in which the genetic and neural basis for vocal learning is studied. Unfortunately, however, birds have both a very different brain from that of mammals, and a completely novel vocal production system (called the syrinx). Thus, there may be important differences between vocal learning mechanisms in humans and birds.. Another large group of vocal learners are the cetaceans: whales and dolphins. Again, unfortunately ...
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Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations are produced by female primates, including human females, and female non-primates. Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during sexual intercourse and are hence related to sexual activity. Vocalizations that occur before intercourse, for the purpose of attracting mates, are known as mating calls. In primates, copulation calling is typically observed at the end of mating and there are vast variations between species regarding its occurrence, frequency and form. It is agreed that coital vocalizations fulfill an evolutionary purpose and that they serve as adaptive solutions to problems that the females face, such as infanticide, as well as obtaining high quality sperm. In non-primates, copulatory calling predominantly occurs before copulation in order to attract mates (mating call). Calls vary in frequency (14 Hz to 70,000 Hz) and function. One of the main purposes of females vocalizing is the induction of ...
as in perro, for example is an alveolar trill. Trills are very different from flaps. Whereas with a flap (or tap), a specific gesture is used to strike the active articulator against the passive one, in the case of a trill the articulator is held in place, where the airstream causes it to vibrate. Usually a trill vibrates for 2-3 periods, but may be up to 5, or even more if geminate. However, trills may also be produced with only a single period. Although this might seem like a flap, the articulation is different; trills will vary in the number of periods, but flaps do not. Trill consonants included in the International Phonetic Alphabet: [r] - alveolar trill [ʙ] - bilabial trill [ʀ] - uvular trill [ʜ] - voiceless epiglottal trill [ʢ] - voiced epiglottal trill In addition, [ʩ] - velopharyngeal fricative found in disordered speech sometimes involves trilling of the velopharyngeal port, producing a snort. The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar [r͇], ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voices of the dead. T2 - Complex nonlinear vocal signals from the larynx of an ultrasonic frog. AU - Suthers, Roderick A.. AU - Narins, Peter M.. AU - Lin, Wen Yu. AU - Schnitzler, Hans Ulrich. AU - Denzinger, Annette. AU - Xu, Chun He. AU - Feng, Albert S.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Most anurans are highly vocal but their vocalizations are stereotyped and simple with limited repertoire sizes compared with other vocal vertebrates, presumably because of the limited mechanisms for fine vocal motor control. We recently reported that the call of the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus Fei) is an exception in its seemingly endless variety, musical warbling quality, extension of call frequency into the ultrasonic range and the prominence of subharmonics, chaos and other nonlinear features. We now show that the major spectral features of its calls, responsible for this frogs vocal diversity, can be generated by forcing pressurized air through the larynx of ...
Acoustic allometry is the study of how animal vocalisations reflect their body size. A key aim of this research is to identify outliers to acoustic allometry principles and pinpoint the evolutionary origins of such outliers. A parallel strand of research investigates species capable of vocal learning, the experience-driven ability to produce novel vocal signals through imitation or modification of existing vocalisations. Modification of vocalizations is a common feature found when studying both acoustic allometry and vocal learning. Yet, these two fields have only been investigated separately to date. Here, we review and connect acoustic allometry and vocal learning across mammalian clades, combining perspectives from bioacoustics, anatomy and evolutionary biology. Based on this, we hypothesize that, as a precursor to vocal learning, some species might have evolved the capacity for volitional vocal modulation via sexual selection for dishonest signalling. We provide preliminary support for our ...
Climatic conditions represent one of the main constraints that influence avian calling behavior. Here, we monitored the daily calling activity of the Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus) and the Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) during the dry and wet seasons in the Brazilian Pantanal. We aimed to assess the effects of climate predictors on the vocal activity of these focal species and evaluate whether these effects may vary among seasons. Air temperature was positively associated with the daily calling activity of both species during the dry season. However, the vocal activity of both species was unrelated to air temperature during the wet season, when higher temperatures occur. Daily rainfall was positively related to the daily calling activity of both species during the dry season, when rainfall events are scarce and seem to act as a trigger for breeding phenology of the focal species. Nonetheless, daily rainfall was negatively associated with the daily calling activity of the Undulated
The song system of birds has been used extensively as a model system for studying basic mechanisms of neuronal plasticity and development underlying a learned behavior. Discrete sets of interconnected nuclei in the avian brain have evolved and are a prerequisite for song learning processes and the production of song. Zebra finch males, like many other song birds, learn their song by memorizing a tutor song model early in life and then gradually matching their vocal output by auditory feedback to the stored memory of that tutor song. In parallel to these behavioural changes, various changes in neuronal structures of song system nuclei take place. These structural correlates of song learning processes have been investigated in great detail in the current research by raising zebra finches with and without a song tutor model and then studying the consequences for song and for neuronal structure in the song system by using a variety of techniques including Golgi-technique, electron microscopy, ...
Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether
Prof. Erik Zornik [biology 2012-] has been awarded a $444,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health to support his research on mechanisms in the brain that generate rhythmic behavior-with the goal of finding new treatments for neurological disorders.. Prof. Zornik is interested in how behavioral variation is encoded in neural circuits. His research investigates a hindbrain central pattern generator (CPG) that generates the courtship vocal behaviors of African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis.. Adults of this species exhibit a rich vocal repertoire of at least seven call types that range from rhythmically simple to temporally complex, Zornik explains. Xenopus vocalizations are sexually differentiated; males and females produce calls with distinct temporal characteristics that are regulated by steroid hormones during development and in adulthood. This makes their vocal behaviors an ideal subject for understanding the neural basis of behavior and behavioral plasticity. ...
Many factors could influence repertoire size and function. Here, we provide a review of the descriptions of vocal repertoires of New World jays and a unifying terminology for function of their vocalizations. We summarized 19 different functional types of vocal behaviour shared by at least two species, for review purposes. Comparing the 14 studied species, we also classified vocalizations into four major classes defined a priori: Social Integration, Conflict Resolution, Predator-related, and Breeding. Cooperative breeding, as well as group size, are related not only to repertoire size, but to how species allocate their vocalizations into functional classes. We discuss the tendencies of Conflict Resolution and Social Integration and the possibility of the existence and implications of a trade-off between those functional classes. We identified gaps in the current knowledge on vocalizations of the studied species, and emphasize the importance of empiric evidence of vocalization function in the New
Voice is probably the most recognizable sound source of all. See an overview of DPA microphones that can help you make the most of a vocal performance.
Ezequiel Mendoza, Doctoral Student.. In 2001 the chase for genes associated with speech resulted in the identification of a mutation in FOXP2 in individuals that share severe and characteristic core deficits of receptive and productive language. The analysis of the molecular role of FoxP2 in learned vocalizations, has recently been significantly advanced using songbirds as a model [1]. It was demonstrated that FoxP2 pattern of expression in birds vocal learners differ from vocal- non learners, specially in Area X, a part of the specialized basal ganglia forebrain network required for vocal learning that vocal non- learners do not possess. Moreover, FoxP2 expression is elevated in Area X at the time both, when young zebra finches learn to imitate an adult model song and at the time when adult canaries remodel their songs seasonally [2].. The Fox family is composed of over 20 different members, all of which contain a winged-helix motif that is responsible for DNA binding activity. In mice there is ...
There are two kinds of hypertonic vocalization, they are unvoiced and voiced hypertonic vocalization. Unvoiced hypertonic vocalization means that the muscles are constantly hard around the larynx even when you do not vocalize. Voiced hypertonic vocalization is when the muscles strain so hard when you vocalize. Muscles get hard when you talk or sing, because…
In the canary and zebra finch, neuron addition is highest at times when song learning occurs. Yet even when song is stereotyped, new neurons continue to be added. There is evidence that song maintenance requires motor flexibility and we propose that neurogenesis provides the necessary plasticity both for song learning and maintenance. In the zebra finch, a species that normally does not learn new songs in adulthood, there is a progressive decrease in neuron addition that is not accompanied by a decrease in total neuron number (below). This suggests that with age, vocal control regions become more stable. In turn, we hypothesize that this stability is related to ever increasing stability of song motor programs. Interestingly, in age-matched birds, song stability is greater in birds that sing at high rates, suggesting that practice makes perfect. We are now testing whether practice influences neuron addition.. ...
The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar [r͇], but dental and postalveolar articulations [r̪] and [r̠] also occur. An alleged retroflex trill found in Toda has been transcribed [ɽ] (that is, the same as the retroflex flap), but might be less ambiguously written [ɽ͡r], as only the onset is retroflex, with the actual trill being alveolar. The epiglottal trills are identified by the IPA as fricatives, with the trilling assumed to be allophonic.[1] However, analyzing the sounds as trills may be more economical.[2] There are also so-called strident vowels which are accompanied by epiglottal trill.. The cells in the IPA chart for the velar, (upper) pharyngeal, and glottal places of articulation are shaded as impossible. (The glottis quite readily vibrates, but this occurs as the phonation of vowels and consonants, not as a consonant of its own.) According to Esling (2010),[3] palatal trills are also implausible. The upper pharyngeal tract cannot reliably ...
The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar [r͇], but dental and postalveolar articulations [r̪] and [r̠] also occur. An alleged retroflex trill found in Toda has been transcribed [ɽ] (that is, the same as the retroflex flap), but might be less ambiguously written [ɽ͡r], as only the onset is retroflex, with the actual trill being alveolar. The epiglottal trills are identified by the IPA as fricatives, with the trilling assumed to be allophonic.[1] However, analyzing the sounds as trills may be more economical.[2] There are also so-called strident vowels which are accompanied by epiglottal trill.. The cells in the IPA chart for the velar, (upper) pharyngeal, and glottal places of articulation are shaded as impossible. (The glottis quite readily vibrates, but this occurs as the phonation of vowels and consonants, not as a consonant of its own.) According to Esling (2010),[3] palatal trills are also implausible. The upper pharyngeal tract cannot reliably ...
What is the functional role, if any, of the OMC on song production? Although OMC stimulation can elicit electrical activity in song-relevant musculature, this does not necessarily imply that the OMC can influence song production. To address this directly, we carried out a series of perturbations during singing in the alone condition, beginning with bilateral electrical stimulation of the OMC. Strong stimulation resulted in song truncation, whereas milder stimulation (200 to 500 μA) often produced brief pauses (range: 638 to 1448 ms), with songs resuming once stimulation ended (Fig. 3D). The precise stereotypy of alone S. teguina songs (Fig. 1E) provides an ideal opportunity to distinguish between two possible experimental outcomes. First, the song could resume at the expected point in the sequence, accounting for the time delay (outcome 1; Fig. 3E), consistent with the hypothesis that the vocal patterning is primarily driven by a pathway independent of the OMC. In nonhuman primates, for ...
The direct route from HVC to RA is the song-production freeway. It conveys the neural signals needed to generate song, and if its disrupted at any time in a birds life, song breaks down. Another more circuitous path from HVC to RA veers off into the anterior forebrain. This pathway is not essential for song production per se, but disruptions to it in juvenile birds cause serious deficits in song learning.. Many researchers have been pecking away at this anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in search of clues about the mechanisms of song learning. At the conference, several reported on their latest attempts to puzzle out its role in song learning. Although the picture is still somewhat fuzzy, one thing is coming into focus: The circuitry seen in songbirds is not unique.. David Perkel of the University of Washington, Seattle, presented evidence that the AFP is wired up much like the mammalian basal ganglia. This is the network of brain nuclei that goes haywire in Parkinsons disease; it plays a key ...
Abstract (Full Article Here). Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain and by laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the tympanic membranes response to acoustic stimulation. These measurements revealed that the frogs auditory system is broadly tuned over high frequencies, with peak sensitivity occurring within the ultrasonic frequency range. Our results demonstrate that H. cavitympanum is the first non-mammalian vertebrate described to communicate with purely ultrasonic acoustic signals. These ...
Bird song is one of the most remarkable and impressive sounds in the natural world, and has inspired not only students of natural history, but also great writers, poets and composers. Extensively updated from the first edition, the main thrust of this book is to suggest that the two main functions of song are attracting a mate and defending territory. It shows how this evolutionary pressure has led to the amazing variety and complexity we see in the songs of different species throughout the world. Writing primarily for students and researchers in animal behavior, the authors review over 1000 scientific papers and reveal how scientists are beginning to unravel and understand how and why birds communicate with the elaborate vocalizations we call song. Highly illustrated throughout and written in straightforward language, Bird Song also holds appeal for amateur ornithologists with some knowledge of biology. ...
Screaming is arguably one of the most relevant communication signals for survival in humans. Despite their practical relevance and their theoretical significance as innate and virtually universal vocalizations, what makes screams a unique signal and how they are processed is not known. Here, we use acoustic analyses, psychophysical experiments, and neuroimaging to isolate those features that confer to screams their alarming nature, and we track their processing in the human brain. Using the modulation power spectrum, a recently developed, neurally informed characterization of sounds, we demonstrate that human screams cluster within restricted portion of the acoustic space (between ∼30 and 150 Hz modulation rates) that corresponds to a well-known perceptual attribute, roughness. In contrast to the received view that roughness is irrelevant for communication, our data reveal that the acoustic space occupied by the rough vocal regime is segregated from other signals, including speech, a ...
Parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds are among the only birds capable of vocal learning. They join humans, bats, elephants, sea lions, whales, dolphins and porpoises as the only animals with this talent. While of course unable to understand language as people do, such animals can memorize long sequences of words. Dogs, for instance, can understand some words spoken by humans when trained, but can only bark to communicate.. Specialized areas in the forebrain give parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds the power to use vocal motor control, which allows them to imitate sound. These areas control cells in the brainstem that manipulate the muscles used to produce sound. Birds that cannot learn vocally lack forebrain structures that include the HVC and RA nuclei, parts of the motor pathway for song, and additional structures called Area X and LMAN, which form the pathway for song learning.. Brain size doesnt really matter - the structure matters more, Jarvis said, adding that there are seven structures ...
I considered his question and asked, Why should anyone care about anything?. This is the type of conversation I live for. And R is always up for it.. I asked him if anyone should care about the recent auction of The Scream, which set a world record by selling for $119.9 million. He said, Yes, because it reflects the state of the current art market and blah blah blah.. Why is The Scream more important to know about than Beyonces dress? This is a real question. I think that everything we care about is just a distraction from the horror of existence. Any time you find yourself in a life or death situation, you realize the fatuousness of all your preoccupations, of everything going on around you. Your choice of car, your shoes, your blue-ray TV, your favorite band, its all a distraction.. Moving away from existentialism, I wonder why The Scream is worth $119.9 million. Its obviously one of the few paintings that is instantly recognizable by any imbecile. The Scream, the Mona Lisa, and ...
One thing that I did not like at first was the length of this release, which is below 25 minutes, because this band has released great quality BDM, and their previous release (which I enjoyed a lot) was above 30 minutes. But after listening to the whole thing, and understanding how the songs are structured and how the vocal patterns are established, the length now makes sense.. I do really like how the songs are structured, as well as the overall production, in which the drums, guitars, bass, and voice are all distinctive and not overshadowing each other. The riffs are well thought-out and show diversity, the drums are sharply executed, and the vocals fit the music perfectly. All the lyrics are in Spanish, and I must admit thats a plus for me.. In addition to the music, the themes displayed in this album are well-conceived and tasteful. When you start listening, look at the order of the songs and read the lyrics, if you can; you will see how they took their time to tell a story of flesh ...
Sensorimotor development is accelerated during critical periods of behavioral variation corresponding to enhanced neuroplasticity, followed by behavioral stabilization concomitant with reduced neuroplasticity. However, a certain degree of development and complex motor behavior may be achieved without the appropriate sensory inputs and may be driven by intrinsic developmental genetic programs instead. Our study revealed audition-independent vocal development and stabilization in a songbird zebra finch. Neural activity-dependent gene induction and vocal output driven by the AFP was similar throughout development in both the intact and deafened birds. Although our global transcriptome analysis identified ,3000 genes differentially regulated in the vocal motor circuit during normal song development, we also observed similar qualitative patterns of developmental gene expression between the hearing-intact and early-deafened birds using PCA and WGCNA. Thus, vocal motor circuit maturation was driven by ...
The avian forebrain region LMAN conveys output from a basal ganglia-thalamic-pallial circuit to the principal vocal motor pathway and is required for the vocal experimentation and feedback-guided validation of vocal output that birds use to learn and maintain stable, stereotyped song patterns (Williams and Mehta, 1999; Kao et al., 2005; Olveczky et al., 2005; Kao and Brainard, 2006; Kao et al., 2008; Andalman and Fee, 2009). LMAN is also necessary for the initiation of adult vocal plasticity that normally occurs after deafening (Brainard and Doupe, 2000b); however, it has been unclear in this context whether LMAN is detecting discrepancies between actual and expected feedback, generating error signals in response to a mismatch, or actually participating in song modification (as in instances of adaptive vocal change). Here, we show that lesioning LMAN, even after deafening-induced changes have emerged, promotes rapid recovery toward the original song pattern. The results suggest that ...
Issue # 50 REVIEWS:. Cesium:137 - THE FALL: Liners say this group name is 100% pure poison. Psychedelic. Ho-hum mix band is more like it. Yeah, the mixes are done well.. but SIX of thee same zong right inna row? Bit much, methinks. Itz beatful! Itz GOT rhythm! Itz very danceable! So, wotz thee PROB-lem, yer say? The SAME song…. THE SAME song… THE SAME SONG! Cant deal with that amount of th same SONG! Mix some MORE mixes in there next time, but make it 6 (or more) DIFFERENT songs! Sorry, Charlies… its not a full thumbs down, but I cant hang wit all the same mix, either! Contact at Tonedeaf Records, POB 1738, Philadelphia, PA 19105-1738 or on the site at www.tonedeafrecords.com Rotcod Zzaj. Mars Lasar - KARMA: Deep, moving and intriguing. These are the words that come to mind on the first few bars of Great Beast of Wisdom, the first cut on this cosmically significant album. Lasar weaves clearly distinguishable movement in to the music(s) of the world (many different styles are ...
In a moving image playback apparatus, periods A which represent human utterance periods, and other periods B are determined on the basis of sub-information contained in moving image data. Based on the moving image data, periods A undergo high-speed moving image playback with playback voice within the speed range from a normal speed to a predetermined speed (e.g., 1.5 to 2 times of the normal speed) at which the user can recognize playback contents, while periods B undergo high-speed moving image playback with at least playback voice in a small tone volume or silent high-speed moving image playback at a speed (e.g., 5 to 10 times of the normal speed) higher than the predetermined speed. During the playback, the moving image playback speeds can be adjusted in accordance with user attribute information registered in a user profile (14).
Significant trial-by-trial variation persists even in the most practiced skills. One prevalent view is that such variation is simply noise that the nervous system is unable to control or that remains below threshold for behavioural relevance. An alternative hypothesis is that such variation enables trial-and-error learning, in which the motor system generates variation and differentially retains behaviours that give rise to better outcomes. Here we test the latter possibility for adult bengalese finch song. Adult birdsong is a complex, learned motor skill that is produced in a highly stereotyped fashion from one rendition to the next. Nevertheless, there is subtle trial-by-trial variation even in stable, crystallized adult song. We used a computerized system to monitor small natural variations in the pitch of targeted song elements and deliver real-time auditory disruption to a subset of those variations. Birds rapidly shifted the pitch of their vocalizations in an adaptive fashion to avoid ...
Many species use low-amplitude (soft) song during close range interactions with conspecifics, such as in aggressive encounters or courtship displays. It has been suggested that soft song is adapted to limit eavesdropping by conspecifics or predators through reduced signal transmission range. If so, other structural features of soft song, besides amplitude, should be adapted to reduce transmission. The soft songs of white-throated thrushes, Turdus assimilis, have properties expected to lower transmission, such as higher frequency and broader bandwidth relative to broadcast songs. We compared the transmission properties of broadcast and soft syllables using a sound propagation field experiment. When played at the same amplitude as broadcast song, soft song showed greater excess attenuation and blur ratios and lower signal-to-noise ratios. Lowering the frequency of soft syllables recovered similar transmission properties as those of broadcast syllables. Further analysis of spectral traits showed ...
To many people, bird song can herald the coming of spring, reveal what kind of bird is perched nearby or be merely an unwelcome early morning intrusion. But to Sandra Vehrencamp, Cornell professor of neurobiology and behavior, bird song is a code from which to glean insights into avian behavior.. Birds use song systems to communicate about mating and reproduction, territorial boundaries, age and even overall health. Vehrencamp studies them to decode which elements convey such essential information. With colleagues in the Bioacoustics Research Program at Cornells Lab of Ornithology, she studies birds in such natural habitats as Costa Rica, Colombia and Bonaire.. Vehrencamp records bird songs and then plays them back to birds of the same species to decipher strategies that various species use to attract mates and resolve territorial disputes. The technique allows researchers to study birds reactions to songs when such elements as overlapping vocalization, finer song structural features and the ...
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From frogs to humans, selecting a mate is complicated. Females of many species judge suitors based on many indicators of health or parenting potential. But it can be difficult for males to produce multiple signals that demonstrate these qualities simultaneously. In a study of Copes grey tree frogs, a team of University of Minnesota researchers discovered that females prefer males whose calls reflect the ability to multitask effectively. In this species (Hyla chrysoscelis), males produce trilled mating calls that consist of a string of pulses. Typical calls can range in duration from 20-40 pulses per call and occur at the rate of between 5-15 calls per minute. Males face a trade-off between call duration and call rate, but females preferred calls that are longer and more frequent, which is no simple task. The findings were published in the August 2013 issue of Animal Behaviour. Its kind of like singing and dancing at the same time, says Dr. Jessica Ward, a postdoctoral researcher who is ...
Brown pelicans are often found in large colonies, especially during breeding season. They are seasonally monogamous and can be extremely territorial of their nesting sites. As diurnal birds they can be found roosting on predator-free islands, sandbars or offshore rocks.. Vocalizations are common in breeding colonies where birds tirelessly defend their territories. A low hrraa hrraa accompanied by head swaying serves as a warning to birds getting too close.. Breeding and nesting season are highly dependent on a number of environmental factors and thus differs across its range. Breeding generally occurs in late fall to early June and nesting follows shortly afterward. Nests are built on the ground in shallow depressions, in mangroves, cliffs or low trees. Males choose the nesting site and bring the female materials which she uses to line and create the nest. After laying 2-3 eggs, brown pelicans use their large, webbed feet to incubate the eggs for 28-30 days. Both the male and female incubate ...
The chicks vocalizations are actually quite important for survival. Just 5-12 days after hatching, flamingo chicks within a colony leave their nests and form a crèche of similar-aged chicks watched over by a few adults. For subsequent feedings, parents locate their offspring in the crèche through voice recognition ...
While many experts agree that a cats vocalizations are meant to communicate specific messages, they are still not sure exactly what cats are saying! It is also believed that a cats meow is meant to manipulate their human into doing whatever they think the meow might mean. So, try speaking to your cat in their own language tonight and see what happens. We are interested to find out! For now, we will ask if any of our kitty guests have any mhng-a:ou (complaints) so we can quickly see to them, so we hear nothing but hrn-rhn-hrn-rhn (purrs) from the catteries ...
I was attending the Joe Lims RPM class yesterday evening @ the Curve. There was this uncle who was screaming from track #1 to track #7. As the RPM class progress... and the track was getting harder. The scream was louder. So what he screams? He basically screaming ah ah ah ... come on... yay~ yay~ Yes ... hmmm... Is this sound like someone is having sex and scream for more? Its definitely annoying. Especially you were enjoying the music while working out in RPM ...
The Scream from Nature is an eco art project which aims to raise consciousness about the relationship between humans and nature. The project is a contemporary interpretation of Munchs masterpiece the Scream, in which the iconic face is recreated outdoors in nature with a variety of materials. Artist and founder of the project, Lise Wulff, invites you to make your own Scream from Nature and share it on Facebook or Instagram #thescreamfromnature ...
Search +Bird song -Home +Health -Remix +Funny things -Wilhelm scream +Dietary supplement -Traditional medicine -Olfaction +Language -Language of thought -Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human -Amen break +Musicology ...
How to Scream Sing. You may have imitated vocalists in bands like Linkin Park, System of a Down, or Slipknot, attempting to crush the vocal screams youve heard in songs by these groups. But without proper form and technique, you could...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila. AU - Coen, Philip. AU - Clemens, Jan. AU - Weinstein, Andrew J.. AU - Pacheco, Diego A.. AU - Deng, Yi. AU - Murthy, Mala. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements We thank B. Arthur and D. Stern for assistance in establishing the song recording system; P. Andolfatto for wild-type fly strains; S. Kamal and V. Cheng for assistance with selecting and maintaining fly strains; G. Guan for technical assistance; T. Tayler for help with injections; J. Shaevitz for help with the fly tracker; R. da Silveira for early discussions on reverse correlation; and G. Laurent, C. Brody, D. Aronov, I. Fiete, M. Ryan, and the entire Murthy lab for thoughtful feedback and comments on the manuscript. Figure 1a was illustrated by K. Ris-Vicari. P.C. is funded by an HHMI International Predoctoral Fellowship and M.M. is funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Human Frontiers Science Program, an NSF CAREER award, the McKnight Endowment Fund, ...
We scream when were excited or happy; we scream when were fearful or in pain; we scream when we are exasperated; we scream when were charging into battle; we scream during sex. But we rarely stop to wonder what those screams, even the ones that erupt from us, signify or if they can be differentiated. Emory University psychologist Harold Gouzoules thinks in those terms, but despite being probably the worlds foremost expert on screaming, he doesnt speak in absolutes. For decades, Gouzoules studied screams in macaques and other nonhuman primates. Hes only worked with Homo sapiens for three years and answers to even the most basic research questions remain elusive ...
Songs are about what people have experienced and know about or about something they like. These songs all fall under the category of favorite alcoholic beverage. This topic knows no boundaries from the earliest of times there have been the drinking songs. I dont really drink that much, but I appreciate a good song. Some of these songs dont have the drink in the title, but weave a lyric of it throughout the song. Here is a list of songs with a drink in them. Cheers!
Rapid and reversible manipulations of neural activity in behaving animals are transforming our understanding of brain function. An important assumption underlying much of this work is that evoked behavioural changes reflect the function of the manipulated circuits. We show that this assumption is problematic because it disregards indirect effects on the independent functions of downstream circuits. Transient inactivations of motor cortex in rats and nucleus interface (Nif) in songbirds severely degraded task-specific movement patterns and courtship songs, respectively, which are learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same areas. We resolve this discrepancy in songbirds, showing that Nif silencing acutely affects the function of HVC, a downstream song control nucleus. Paralleling song recovery, the off-target effects resolved within days of Nif lesions, a recovery consistent with homeostatic regulation of neural activity in HVC. These results have implications for
No, I have a buddy from high school that Ive been in a few bands with that plays drums. I tried to start a project with him again a bit over a year ago. We picked one song each and never learned them. We were talking last week about the last band we were in and the songs we played. Love Removal Machine was one, its pretty simple so I demanded he re learn it ...
Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in females, that normally do not sing. Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in females, that normally do not sing. HVc and RA can be induced to grow by 90% and 53%, respectively, in adult gonadectomized females under the influence of testosterone, as these birds acquire male-like song. The magnitude of this effect is comparable, though of reversed sign, to that following early castration in males. This system is unique in the extent to which gross neural plasticity normally associated with early development can be induced in adulthood.
A brain nucleus that is important for the generation of song in the adult male zebra finch (Poephila guttata), the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), receives dual inputs from two other telencephalic song nuclei: the hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudale (HVc) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (L-MAN). We lesioned each of these afferent inputs to the RA early in development, either by themselves or both at the same time in the same side of the brain, to determine what influences each of these nuclei exerts on the normal development of the RA into adulthood. We found that lesioning the HVc in a 20-day-old male zebra finch prevents the later increase in RA volume and soma size that would normally occur around 35 days post-hatching. MAN lesions at this same early age, on the other hand, had a large effect on reducing the volume and cell number of RA neurons, without affecting soma size. Lesioning both inputs early in development induced considerable RA neuronal ...
White-Crowned Sparrow - Zonotrichia leucophrys - also known as Le bruant à couronne blanche (French), Witkruingors (Dutch), Dachsammer (German), Passero corona bianca (Italian), and Chingolo Piquiblanco (Spanish).. Song Sparrow - Melospiza melodia - also known as Bruant chanteur (French), Zanggors (Dutch), Singammer (German), Passero cantore (Italian), and Chingolo Melodioso (Spanish).. This is the first time I have seen a White-Crowned Sparrow in my yard. The Song Sparrows have been here before, but there appears to be a pair hanging around a lot this Spring. In fact, I even saw one Song Sparrow peaking into my gourd birdhouse, although I do not think a Song Sparrow would nest in a gourd up in an apple tree.. Photo taken with the Canon Digital Rebel XT / 350D and a Sigma 70-300mm Lens on April 29, 2008 in Davenport, Iowa.. ...
In non-avian tetrapods, the larynx is the main sound-producing organ. Birds, however, have evolved a unique phonatory organ, the syrinx, located at the basal end of the trachea. Like the mammalian larynx, the syrinx is controlled by muscles whose action influences acoustic parameters and regulates airflow by closing and opening of the airways. Syrinx morphology and the number of muscles controlling it vary between different bird groups. Despite substantial variation in vocal control, vocal behaviour of birds ranks among the most elaborate use of sound as a communication signal. Because song is an important behaviour for mate attraction and territorial defence, vocal quality is assumed to be under strong sexual selection (e.g. Andersson, 1994). In oscines, song is a learned vocal behaviour, which often displays highly complex temporal and acoustic features. Production of rapid temporal sequences and high rates of amplitude and frequency modulation require precise control of sound onset and ...
In adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the telencephalon occupies 64% of the entire brain. This fraction is similar to what is seen in parrots, but many other birds possess a significantly smaller telencephalon. The aim of the present study was to determine the developmental time course and cellular basis of telencephalic enlargement in zebra finches, and then to compare these findings with what is known about telencephalic enlargement in other birds. To this end we estimated the volumes of all major brain regions from serial sections in embryonic and post-hatching zebra finches. We also labeled proliferating cells with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated histone H3. An important finding to emerge from this work is that the telencephalon of zebra finches at hatching contains a thick proliferative subventricular zone (SVZ) that extends from the subpallium into the dorsal pallium. The data also show that the onset and offset of telencephalic neurogenesis ...
While a great deal of our vocabulary is acquired early in life, we continue to acquire new words and string together new phrases throughout adulthood. This trait is not entirely unique to humans. Many species of songbirds are open-ended learners, meaning their repertoire size increases with age as opposed to crystallizing during development. Previous research suggests an important role for estrogens in verbal memory. To begin to better understand the functional significance of this phenomenon, we asked, 1) can circulating concentrations of estradiol in the body, or lack thereof, affect a birds ability to recognize and behaviorally respond to novel song patterns, as encountered naturally in the wild, and 2) does this change according to the reproductive state of the bird. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seasonally breeding, open-ended learners that can be trained to recognize and respond to new song patterns. We measured the latency of birds to learn and respond to new song patterns ...
Looking for online definition of primal scream in the Medical Dictionary? primal scream explanation free. What is primal scream? Meaning of primal scream medical term. What does primal scream mean?
In this paper, we describe spatial variation in the demography of the Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia. Long-term population studies of birds have generally considered only single sites in optimal habitat, but recent theory has shown the value of taking spatial variation in population dynamics into account. In this theory, collections of local populations in habitat patches connected by dispersal are defined as metapopulations. We review metapopulation models briefly and then use these ideas in a study of the Song Sparrow. Sparrows were studied on islands of varying size and degree of isolation from the North American continent. For analysis, these islands are grouped into three areas. Sparrows on the isolated Mandarte Island usually reproduced and survived well over 17 years but suffered from catastrophic mortality in some winters. After such events, the population recovered quickly without much immigration. Sparrows on smaller islets near Mandarte also survived and reproduced well during 4 ...
Most owner complaints about feline vocalization are either to do with the intensity and persistence of the vocalization, or the fact that it occurs at night or at other times when family members or neighbors are trying to sleep.
behaviour and the neural systems controlling behaviour. Songbirds, along with humans, are one of only six animal groups (including bats, parrots, hummingbirds, and cetaceous whales and dolphins) that are known to exhibit vocal learning. Furthermore, songbirds possess a highly-evolved network of interconnected brain regions controlling vocal learning, vocal perception and vocal production. As such, songbirds allow researchers a unique opportunity to directly study vocal communication at the interface between brain and behaviour. The SNL studies the cognitive, neurobiological and behavioural substrates underlying songbirds highly evolved and specialized suite of communication behaviours. Current research focuses on vocal communication in one particular group of songbirds, the chickadees (e.g., Black-capped, Boreal, Carolina, Chestnut-backed, and Mountain chickadees).. Research in the SNL is currently aimed at understanding the cognitive, perceptual, evolutionary, developmental, and neural bases ...
Hyla chrysoscelis, the Copes grey treefrog; Gilchrist county, Florida (12 April 2014). Learn more about this species at iNaturalist.org.
Neurospecificity of the electrical stimulus at the frequencies used in this investigation is a matter of debate. To deliver electrical stimuli at 5, 250, and 2,000 Hz, we used a device that has been used for in vivo and in vitro studies, and in clinical settings for diagnosis of neuropathies43-45 and investigations of pharmacodynamics of topical analgesics46 and of mechanisms of nociception.47,48 Although a matter of controversy, there is in vivo and in vitro evidence supporting the notion that electrical stimuli delivered at 2,000, 250, and 5 Hz preferentially activate Aβ, Aδ, and C fibers, respectively.21 Using action potential intracellular recordings from isolated dorsal root ganglia neurons with attached dorsal roots, researchers showed that C fibers were activated by 5-Hz and not by 250- or 2,000-Hz sine-wave stimuli.21 In addition, 2,000-Hz stimulation at low intensity selectively activated Aβ, and at significantly higher intensity, it stimulated Aδ neurons.21 Lastly, 250-Hz ...
The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary analysis of relations between child and environmental variables, including factors related to communication aid provision, and participation in informal everyday activities in a sample of children with complex communication needs. Ninety-seven caregivers of children provided with communication aids responded to a questionnaire survey. Child variables assessed were level of ability, trait emotional self-efficacy, and competence in communication aid use. Environmental variables assessed were the impact of childhood disability on the family, family socio-economic category, perceived reliability of electronic communication aids provided to children, and ease of use of the aid. The outcome measure was the intensity of child participation in informal activities. Significant correlations were observed between participation scores and the following variables: child age, level of ability, trait emotional self-efficacy, and family impact of childhood disability.
by Vetscite. Adult songbirds modify their vocalizations when singing to juveniles in the same way that humans alter their speech when talking to babies. The resulting brain activity in young birds could shed light on speech learning and certain developmental disorders in humans, according to a study by McGill University researchers.. Lead author Jon Sakata, a professor of neurobiology at McGill, says that songbirds learn vocalizations like humans learn speech. Songbirds first listen to and memorize the sound of adult songs and then undergo a period of vocal practice-in essence, babbling-to master the production of song.. Researchers have been studying song learning in birds for some time. But the degree to which social interaction with adult birds contributes to that learning has been unclear. Thats because, unlike this current work, past studies didnt control for the time exposed to song and the presence of other birds.. In this study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National ...
Castration of adult male zebra finches (Poephila guttata, Estrildidae) reduces their singing rate and the tempo of song, but castrates continue to sing song identical in form to preoperative song. Injection or implantation of testosterone propionate (TP) but not of vehicle alone reverses the changes …
According to a study investigating the song differences between white-rumped Munias and its domesticated counterpart (Bengalese finch), the wild munias use a highly stereotyped song, whereas the domesticated ones sing a highly unconstrained song. Considering that song syntactical complexity is subject to female preference in the Bengalese finch, it is likely that maternal resource allocation strategies play a role in song evolution.[38] In the field of bird vocalization, brains capable of producing only an innate song have very simple neural pathways: the primary forebrain motor center, called the robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), connects to midbrain vocal outputs which in turn project to brainstem motor nuclei. By contrast, in brains capable of learning songs, the RA receives input from numerous additional forebrain regions, including those involved in learning and social experience. Control over song generation has become less constrained, more distributed, and more flexible. When compared ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin, via HTR2 receptors, excites neurons in a cortical-like premotor nucleus necessary for song learning and production. AU - Wood, William E.. AU - Lovell, Peter V.. AU - Mello, Claudio. AU - Perkel, David J.. PY - 2011/9/28. Y1 - 2011/9/28. N2 - Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that is important for neural development, learning and memory, mood, and perception. Dysfunction of the serotonin system is central to depression and other clinically important mood disorders and has been linked with learning deficits. In mammals, 5-HT release from the raphe nuclei in the brainstem can modulate the functional properties of cortical neurons, influencing sensory and motor processing. Birds also have serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe, suggesting that 5-HT plays similar roles in sensory and motor processing, perhaps modulating brain circuitry underlying birdsong. To investigate this possibility, we measured the effects of 5-HT on spontaneous firing of projection neurons in ...
We investigate vocal communication and cognitive abilities in mammals. We work on a wide range of mammal species including red deer, domestic horses, African elephants, koalas, dogs and cats and humans. Our lab is well equipped with cutting edge facilities for recording, analyzing and playing back vocalizations as well as tools for experimental presentation of visual cues. People: Karen McComb, David Reby. Lab website: Mammal Vocal Communication and Cognition Research. ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
The Bookbag.co.uk Being able to identify a birds song is a skill that brings joy and fosters an appreciation of nature. Learning how to differentiate between the songs of a house finch and a goldfinch, however, is not easy. That is where this enchanting book comes into its own. It features recordings of twelve bird songs from some of the best-known garden bird species seen and heard across North America. This is an interactive board book designed for any age with features for young readers. The board pages are easy to turn. The twelve song buttons are easy to activate and each bears a portrait of the singing bird. The high-quality sound module is encased in durable plastic, and the one-inch (3 cm) speaker makes it easy to hear and differentiate the elements of a birds song, like pitch, tempo, whistles, trills and buzzes. All twelve birds have winter or summer ranges in the United States and Canada. This means that readers are sure to see most if not all the birds. The song birds are: ...
Web hosting customers have the possibility to send e-mails from their applications (see 1&1 Help Center). Most PHP and ASP.NET applications already have such a function. Often, a free sender address can be selected. Customers using as sender address one of their domains registered with 1&1 are not affected by the configuration change.. Customers using another sender address such as „@google-mail.com, „@yahoo.com or „@t-online.de have also been dealt with in the past by SRS. Thus, e-mails with these sender addresses have been dealt with on the recipient page as if they had successfully passed the SPF examination, even though this was not the case.. 1&1 respects the wish of domain owners, explicitly limiting by means of the SPF records the mail servers over which e-mails with their sender addresses can be delivered. Therefore, we no longer use SRS in case of a freely selected sender address. This can cause that e-mails with sender addresses not registered with 1&1 are treated by the ...
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The mechanism of sound production in the collared dove Streptopelia decaocto was studied to test the validity of the whistle model and to analyze the role of vocal tract resonances. In this study, the vocalizations of six male adult doves were recorded both in normal air and in a mixture of 80 % helium and 20 % oxygen (heliox). Depending on the way in which the syrinx operates, the spectral structure of the vocalizations is expected to show specific changes in heliox. The effects of heliox differed substantially depending on the type of vocal element. Except for a significant decrease in amplitude, unmodulated elements, i.e. elements with a constant frequency, were relatively unaffected by heliox. In contrast, modulated elements, i.e. elements with an abrupt increase in frequency, showed a gradual increase in frequency with increasing helium concentration. This specific increase in frequency stopped when the modulation frequency was 1.5 times the base frequency, even when the helium ...
Edvard Munchs The Scream is a composition of four pieces, two done with paint and the other two in pastels. Munch, an Expressionist artist, gave these works the German name Der Schrel der Natur or The Scream of Nature, and show a figure with an agonized expression against a landscape with a tumultuous orange sky, while two figures in the background walk on oblivious to the active environment around them. A lithographic stone of the image existed for Munch to make prints; approximately four dozen were made, and several of those prints survive to this day.. Theres speculation among art historians about Munchs inspiration for The Scream, one example being Munch observing ancient mummies while visiting museums. According to Munch himself, however, the initial inspiration behind The Scream was due to an experience he had while out with friends. In a diary entry on January 22, 1892, he wrote:. I was walking along the road with two friends - the sun was setting - suddenly the sky turned blood red - ...
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Juvenile avian song learning is one of the best animal models used to study generation and recognition of rhythm. The ability for birds to process a tutor song and then generate a perfect replica of that song, underlies our ability to learn rhythm. Two very famous computational neuroscientists Kenji Doya and Terrence J. Sejnowski created a model of this using the Zebra Finch as target organism. The Zebra Finch is perhaps one of the most easily understood examples of this among birds. The young Zebra Finch is exposed to a tutor song from the adult, during a critical period. This is defined as the time of life that learning can take place, in other words when the brain has the most plasticity. After this period, the bird is able to produce an adult song, which is said to be crystallized at this point. Doya and Sejnowski evaluated three possible ways that this leaning could happen, an immediate, one shot perfection of the tutor song, error learning, and reinforcement learning. They settled on the ...
YEAR: 1994. SEASON: Summer. MONTH: June. STATE: Washington. COUNTY: Okanogan County. LOCATION DETAILS: Small lake west of Palmer Lake, it about 10 miles WSW of Oroville.. NEAREST TOWN: Oroville. NEAREST ROAD: Chopaka Creek Road. OBSERVED: June 1994, West bank Chopaka Lake, 2-3am. I awoke to the most god-awful animal voice Ive ever heard. My friends slept through it and teased me the next day when I described the sounds. However, they stayed the next night after I left and reported to me later that they were awakened as I had been and were quite frightened by the same sounds at around the same time. Just today I first heard of sightings by others at the lake in 96. The sound I heard was very loud, echoing across the lake and the hill on the east shore. It originated from the NW corner of the lake. The call was a good 10 secs long each time starting off with a very low register bellow like the bellow of a bull or elephant, then morphing into a cougar-like snarl and then finishing similar to ...
and they dont palatalise. I know there are other trills. About the different trills, I just looked it all up on Wikipedia again, and I discovered that the uvular trill, that is, the way I pronounce the double r with the back of my tongue and my uvula, is how its pronounced in German, and sometimes French, whereas in Spanish and Italian, you use the tip of your tongue (alveolar trill). Template:Uvular. No Personal Attacks or Trolling: Be respectful to fellow posters â name-calling, rudeness & incivility, slurs, vulgarities towards other users, and trolling are not welcome here. Im thinking about giving German another go, but the pronunciation is making me a little hesitant (along with gender & cases, but thats irrelevant at the moment). Hi! The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʀ , a small capital ar. I can do the alveolar trill, but not uvular. I am really interested in ...
Define trill. trill synonyms, trill pronunciation, trill translation, English dictionary definition of trill. n. 1. A fluttering or tremulous sound, as that made by certain birds; a warble. 2. Music a. The rapid alternation of two tones either a whole or a half tone...
The broadcast song of the Tambourine Dove (Turtur tympanistria) is a repetitive coo series produced in a very stereotyped way. The song is similar to those of the other species within the Turtur genus and likely reflects the adaptation to long distance signalling in tropical habitats. There is no study assessing individual variation of the Tambourine Dove song or for the possibility of identity coding through song features. We obtained recordings of 578 songs from 41 males within a population inhabiting montane forest in Cameroon between 2008 and 2018. Additionally, we analysed also recordings from automatic recorders working for a longer time during the year. Songs were analysed to get basic information about within- and between-individual spectro-temporal variation. Potential of identity coding and discriminant analyses were used to investigate if and how these songs may convey information about male identity. The song of the Tambourine Dove is a very simple series of short, unmodulated whistles with
Video #3 - Walrus Roar A young male walrus demonstrates one of his many natural vocalizations.. By training the animals to vocalize on cue, the trainers can demonstrate these sounds to guests and other people who may otherwise never hear such sounds. In addition, scientists can reliably record and analyze the different vocal patterns. Vocalizations from this group of walruses were recorded and used for some of the dinosaur sounds in the Jurassic Park movies. This young male walrus starred as Jocko in the movie 50 First Dates. Courtesy of Six Flags Marine World.. ...
We provide evidence for pulse register phonation in the songbird syrinx, which can be generated by all possible interactions of the two sound sources, but typically involves the use of both sound generators and always gives rise to sounds with a rich harmonic structure. Since sounds were induced in deeply anaesthetized crows, the short labial opening events and the alternation of opening between the left and right sound generators must reflect passive mechanical dynamics of the vocal organ. The alternation pattern indicates coupling between the two sound sources, which might include mechanical coupling presumably via the semilunar membrane and/or direct acoustic coupling. Muscular control of the observed vibration pattern is highly unlikely. Even if the thoracic compression induces a reflex-like neural response, the syringeal muscles would not be fast enough to account for rapid opening events of 1.5 ms duration (Elemans et al. 2004; Rome 2006). We therefore conclude that the observed vibratory ...
Our objective was to identify and characterize the types of vocalization other than meowing (VOM) in two contexts, a pleasant and an aversive situation, and to study the effect of the sex of the animal. A total of 74 cats (32 tom cats and 42 queens) living in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, participated in the study; in total, 68 (29 tom cats and 39 queens) were divided into two groups according to the stimulus they were exposed to: either a pleasant situation (PS), when they were offered a snack, or an aversive situation (AS), with the simulation of a car transport event. The other six animals (three tom cats and three queens) participated in both situations. Only the PS group presented VOM; of the 40 PS animals, 14 presented VOM, mostly acknowledgment or trill and squeak. No correlation was observed between vocalization and cat sex (p = 0.08; Pearson’s Chi-Square). Results show that VOM is exclusively associated with positive situations, suggesting that these vocalizations may be relevant for
Vehrencamps work also suggests that males that are most successful are those that share many song types with their territorial neighbors. Song sparrows, for example, can learn songs only within a narrow time period restricted to the first few months after fledging, which means that males must learn neighborhood songs quickly to facilitate successful territorial negotiations.. Song sparrows are very restricted learners, so the dominant birds that acquire territories within their natal area share more song types with their neighbors and survive better, explained Vehrencamp, who observed that birds with a low degree of song-sharing spend more time fighting with neighbors and are rarely seen the next breeding season.. Vehrencamp also studies the banded wren in Central America. This species has a longer learning period, up to a year or more, so all birds in the neighborhood share a large fraction of their song types. Males get up early, and sing vigorously with frequent song-type matching in ...
Have you heard? SCREAM 4 opens in 2 weeks.. If youre a horror fan and paying any attention at all there is no way you cant know that Wes Craven and crew are back fro another round of fun in Woodsboro.. SCREAM 4 opens April 15th and to help prime us all for the event the BIOGRAPHY CHANNEL will be airing a retrospective documentary on the franchise and its looking to be a winner.. Think what you will of the films there is no denying their effect on the genre.. The BIO CHANNEL will premiere the show next Wednesday April 6th and Im sure many repeats will follow. This show comes to us from director Dan Francis who was also the man behind HIS NAME WAS JASON and NEVER SLEEP AGAIN so you know were in good hands. Heres the official synopsis from BIO:. In 1996 director Wes Craven unleashed Scream, a slasher flick that shattered box-office records for horror films and turned Craven and some hot young actors (Neve Campbell, Skeet Ulrich, and Rose McGowan) into overnight stars. In this two-hour ...
Scream of 2000 Screams Lyrics : Longaròn no la ghe né pì Strazhiàda dai lamént de chi che lha pers tùt Longaròn lé da brentàna de làgreme Ndove che naviga le anime dele vitime Doimila se contarà Omi, fémene, bòce, la tragedia no la ..
Sender ID combines Microsofts Caller ID for E-mail (which was submitted to the IETF for consideration in May) with Sender Policy Framework (SPF).. SPF was authored by Meng Weng Wong, the co-founder and chief technology officer at Pobox.com, a provider of subscription-based e-mail forwarding and mailing list services. Meng submitted SPF to the IETF in February.. Sender ID maintains lists of Internet Protocol addresses from which sent e-mail can be traced, and if adopted as a standard, could provide a way to close loopholes that allow e-mail senders to spoof or fake the origin of their message.. The unified specification, which was the result of discussions between Microsoft and Meng which lasted from January to May, is aimed at simplifying industry adoption of effective e-mail authentication technology.. The IETF is also considering another mail authentication submission from Yahoo, called DomainKeys.. DomainKeys works differently from Sender ID by using encryption to generate a signature based ...
The Song was accepted into the Jewish canon of scripture in the 2nd century CE, after a period of controversy in the 1st century. It was accepted as canonical because of its supposed authorship by Solomon and based on an allegorical reading where the subject-matter was taken to be not sexual desire but Gods love for Israel.[28] For instance, the famed first and second century Rabbi Akiva forbade the use of the Song of Songs in popular celebrations. He reportedly said, He who sings the Song of Songs in wine taverns, treating it as if it were a vulgar song, forfeits his share in the world to come.[29] However, Rabbi Akiva famously defended the canonicity of the Song of Songs, reportedly saying when the question came up of whether it should be considered a defiling work, God forbid! [...] For all of eternity in its entirety is not as worthy as the day on which Song of Songs was given to Israel, for all the Writings are holy, but Song of Songs is the Holy of Holies.[30]. It is one of the ...
The use of demand curves to derive estimates of motivational strength is a popular method for measuring animals preferences for a range of different resources in applied animal behaviour research. In a typical experiment, an animal pays a gradually increasing cost (e.g. by pushing through a weighted door) in order to access a resource it wants or needs. The resulting demand curves are used to calculate several measures of the strength of the animals motivation to access the resource. We tested two assumptions that underlie the majority of applications of this approach: first, that animals have a fixed energy budget to spend on access to resources: and second, that the effect of price on demand is not greatly influenced by the order or magnitude of the price changes. Sixteen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were trained to push through weighted doors to gain access to one of two resources, either a tray of turf, or protective foliage cover. In the first stage of the experiment reservation ...
What would cause the male splendid fairy-wrens to respond to the calls of their predators in such a strange way? One possibility is that the response of the fairy-wrens is an alarm call, meant to warn others nearby of the presence of a predator. One experiment ruled out that possibility, though: male splendid fairy-wrens give their Type 2 songs in response to hearing the vocalization of the butcherbird, but not in the presence of silent butcherbirds. Another possibility is that the Type 2 songs are meant to scare the butcherbirds away, but another experiment indicated that this wasnt the case either, as males were no more likely to sing their Type 2 songs upon seeing a silent butcherbird. It seems, then, that there is something special about the vocalization of the butcherbird that causes the splendid fairy-wren to sing its Type 2 song.. It could be that the Type 2 song functions as a territorial display, to keep other males away. If the Type 2 song is used as a territorial display, Greig and ...
To investigate the role of social hierarchy in the behavior of Nlgn3y/- mice and their wild-type (Nlgn3y/+) littermates, we analyzed the behavior of mice from litters consisting of both genotypes (MGH) in comparison to litters in which male mice were all of the same Nlgn3y/+ genotype (SGH). As previously reported (Radyushkin et al., 2009; Fischer and Hammerschmidt, 2011), Nlgn3y/- mice from MGH emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations during courtship in comparison to Nlgn3y/+ from MGH [Nlgn3y/+ 22.2 ± 3.5 s and Nlgn3y/- 9.8 ± 2.8 s, P = 0.007, F(18,16) = 1.49; Fig. 2A]. Additionally, in the tube test, Nlgn3y/- mice from MGH lost more frequently when competing against Nlgn3y/+ mice from MGH (Nlgn3y/+ 72.9% ± 9.8% and Nlgn3y/- 29.4% ± 10.3%; P = 0.0074; Fig. 2B), suggesting that they are socially submissive to their wild-type littermates (Wang et al., 2011). In groups of mice with a stable social hierarchy, there is a correlation between ranking in courtship vocalization and in the tube test ...
Stephen R. Anderson explains what is meant by communication, the difference between communication and language, and the essential characteristics of language. Next he examines a variety of animal communication systems, including bee dances, frog vocalizations, bird songs, and alarm calls and other vocal, gestural, and olfactory communication among primates. Anderson then compares these to human language, including signed languages used by the deaf. Arguing that attempts to teach human languages or their equivalents to the great apes have not succeeded in demonstrating linguistic abilities in nonhuman species, he concludes that animal communication systems-intriguing and varied though they may be-do not include all the essential properties of human language. Animals can communicate, but they cant talk ...
We found that European Starlings can be infected with this virus when inoculated with relatively high doses, and we predict that infected birds excrete sufficient amounts of virus to transmit to other birds, including domestic chickens. Infected European Starlings showed no clinical signs or mortality after infection with H7N9. ...