To explore the pathophysiology of Reinkes edema, we exposed human vocal fold fibroblasts to medium conditioned with cigarette smoke extract followed by quantitative mass spectrometry. Proteomic analyses revealed an upregulation of proteins related in oxidative stress response. Fibrillar collagens were downregulated, whereas hyaluronan levels were increased. The latter two lead to an altered ECM composition and tissue properties. ...
Previous studies have shown the importance of cricothyroid muscle activation in altering fundamental frequency in the human voice. Other studies have investigated the non-linear properties of vocal fold tissue and the impact of this non-linearity on frequency response. Several physical models of the vocal folds have been made for research purposes. However, all have been isotropic in nature with linear stress-strain properties. The purpose of this study was to create a physical model with non-linear stress-strain properties to investigate the frequency response of the model as cricothyroid muscle activation was simulated (in other words, as the vocal folds were stretched in an anterior-posterior dimension). In this study the physical models of the vocal folds were stretched in 1 mm increments and the fundamental frequency (F0) was recorded at each position. Subglottal pressure was also monitored and phonation threshold pressures were recorded for each adjustment in length and vocal fold tension, because
Vocal cord dysfunction is the uncontrolled closing of the vocal cords when you breathe in. The symptoms can seem to be the same as those of asthma and may occur alone or along with asthma. If you have asthma and vocal cord dysfunction, it may be difficult for you to tell the difference between symptoms of the two conditions.. Sometimes vocal cord dysfunction happens quickly and may require a trip to the emergency room. The condition occurs in both men and women but may be more common in women who are high achievers.. Vocal cord dysfunction is often caused by postnasal drainage or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and improves with treatment of these conditions.. The following factors may help your health professional evaluate vocal cord dysfunction, especially in people who do not have asthma. The person:. ...
The physical nature of the vocal tract results in the production of formants during vocalisation. In some animals (including humans), receivers can derive information (such as body size) about sender characteristics on the basis of formant characteristics. Domestication and selective breeding have resulted in a high variability in head size and shape in the dog (Canis familiaris), suggesting that there might be large differences in the vocal tract length, which could cause formant behaviour to affect interbreed communication. Lateral radiographs were made of dogs from several breeds ranging in size from a Yorkshire terrier (2.5 kg) to a German shepherd (50 kg) and were used to measure vocal tract length. In addition, we recorded an acoustic signal (growling) from some dogs. Significant correlations were found between vocal tract length, body mass and formant dispersion, suggesting that formant dispersion can deliver information about the body size of the vocalizer. Because of the low correlation ...
Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. Linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations was used to determine vocal tractresonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency F0 provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species ...
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The vocal cords are soft mucosal folds with fibrous muscles and ligaments, whose vibration, produced by the passage of air from the lungs, produces the voice. When the vocal cords are damaged, the symptoms most often observed are: dysphonia (modified sounds), pain, hoarseness, croakiness, lowering of the voice tone. Sometimes these symptoms hinder communication and affect a persons social life.. Voice disorders are most often linked to overuse of the vocal cords or more rarely to lesions of the mucosa including inflammation, infection, polyps and neurological disorders.. Some toxins expose the vocal cords to damage, including tobacco, alcohol, sulphuric acid, dust, or welding smoke.. Drugs induce vocal cord damage by various mechanisms: mucosal deposits, mucosal dryness and reduced vocal cord lubrication, changes in salivary composition, oedema, erythema, necrosis, or mucosal haematomas, paralysis of the vocal cords.. Drug-induced vocal cord damage can appear within a few hours or a few months. ...
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), also commonly known as paradoxical vocal fold motion, can be characterized as an abnormal adduction of the vocal cords during the respiratory cycle (especially during the inspiratory phase) that produces airflow obstruction at the level of the larynx. VCD frequently mimics persistent asthma and is often treated...
Linkedin Pinterest Voice and Swallowing Disorders Endocrine System Ear Nose and Throat The vocal cords (also called vocal folds) are 2 bands of smooth muscle tissue found in the larynx (voice box). The larynx is set in the neck at the top of the trachea (windpipe).. The vocal cords vibrate and air passes through the cords from the lungs to produce the sound of your voice. The sound is then sent through the throat, nose, and mouth, giving the sound "resonance.. " The sound of each person's voice is determined by the size and shape of the vocal cords and the size and shape of the throat, nose, and mouth. Vocal cord disorders affect the vocal cords.. Some of the more common vocal cord disorders include the following.. ...
http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1777064 Bench to Bedside: Research Review in Vocal Fold Extracellular Matrix The vocal fold lamina propria is crucial for the production of the vocal fold mucosal wave and quality of voice. Basic science research in this area has increased over the past 10 years secondary to our understanding of this importance. The translational aspects of this research are far reaching as ... 2008-11-01T00:00:00 Article Susan L. Thibeault ...
Vocal fold scarring remains one of the greatest therapeutic challenges in laryngology and voice therapy. The loss of superior lamina propria results in a change in the pliability of the vocal folds with changes in glottal configuration, glottal closure, and reduced to absent mucosal wave motion. This results in dysphonia of varying severities including breathiness, roughness, loss of pitch range, and flexibility. The aim of this article is to present a brief review of vocal fold architecture and a discussion of the etiologies of vocal fold scarring. Methods to evaluate vocal fold scarring are presented with examples of findings in laryngoscopic, acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual assessments. Medical, surgical, and behavioral treatment for vocal folds scaring including sample therapy tasks are included.. ...
Kaposis sarcoma (KS) is a rare subcutaneous lesion linked mainly with patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The aim of the present study is to present the first documented case of classic Kaposis sarcoma (CKS) located in the right true vocal cord. A 62 year old male presented with cough and hoarseness for 2 months. Clinical examination revealed a nodule on the right vocal cord. The patient underwent surgery and the lesion was removed and biopsied. The histopathology report showed that the lesion was KS but with no complete removal of the lesion, since the surgical margins of the nodule were not healthy. The patient, although fully informed, refused any further treatment. Further laboratory tests were performed, revealing an HIV-negative immunodeficiency profile. Although (Mediterranean) CKS is not an aggressive malignancy, surgery with complete removal of the affected area is indicated when it is applicable. Moreover, conservative treatment and follow up of the patient is
Your doctor may need to do two tests. One is a pulmonary function test to see how well your lungs are working. For this test, you blow forcefully into a machine that measures the speed and amount of air moving in and out of your lungs. This test is useful in telling the difference between vocal cord dysfunction and asthma.. The second test is flexible laryngoscopy (lar-in-GOS-coh-pee). Your doctor will pass a small, flexible tube through your nose to look at your vocal cords while you breathe. This test will help your doctor know if your vocal cords arent working right. ...
Due to the elective nature of vocal cord polypectomy, a thorough preoperative evaluation is often feasible. A history and physical examination should be performed and the extent of airway obstruction secondary to the vocal cord polyp should be determined.. The patient should be asked if there is difficulty breathing while lying flat or if there are factors such as exercise or tachypnea that exacerbate any dyspnea. Difficulty breathing in the supine position may be due to the vocal cord mass or other factors, including sleep apnea, and it is not always easy to discern the root cause.. Otolaryngologists evaluate the vocal cord polyps and cysts in several ways and the anesthesiologist should be aware of their findings. The first method is usually using a mirror placed in the posterior pharynx to visualize the vocal cords. If this does not yield enough information, otolaryngologists may perform a fiberoptic laryngoscopy.. While visualization of the vocal cord mass can provide a lot of information, ...
1 of 2) Examine the interior of the larynx, which is also covered by mucous membrane. Identify an upper fold, the vestibular fold or false vocal cord and a lower fold, the vocal fold or true vocal cord (Figure 32.1 , Figure 32.2 , Figure 32.3). The space between the two folds is the ventricle or sinus of the larynx. Place a probe in the ventricle and determine the depth of the cavity. Mucus, produced by glands within the mucosal lining of the ventricles, lubricates the surface of the vocal folds. Bring the two halves of the larynx together and observe that the vocal folds are more closely apposed than the vestibular folds. When the vocal folds are approximated and air is exhaled from the lungs, the true vocal folds vibrate and thus produce sound. Links and References: ...
Vocal fold cysts are treated using a multidisciplinary approach.[15][16] Vocal fold cysts are most responsive when surgical intervention is supplemented with voice therapy. Applying vocal therapy techniques in isolation has not yet been proven to remediate and decrease the actual size of the vocal fold cyst.[17] Voice therapy to address harmful vocal behaviours is recommended as the first treatment option.[3] Voice therapy may involve reducing tension in the larynx, reducing loudness, reducing the amount of speech produced, and modifying the environment.[18] If symptoms are significant, treatment usually involves microsurgery to remove the cyst.[3] Although voice therapy is useful for preventing vocal fold cysts caused by phonotrauma and for promoting safe vocal practices, vocal fold cysts tend not to respond to therapy alone and typically require surgery for full repair.[9] During surgery, attempts are made to preserve as much vocal fold tissue as possible,[3] given that glottal insufficiency ...
Nonneoplastic vocal fold lesions are common that can cause hoarseness and voice change. Reactive lesions of Reinkes space can be observed in all ages and genders and comprise the majority of the benign nonneoplastic vocal fold lesions. Although clinically different terms are used to define reactive lesions of Reinkes space, they share the same histopathologic features. In order to differentiate vocal fold polyp and nodule and Reinkes edema, clinical findings should be considered. Epithelial changes such as pseudoepitheliomatous and verrucous hyperplasia may cause diagnostic challenge due to resemblance of squamous cell carcinoma. Evaluation of the invasion border and cellular atypia may aid in correct diagnosis.
Vocal Cord Dysfunction is a complex disorder of the vocal cords that is frequently mistaken for asthma. Learn more about this condition and what to do next.
Over time, repeated abuse of the vocal cords can result in vocal cord nodules that usually grow on each vocal cord, polyps that can also appear on one or both of your vocal cords, or cysts, benign growths on the vocal cords that can affect the voice.
Vocal fold cysts are benign masses of the membranous vocal folds. These cysts are enclosed, sac-like structures that are typically of a yellow or white colour. They usually form unilaterally on the midpoint of the medial edge of the vocal folds. However, they can form on the cephalic, or upper/superior, surface of the vocal folds as well. There are two types of vocal fold cysts that differ in terms of location: Sub-epithelial vocal fold cysts which are located in the superficial lamina propria of the vocal folds. Ligament vocal fold cysts which are located within the deeper layers of the lamina propria or on the vocal ligament. The symptoms of vocal fold cysts vary but commonly include a hoarse voice and problems with the pitch of the voice. Initial treatment of the cysts involves voice therapy to reduce harmful vocal behaviours. If symptoms remain, patients may require surgery to remove the cyst. Surgery is typically followed by vocal rest and further voice therapy to restore voice function. ...
Genome-wide transcriptional profiling has important applications in advancing knowledge of vocal fold biology. With the use of DNA microarray technology, analysis of global patterns of gene expression can reveal unexpected networks of coordinated regulation in the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria. Transcriptional gene expression patterns for 2 vocal fold pathologies-vocal fold polyp (VP; N= 1) and vocal fold granuloma (VG; N= 1) were analyzed by means of DNA microarray analysis for 4,632 human genes using another patients true vocal fold (TVF; N= 1) as a control. Twenty-four and 29 genes for VG and VP, respectively, were established to be either over- or underexpressed compared to that of TVF. Five-way cluster analysis revealed broad patterns that suggest a potential degree of organization underlying gene expression in these tissues. For the 1 VG, genes involved represent inflammation and wound healing; for the 1 VP, involved genes demonstrate a tempered wound repair response and ...
1.Doctors Grow Human Vocal Cords from Scratch Using cells from human donors, doctors have, for the first time, built a set of vocal cords from scratch. The cells were urged to form a tissue that mimics vocal fold mucosa - vibrating flaps in the larynx that create the sounds of the human voice. This amazing…
This video discusses surgical management of hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps and the expected outcome after surgery. It is the 2nd video in a two-part series on hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps discussing both diagnosis and management. Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps are typically caused by an acute vocal overuse. They consist of a fluid filled sac, most often on the vibrating edge of the vocal cord and almost always have a dilated blood vessel feeding blood to the polyp. Various surgical techniques for removal of polyps are discussed including a programmable DEKA CO2 laser, a standard CO2 laser, scissors (also called cold steel removal). A Zeitels Universal Glottiscope or laryngoscope is used for surgery under general anesthesia. Office laryngeal excision is described and office laser (KTP or PDL) can be used. Postoperative muscle memory is described.. ...
Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps are reviewed utilizing a case study going through diagnosis and treatment. Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps are generally caused by vocal accidents. Sudden vocal overuse breaks a blood vessel. This often occurs on the edge of the vocal cord where the vibrations impact the vocal folds the most. Using the voice with the polyp, blood fills it and swells.. This is a High Definition version. ...
The cavities of the supra-glottal vocal tract resonate when excited by sound energy. The exact resonance characteristics of the vocal tract are a function of many factors, but the two factors of primary importance are the length of the vocal tract and its shape, that is, the cross sectional area profile from glottis to lips. Resonances in the vocal tract reinforce the sound energy of the source function at particular frequencies. These frequencies are variously called resonant frequencies, poles, or formant frequencies. In the figure on the left, we see the effects of passing a model source function with its dense harmonic structure through a model vocal tract producing an /ae/-like vowel. The top panel in this figure shows the spectrum of the source function. The middle panel in this figure shows the response characteristics of the vocal tract. This is a relatively smooth and continuous function of frequency with peaks at frequencies corresponding to the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract. ...
Vocal fold vibration is vital in voice production and the correct pitch of speech. We have developed a high speed functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a center wavelength of 1050 nm and an imaging speed of 100,000 A-lines per second. We imaged the vibration of an ex-vivo swine vocal fold. At an imaging speed of 100 frames per second, we demonstrated high quality vocal fold images during vibration. Functional information, such as vibration frequency and vibration amplitude, was obtained by analyzing the tissue surface during vibration. The axial direction velocity distribution in the cross-sectional images of the vibrating vocal folds was obtained with the Doppler OCT. The quantitative transverse direction velocity distribution in the cross-sectional images was obtained with the Doppler variance images.. ©2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TUESDAY, Feb. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Recent increases in vocal cord cancers among younger, nonsmoking Americans may be explained by the spread of human papilloma virus (HPV), researchers report.. "Over the past 150 years, vocal cord, or glottic cancer, has been almost exclusively a disease associated with smoking and almost entirely seen in patients over 40 years old," explained study senior author Dr. Steven Zeitels. He directs the Division of Laryngeal Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.. "Today, nonsmokers are approaching 50 percent of glottic cancer patients, and it is common for them to be diagnosed under the age of 40," Zeitels said in a hospital news release. "This epidemiologic transformation of vocal cord cancer is a significant public health issue.". In the study, the researchers examined the records of 353 patients treated for vocal cord cancer at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between July 1990 and June ...
Read "An investigation of jet trajectory in flow through scaled vocal fold models with asymmetric glottal passages, Experiments in Fluids" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
When described casually, most people say vocal cords. The proper medical reference term is actually, vocal folds. Vocal folds are composed of mucosa tissue and muscle tissue. Also known as, vocal cords mucosa and vocal cord muscles. The vocal cord mucosa is covered by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium. Well, let me say a little-know information.…
Physical forces, such as mechanical stress, are essential for tissue homeostasis and influence gene expression of cells. In particular, the fibroblast has demonstrated sensitivity to extracellular matrices with assumed adaptation upon various mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to compare the vocal fold fibroblast genotype, known for its unique mechanically stressful tissue environment, with cellular counterparts at various other anatomic locales to identify differences in functional gene expression profiles. By using RNA-seq technology, we identified differentially expressed gene programs (DEseq2) among seven normal human fibroblast primary cell lines from healthy cadavers, which included: vocal fold, trachea, lung, abdomen, scalp, upper gingiva, and soft palate. Unsupervised gene expression analysis yielded 6216 genes differentially expressed across all anatomic sites. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed grouping based on anatomic site origin rather than donor, suggesting global
It never fails to astonish me. The minds fostered at MIT always seem to come up with truly incredible things. They have given us Ethernet, perfected radar and even invented those nifty little disposable razors that I couldnt possibly live without. This summer they are working on giving people with damaged vocal chords back their lost voices. Are they growing new vocal cords in a lab? Are they getting organ donations? Are they giving volunteers small computers that can vocalize for them? Of course not! Obviously theyre using polymers!. This magical polymer is known as PEG30, which is a modified polyethylene glycol. It actually mimics the elastic properties of vocal chords. The technical term for the pliability of the vocal cords is viscoelasticity. PEG30 is flexible, durable and responds effortlessly to the movement of air. Simply put, normal lung power causes PEG30 to form the shapes needed for proper speech to be achieved.. PEG30 will mostly be used in individuals who have vocal cord ...
It never fails to astonish me. The minds fostered at MIT always seem to come up with truly incredible things. They have given us Ethernet, perfected radar and even invented those nifty little disposable razors that I couldnt possibly live without. This summer they are working on giving people with damaged vocal chords back their lost voices. Are they growing new vocal cords in a lab? Are they getting organ donations? Are they giving volunteers small computers that can vocalize for them? Of course not! Obviously theyre using polymers!. This magical polymer is known as PEG30, which is a modified polyethylene glycol. It actually mimics the elastic properties of vocal chords. The technical term for the pliability of the vocal cords is viscoelasticity. PEG30 is flexible, durable and responds effortlessly to the movement of air. Simply put, normal lung power causes PEG30 to form the shapes needed for proper speech to be achieved.. PEG30 will mostly be used in individuals who have vocal cord ...
This video is one of four in a series showing the larynx of an adult female with a left vocal fold paresis (incomplete paralysis). Note that the left vocal fold does move slightly, but is very limited compared to the right. The paresis results in weak glottic closure, which prevents normal vocal fold vibration. This video shows the larynx prior to a thyroplasty, that is, surgical placement of an implant that provides improved glottic closure and therefore better vibration. This series of videos provides a good demonstration of the concept of entrainment, in which the vocal folds become "entrained" in the airstream to vibrate, as long as they are close enough together, and have similar underlying muscle tone. The stroboscopy makes it clear that entrainment is often not achieved, leaving the vocal folds to vibrate separately, often at different frequencies. When the pitch is high enough, and there is enough longitudinal tension along the left vocal fold, the right vocal fold can vibrate against it ...
This video is one of four in a series showing the larynx of an adult female with a left vocal fold paresis (incomplete paralysis). Note that the left vocal fold does move slightly, but is very limited compared to the right. The paresis results in weak glottic closure, which prevents normal vocal fold vibration. This video shows the larynx prior to a thyroplasty, that is, surgical placement of an implant that provides improved glottic closure and therefore better vibration. This series of videos provides a good demonstration of the concept of entrainment, in which the vocal folds become "entrained" in the airstream to vibrate, as long as they are close enough together, and have similar underlying muscle tone. The stroboscopy makes it clear that entrainment is often not achieved, leaving the vocal folds to vibrate separately, often at different frequencies. When the pitch is high enough, and there is enough longitudinal tension along the left vocal fold, the right vocal fold can vibrate against it ...
The purpose of this study is to find out if we can use ultrasound to identify people with breathing problems from their vocal cords. Ultrasound machines use sound waves to see inside your body. In this case, we will be looking at the vocal cords in your neck. If we can use ultrasound to see this problem, then we wont need to use a camera inside of a persons throat to diagnose this problem.. ...
The purpose of this study is to find out if we can use ultrasound to identify people with breathing problems from their vocal cords. Ultrasound machines use sound waves to see inside your body. In this case, we will be looking at the vocal cords in your neck. If we can use ultrasound to see this problem, then we wont need to use a camera inside of a persons throat to diagnose this problem.. ...
Find the best vocal cord surgery doctors in Kolkata. Get guidance from medical experts to select vocal cord surgery specialist in Kolkata from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
... We all know how important it is to make sure our vocal cords are not stressed while we are performing/singing. So here are a few steps to keep your vocal cords unstressed...
Summary Safety Review - AVASTIN (bevacizumab) - Assessing the Potential Risk of Irreversible Vocal Cord Damage (vocal cord necrosis)
Find the best vocal cord hemorrhage doctors in Navi Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select vocal cord hemorrhage specialist in Navi Mumbai from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
... this is the larynx from above with the vocal cords opened (right image) and closed (left image) showing: 1. base of the tongue 2. epiglottis 3. false vocal cord 4. true vocal cord 5. glottis 6. inner lining of trachea 7. corniculate cartilage
Physicians have recently begun using a medical formulation of botulinum toxin, type A to treat vocal fold granulomas caused by overly forceful contact from vocal misuse or overuse. Botulinum toxin, type A, is injected into the muscle of the vocal fold to temporarily limit its mobility and thus decrease injury from forceful contact of vocal folds during voice misuse. This then leads to a decrease in irritation and inflammation allowing the granuloma to heal, as well as prevent new granuloma formation. Since the effects of botulinum toxin, type A injections are short-lasting (three to five months), they sometimes must be performed several times to achieve a desired result.. Injections of medical formulation of botulinum toxin, type A, for granuloma should be performed by a skilled otolaryngologist. (For more information, see Voice Care Team and Spasmodic Dysphonia.). ...
Misuse of the voice. The vocal cords can be stressed by using too much tension when speaking. This can cause problems in the muscles in the throat, and affect the voice. Vocal abuse can also cause a voice disorder. Vocal abuse is anything that strains or harms the vocal cords. Examples of vocal abuse include too much talking, shouting, or coughing. Smoking and constant clearing of the throat is also vocal abuse. Vocal abuse can cause the vocal cords to develop calluses or blisters called nodes and polyps. These change how the voice sounds. In some cases, a vocal cord can rupture from vocal abuse. This causes the cord to bleed (hemorrhage), and can cause loss of voice. Vocal cord hemorrhage needs to be treated right away ...
Singers Roger Daltrey, Steven Tyler and Julie Andrews have thrown their support behind ground-breaking research to produce synthetic vocal cords for people who cant speak. Check out the video to find out more.
A disorder characterized by an intermittent abnormal VOCAL CORDS movement toward the midline during inspiration or expiration resulting in upper AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION ...
Meghan Trainor of "All About That Bass" fame underwent surgery on her vocal cord on Tuesday. The singer-songwriter had to cancel her recent M Train tour because of a hemorrhage on the vocal cord.. Trainor, who recently has a top hit with Charlie Puth called "Marvin Gaye," shared before and after photos of herself with her fans via Instagram.. "My before and after pics. I look so hurt haha I survived tho! thank you Dr. Nasseri for being my hero. Now just napping all day long on the couch with mama and getting free head rubs. any movie suggestions?" Meghan Trainor captioned the following photos. ...
Vocal cord closure is the foundations of singing good vocals and notes. Cord closure refers to how good your vocal cords merge when you are speaking or singing.
Glottic configuration, ipsilateral thin vocal fold, vocal fold bowing, reduced movement, reduced kinesis, and phase lag were more likely to be associated with vocal fold paresis. ...
Tissue fatigue occurs when the vocal fold tissue swells due to extensive periods of use. The folds will stiffen, and vibrate unevenly, causing broken notes, hoarseness, or in more severe cases, missing notes. Sometimes, rather than hoarseness, the voice will become airy and "ghost notes" can be heard. Generally, with tissue fatigue, higher notes become difficult for the singer to reach. It is difficult to ascertain whether fatigue is muscular or mucosal, but the sound produced is easily distinguished as vocal fatigue.. Whilst vocal rest, and practising or performing less, are desirable, there are many other ways in which a singer can prevent this from happening. Just as an athlete warms up, it is critical that a singer warms up their voice using vocal exercises in combination with physical exercises to relieve tension, and warm and stretch the muscles. Physiological warm ups bring blood to the areas of the body, alleviate tension, and prepare a singer physically, while vocalises and scales warm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The neck after vertical hemilaryngectomy. T2 - Computed tomographic study. AU - DiSantis, D. J.. AU - Balfe, D. M.. AU - Hayden, R.. AU - Sessions, D.. AU - Sagel, S. S.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Computed tomographic scans in 22 postoperative vertical hemilaryngectomy patients were analyzed retrospectively to determine the normal postoperative appearance and to evaluate the role of CT in assessing recurrent neoplasm. Twelve patients without clinical evidence of recurrence illustrated the normal postoperative changes: loss of the preepiglottic space fat and the aryepiglottic fold on the operated side, convexity of the residual true vocal cord, and regeneration of the resected thyroid cartilage ala. In the six patients with recurrent neoplasm, the CT manifestations included increased width of the remaining true vocal cord, convexity of the surgically formed pseudocord at glottic level, subglottic tumor, and extralaryngeal neck masses. Recurrence was mimicked in four ...