At the ASRS 31st Annual Meeting, Mark S. Humayun, MD, PhD, presented updated safety and performance results of the Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System clinical trial and gave an overview of the commercial experience in Europe.. As of December 1, 2012, 30 subjects have been implanted at centers in the main study. This is the largest study of a visual prosthesis to date, with more than 125 cumulative patient-years of follow-up.. Results show the Argus II prosthesis provides visual function to patients with end-stage retinitis pigmentosa. Research has demonstrated visual acuity as high as 1.0 logMAR (20/200) and color perception. A total of 54 clinical trial subjects and commercial patients worldwide have received the Argus II implant.. The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System has been commercially available in Europe since 2011 and received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in February 2013. As of October 1, 2013, the Argus II system has been approved for Medicare coverage. Software ...
On Friday September 28, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Ophthalmic Devices Advisory Panel unanimously voted 19-0 that the probable benefit of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System outweighs the risks to health, ...
Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System is the first approved bionic eye in the US with life-changing potential for the treatment of blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa. SYLMAR, CA, 14 February 2013 After more than 20 years of research and development, Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., the leading developer of retinal prostheses for the blind, is pleased to announce that its Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System (Argus II) has received U.S. market approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat individuals with late stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This announcement follows receipt of the European approval in 2011, and a unanimous recommendation by the FDAs Ophthalmic Devices Advisory Panel in September 2012 that this revolutionary product be made available to treat this patient population in the U.S.. We are thrilled to be able to offer the only FDA-approved long-term therapy for people suffering from advanced RP, said Robert Greenberg, MD, PhD, President and CEO of Second ...
Out of the five senses that you have, which is the one that you would deem to be most important? It would be an extremely difficult question for me to answer, as I treasure my sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing equally - and lacking in one is more than enough to make life difficult. Having said that, I salute the indomitable human spirit and those who have achieved so much more than normal able-bodied folks even when missing one (or more) of the five senses. Having said that, there is some hope for the blind thanks to the efforts of Second Sight who came up with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis. This rather unique piece of technology will basically allow a blind user to see objects, as well as colors and movement within their environment. Just how is this achieved? Normally, it is done thanks to the assistance of a video-camera-equipped pair of glasses that is worn by the user. However, a recent experiment saw researchers do away with the camera, and they instead transmitted visual Braille ...
The attorney, Dean Lloyd, was one of six users of the Argus II retinal prosthesis who testified in front of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ophthalmic devices panel on September 28. They all urged its members to recommend marketing approval in the U.S. for the device.. I am happy to report that the panel did, in fact, vote to recommend marketing approval, and I think the heartfelt testimonies of those who used the Argus II in clinical trials helped move the panel toward that decision. The panels recommendation bodes well for final FDA approval, which will hopefully arrive in the not-too-distant future.. While Dean testified pragmatically - no surprise, he is a lawyer, after all - others who spoke about their experiences with the Argus II were quite emotional. For example, Cathy Blake, also blind from RP, became tearful as she explained how one of the most important benefits of using the Argus II is the ability to see movement.. What I really love most about the device is I can tell if ...
1. Caspi A, Roy A, Dorn JD, Greenberg RJ. Retinotopic to Spatiotopic Mapping in Blind Patients Implanted With the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Jan 01 2017;58(1):119-127.. 2. Magill K. Nursing considerations for patients undergoing retinal prosthesis implantation: one centers experience. Insight. Q2 2017;42(2):17-21.. 3. Parmeggiani F, De Nadai K, Piovan A, Binotto A, Zamengo S, Chizzolini M. Optical coherence tomography imaging in the management of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system. Eur J Ophthalmol. Jan 19 2017;27(1):e16-e21.. 4. Tran BK, Wolfensberger TJ. Retina-Implant Interaction after 16 Months Follow-up in a Patient with an Argus II Prosthesis. Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. Feb 13 2017.. 5. Barry MP, Dagnelie G. Hand-Camera Coordination Varies over Time in Users of the Argus((R)) II Retinal Prosthesis System. Frontiers in systems neuroscience. 2016;10:41.. 6. Brady-Simmons C, Van Der Biest R, Bozeman L. Miami Lighthouse for ...
Purpose : To investigate the feasibility of implanting a newly developed wide-field dual-array suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) prosthesis in healthy dogs and cats. Methods : Three healthy dogs and three healthy cats were used in this study. The STS dual array consisted of two arrays with 25 electrodes. The arrays were implanted into a scleral pocket of each of three healthy beagle dogs and three healthy cats under general anesthesia. Color fundus photography and Optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed postoperatively. The animals were euthanatized after the experimental period and the retinas were evaluated histologically. Results : All the prostheses were successfully implanted without complications, and no serious complications occurred during the experimental period. The fixation of the implant was stable throughout the experimental period. Fundus photographs and OCT revealed no serious damage in the retina and choroid around the arrays ...
For people who have gone blind from degenerative eye diseases like macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Both diseases damage the eyes
The research team have investigated the Argus II system both in terms of spatial resolution, using letter identification, and long-term stable function. In Test I on average, across all the subjects, letters could be clearly identified correctly between 51.7% (Group C) and 72.3% (Group A) of the time with the system on while performing at chance level with the device off. The median values for correct letters, system on, in figure 2 of 50% or greater for groups A, B and C indicate that at least half the group was functioning at this level (figure 2).. It is possible that a component of letter identification involves head scanning with light detection and inference of the letter. This may partially account for the greater number correct for Group A letters when the Test I letters were stratified into three groups of increasing typographic complexity. However, experimenters observed that many high-performing subjects did not scan across the letter but followed the form of the letter as if tracing ...
Second Sight Medicals Argus II retinal prosthesis system was introduced in Iran through the companys exclusive distribution partner, Arshia Gostar Darman. Two patients in the country have undergone implantation of the system, which uses electrical stimulation to induce visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.
0004] This patent document pertains generally to provisional tibial prosthesis systems, kits, and methods, including one or more provisional tibial components that can collectively be used to replicate permanent (or final) tibial components or mimic bone cuts believed to be necessary during a surgical procedure. It is believed that the provisional tibial components can also be designed for, or find use as, permanent tibial components. Thus, while this disclosure relates to provisional uses of the present tibial prosthesis systems, kits, and methods, it should be appreciated that such subject matter can also find use in permanent applications. When used provisionally, the tibial prosthesis systems, kits, and methods disclosed herein can assist in determining a proper bone cut angle to be made (e.g., to a tibia or a femur) or a size, shape, or other configuration of a permanent tibial prosthesis system that is designed to replace all or a portion of a knee joint. The present tibial prosthesis ...
** Medical device makers shares up 8 pct at $11.74** Receives Health Canadas approval for retinal implants totreat patients with outer retinal degeneration** Companys Argus II Retinal Prosthesis is an electronicimplant designed to improve vision in those with severe cases ofthe inherited disease** Outer retinal degeneration is caused by progressive deathof the cells in the region** Argus II Retinal Prosthesis already approved in U.S.** Up to Fridays close, stock had risen 20 pct since itsdebut on Nov. 19
Based on the measured retinal locations, we calculated the angular distances between the centroid of the tested groups. The distance between the centroids of the groups in Figure 5 compared with the angular distance based on the physical separation between the electrodes are given in Table 2. The calculated angular distance assumed a linear model in which every 0.293 mm of arc length on the retina equates to 1° in the field of view.19 It can be seen that the subjects amplified the separation between the stimulation locations. This observation is in agreement with open-loop pointing with sighted subjects that shows that peripheral retinal displacement is exaggerated.20-22 Furthermore, we expect to see a deformation of the relative position and orientation between the electrodes because each electrode activates axon fiber tracts in addition to cell bodies. The activation of the fiber tracts might create an elongated percept along the axon.23 Thus, the percept can be moved along the direction of ...
Epiretinal prostheses for the blind bypass diseased photosensitive cells in the retina, directly stimulating retinal neurons electrically and evoking signals that are relayed to the brain. Current clinical implants have few electrodes and provide limited visual acuity. Acuity may be improved by iden …
Global Retinal Implant Market is expected to reach USD 74.7 million by 2026. A retinal implant is also termed as the Argus® II retinal prosthesis system or bionic eye. These implantable devices are planned to supplant photo transduction within the eyes of persons with major retinal illnesses such as age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. The retinal implant market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 10.6% over the forecast period as the scope and its applications are rising enormously across the globe.. The factors that are playing a major role in the growth of retinal implant market are rising occurrence of degenerative conditions, increasing disposable income in emerging countries, growing aging population, and development of enhanced and efficient technology. However, the high cost of research, lack of trained personnels, and development and lack of medical reimbursement are the factors that may restrain overall market growth in the years to come. Retinal implant ...
Second Sight Medical Products Inc. designs, makes and sells the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, which gives sight to the blind. And sales of the bionic eye are on the rise. Argus II is a prosthetic retina for people with a disease called retinitis pigmentosa. The device looks like futuristic...
By Dustin C. Hays Science Writer The Argus II retinal prosthesis, developed by Second Sight, Inc., with funding from the National Eye Institute (NEI), was recognized September 8, 2011, in honor of being the 8 millionth patent issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The Argus II is a device that restores limited sight to the blind.
PUNDI, BHARATRAM SATYANARAYANAN. Class-E Power Amplifier Design and Back-Telemetry Communication for Retinal Prosthesis. (Under the direction of Wentai Liu.) This thesis discusses the power link in the retinal prosthesis project that aims to provide vision to the profoundly blind. Clinical experiments have confirmed that electrical stimulation can be used to duplicate the action of photoreceptors in the retina to provide vision to blind patients suffering from RP/AMD. The retinal prosthesis system consists of an intraocular unit implanted inside the eye and a separate extraocular unit. The microstimulator involved in retinal prosthesis consists of multiple electrodes arranged in twodimensional array and is a part of the intraocular unit. The micro-stimulator needs data and power to be transferred wirelessly from the extraocular unit. The power link consists of a highly efficient Class-E driver that transfers power inductively to the intraocular unit. A Class-E power driver is developed to suit ...
The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System is the first implanted device approved by the FDA to help restore some sense of sight to those over the age of 25 with advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP). .... ...
I got to see my son for the first time in years, Carley, 51, said. It was pretty amazing … I got a little teary-eyed. It was just so emotional.. Carley received the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System bionic eye implant, a microchip which works with a pair of camera-implanted glasses to restore small amounts of vision, according to the UC Health Eye Center. said people.com. ...
A new device called the Argus II has been implanted in over 50 patients, many of whom can now see color, movement and objects and researchers have even streamed braille patterns directly into a blind patients retina, allowing him to read four-letter words accurately and quickly with the ocular neuroprosthetic device.
In non-clinical testing, the Argus II Implant produced the following temperature rise during MRI performed for 15-min of scanning (i.e., per pulse sequence) in the 1.5-Tesla (1.5-Tesla/64-MHz, Symphony, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) MR system: Highest temperature change was +0.6˚C.. Therefore, the MRI-related heating for the Argus II Implant at 1.5-Tesla using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported whole body averaged SAR of 3.5-W/kg indicated that the greatest amount of heating that occurred in association with these specific conditions was equal to or less than +0.6˚C.. MRI-Related Heating, 3-Tesla. In non-clinical testing, the Argus II Implant produced the following temperature rise during MRI performed for 15-min of scanning (i.e., per pulse sequence) in a 3-Tesla (3-Tesla/128-MHz, Excite, HDx, Software 14X.M5, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) MR system: Highest temperature change was +2.1˚C.. Therefore, the MRI-related heating for the Argus II ...
Optical coherence tomography imaging of presumed Cryptococcus neoformans infection localized to the retina J Curr Ophthalmol. 2019 Sep; 31(3):353-356. . View in PubMed. Enhanced Depth Navigation Through Augmented Reality Depth Mapping in Patients with Low Vision Sci Rep. 2019 Aug 02; 9(1):11230. . View in PubMed. Retinal Gene Distribution and Functionality Implicated in Inherited Retinal Degenerations Can Reveal Disease-Relevant Pathways for Pharmacologic Intervention Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2019 May 17; 12(2). . View in PubMed. Gene Therapy for Inherited Retinal Degeneration J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Mar; 35(2):79-97. . View in PubMed. Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Implantation in a Patient With a History Of Strabismus Surgery:A Surgical Technique Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019 02 01; 50(2):116-119. . View in PubMed. VISUAL AND ANATOMICAL OUTCOMES AFTER DIABETIC TRACTION AND TRACTION-RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR Retina. 2018 Oct; 38(10):1913-1919. . View in ...
Diseases like Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age-related Macular Degeneration result in a gradual and progressive loss of photoreceptors leading to blindness. A retinal prosthesis device imparts partial and artificial vision to patients in the central 15-20 degrees of the visual field by electrically activating the remaining healthy cells of the retina using electrical currents and an electrode array. Many visual aids available commercially aid blind patients with their day to day activities and navigation tasks. Most of these technologies have equipment or infrastructure overhead and are designed for indoor or outdoor use. The retinal prosthesis system design consists of an image processing module that can be utilized to process camera images in indoor and outdoor environments using algorithms to provide information about the surroundings and aid patients in their daily activities. This thesis presents work towards developing, validating and testing image processing algorithms for a retinal ...
An intervertebral disk prosthesis system, which is used for forming an artificial intervertebral disk and comprises a first and a second prosthesis component wherein each of the two prosthesis components comprises a first and a second vertebral body contacting element for placement on neighboring vertebral bodies bounding an intervertebral disk space of a spinal column and a joint element that is mounted between and is moveable relative to at least one of the first and second vertebral body contacting elements, attains a substantially natural range of motion independent of the positioning of the two prosthesis components relative to each other and to the neighboring vertebral bodies. Each prosthesis component has a ball joint formed between the first and second vertebral body contacting elements.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regenerative ophthalmology. T2 - Technologic and pharmacologic approaches to restoring sight via retinal prosthesis. AU - Iezzi, R.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Retinal prosthesis technology can restore rudimentary form vision in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who have lost all eyesight. This continually advancing field within regenerative ophthalmology represents the merger of micro-electromechanical systems technology with neurosensory retina. This man-machine interface is reliant upon the long-term health of a neurosensory retina undergoing progressive pathophysiologic changes. Pharmacologic approaches that address the pathophysiologic consequences of RP will likely play an important role for all regenerative treatment strategies.. AB - Retinal prosthesis technology can restore rudimentary form vision in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who have lost all eyesight. This continually advancing field within regenerative ophthalmology represents the merger of ...
AccessGUDID - Endo-Model Standard Knee Prosthesis System (04026575206797)- Rotational Knee Replacement Set,with anti-luxation device
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The Intelligent Retinal Implant System (IRISTM) has been developed with the aim of providing modest visual perception to blind patients suffering from retinal degeneration e.g. retinitis pigmentosa. This epi-retinal prosthesis consists of an implantable part and two external parts. The implantable part is called the Retina Stimulator and is provided with energy wirelessly. The external components are the Visual Interface (VI) and the Pocket Processor (PP). The VI resembles a pair of sunglasses. A tiny camera is integrated within the Visual Interface to capture images from the patients surrounding and convert the image information into electronic signals. These signals are sent via a thin cable to the walkman sized Pocket Processor.. The PP processes the data and converts them into stimulation commands using very adaptable algorithms. The processed signals are then sent back via cable to the Visual Interface, where the signals are sent wirelessly to the implanted retina stimulator. The Retina ...
When travelling and not using the Argus II System, individuals should be advised to store the external equipment in the travel case. International travel may require the use of adapters to be able to plug the VPU battery charger into an electrical outlet. Individuals with the Argus II System should be advised to both bring their patient identification card with them to assist in going through security systems and to turn off the VPU. If individuals with the Argus II System are experiencing any medical complications before traveling, they should be advised to speak with a doctor to determine if it is safe for them to travel, especially on a plane. They also may wish to obtain the name of a local ophthalmologist, in the event of any complications during their travels.. ...
Others. The Retinal Implants Market report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected Retinal Implants Market sales revenue, Retinal Implants Market growth, Retinal Implants Market demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of Retinal Implants Market are also covered at depth in this research document.. Initially, the Retinal Implants Market manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other Retinal Implants Market players in driving business insights.. To Download A Sample Of The Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-retinal-implants-market-2017/80387/#requestForSample. Key Emphasizes Of The Retinal Implants Market:. The fundamental details related to Retinal Implants Market industry like the product definition, cost, variety of ...
Paragraph templates for layouts are located in the /Files/Templates/Designs/Paragraphs folder by default - this is where the paragraph template selector looks for templates to display when you select a custom template for a paragraph.. You can create contextual templates, e.g. paragraph templates for a specific design or layout, by creating a paragraph template folder inside a design folder:. /Files/Templates/Designs/YourDesign/Paragraph. In this manner, you can limit the available selection of paragraph templates - and prevent your backend users from selecting the wrong template.. You can limit the selection even further, by creating layout-specific paragraph templates, and putting them in a folder inside the layout folder, e.g.. /Files/Templates/Designs/YourDesign/YourLayout/Paragraph. By doing this, only the paragraph templates that folder are available for pages using the YourLayout.html layout.. ...
Retinal prosthesis devices have shown great value in restoring some sight for individuals with profoundly impaired vision, but the visual acuity and visual field provided by prostheses greatly limit recipients visual experience. In this paper, we employ computer vision approaches to seek to expand the perceptible visual field in patients implanted potentially with a high-density retinal prosthesis while maintaining visual acuity as much as possible. Approach. We propose an optimized content-aware image retargeting method, by introducing salient object detection based on color and intensity-difference contrast, aiming to remap important information of a scene into a small visual field and preserve their original scale as much as possible ...
Several studies have shown that rehabilitation can augment the brains inherent plasticity (Eickhoff et al., 2008; Kao et al., 2011; Martinez et al., 2009; Merabet & Pascual-Leone, 2010; Schlaug et al., 2009; Schneeberger et al., 2006, 2007). We are only beginning to understand how this finding applies to the use of AVDs in the field of artificial vision. New vision technology and efforts at ocular regeneration offer the eventual promise of meaningful improvement in the lives of people who are blind. However, this burgeoning field risks failure unless appropriate rehabilitative components are developed and multidisciplinary involvement occurs. Our results show that without instruction, the blind participants performed no better than chance when using the BrainPort vision device. However, after even a short amount of directed training in core skill acquisition, performance on the majority of outcomes significantly improved. Moreover, the scores for object and word recognition continued to improve ...
Ophthalmology may be one step closer to the hope of providing artificial vision for individuals affected by virtually all forms of blindness.
Israeli tech firm OrCam has developed artificial vision technology that helps the visually impaired using a camera and an earpiece to relay information
In the Soviet Occupied Zone that later became East Germany (see History of Germany since 1945), the development of law was not uniform. The Provincial High Court in Halle (Oberlandesgericht Halle, or OLG Halle) decided for Saxony-Anhalt in 1948 that Paragraphs 175 and 175a were to be seen as injustice perpetrated by the Nazis, because a progressive juridical development had been broken off and even been reversed. Homosexual acts were to be tried only according to the laws of the Weimar Republic.[27]. In 1950, one year after being reconstituted as the German Democratic Republic, the Berlin Appeal Court (Kammergericht Berlin) decided for all of East Germany to reinstate the validity of the old, pre-1935 form of Paragraph 175.[27] However, in contrast to the earlier action of the OLG Halle, the new Paragraph 175a remained unchanged, because it was said to protect society against socially harmful homosexual acts of qualified character. In 1954, the same court decided that Paragraph 175a, in ...
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With material in which several paragraphs are being quoted and omissions of full paragraphs occur, a period and ellipses at the end of the paragraph preceding the omitted material are sufficient to indicate this omission.Indeed, it is no more than the just desert of Dr Theodore Schott and his late brother to attribute to them the credit of having introduced and elaborated a method capable of restoring most cases of heart disease to a state of complete compensation, after the failure of other means, such as digitalis.… If the initial word(s) or the first sentence of the paragraph being quoted
Over the last 8 years it has been shown that an implantable retinal prosthesis can partially restore visual capabilities to blind humans. With current electrode arrays it is only possible to stimulate groups of cells rather than individual single cells with spatio-temporal precision. While artificial vision from a retinal prosthesis is unable to completely replicate the neural response patterns of normal vision, by stimulating groups of cells with electrodes patients see electrically elicited visual percepts. Thus this work will focus mainly on the form of percepts created with single electrodes in a prosthesis given certain varying stimulation parameters, and the development of a model to predict how stimuli applied produce certain percepts with single and paired prosthesis electrodes. ❧ Ideally we would want this model to resemble a digital display with independent pixels in order to individually control each percept seen by the subject in relation to the stimuli. We find however that the ...
The images are not merely identified, pointed out and listed.; there is active interpretation and analysis of what they actually mean. In other words the writer is actively engaging with Greenes story.. What of the second paragraph? Firstly one might ask why a second paragraph is needed, given that the theme is still that of religion. True, but the first paragraph is becoming quite long, it is reaching the natural length of a paragraph. There are no hard or fast rules and regulations here - no writing committee has decreed that a paragraph should contain an ideal number of words or sentences or run a certain length over a page. Extended writing practice will give you a feel and an instinct for realising that a paragraph is complete and it is time to start a new one. More importantly here there is a very strong sense that the first paragraph in the model is full. The writer has identified a link between the house and the ideological vacuum in which the gang exist and has tried to interpret ...
a) [Reserved] (b)Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for uses as in paragraph (d) of this section. (1) No. 058198 for use as in paragraphs (d)(1)(i)(A), (d)(1)(i)(B), (d)(1)(i)(C), (d)(1)(i)(D), (d)(1)(i)(E), (d)(1)(i)(F), (d)(1)(ii), (d)(1)(iii), (d)(2), and (d)(3) of this section. (2) No. 000061 for use as in paragraphs (d)(1)(i)(A), (d)(1)(i)(C), (d)(1)(i)(D), (d)(1)(i)(G), (d)(1)(ii), (d)(1)(iii), (d)(2)(i)(A), (d)(2)(i)(C), (d)(2)(i)(D), (d)(2)(ii), (d)(2)(iii), (d)(3)(i)(A), (d)(3)(ii), (d)(3)(iii), (d)(4), and (d)(5) of this section. (3) No. 054771 for use as in paragraphs (d)(1)(i)(A), (d)(1)(i)(D), (d)(1)(ii), (d)(1)(iii), (d)(3)(i)(A), (d)(3)(ii), and (d)(3)(iii) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d)Conditions of use - (1)Steers fed in confinement for slaughter - (i)Amount. (A) 120 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 6 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol) per implant dose. (B) 120 mg ...
Restoring vision to the blind is one of the epic promises of technology, sort of like flying cars, ray guns, and a lovable robot side kick. Yet artificial sight isnt a far off dream, its getting much closer to reality with the Argus project. Funded by the US Department of Energy and lead by Lawrence Livermore National Labs, Argus seeks to create an epiretinal prosthesis, a device that will take the image from a camera and send it to your brain via your optic nerve. The first two phases of Argus (which we call Argus I and Argus II) have had extraordinary success with implants in more than 30 patients. Now, LLNL is getting ready to launch Argus III - the third phase that will expand the number of patients, the quality of vision provided, and ease in which the device is implanted. The Argus project has already restored sight to a few blind people, but given enough time, it could change the lives of millions.. There are other epiretinal prosthesis in development. The one at MIT is particularly ...
In each of these questions you will be given a paragraph which contains all the information necessary to infer the correct answer. Use only the information provided in the paragraph. Do not speculate or make assumptions that go beyond this information. Also, assume that all information given in the paragraph is true, even if it conflicts with some fact known to you. Only one correct answer can be validly inferred from the information contained in the paragraph.. Pay special attention to quantifiers such as all, none, and some. Also, pay special attention to negative prefixes and negated verbs. For example, from a paragraph in which it is affirmed that it is not the case that all contracts are legal, one can validly infer that some contracts are not legal or that some contracts are illegal, or that some illegal things are contracts, but one cannot validly infer that no contracts are legal, or that some contracts are legal. Similarly, from a paragraph that states all contracts ...
B. A person who violates:. 1. Subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section involving an amount of marijuana not possessed for sale having a weight of less than two pounds is guilty of a class 6 felony.. 2. Subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section involving an amount of marijuana not possessed for sale having a weight of at least two pounds but less than four pounds is guilty of a class 5 felony.. 3. Subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section involving an amount of marijuana not possessed for sale having a weight of four pounds or more is guilty of a class 4 felony.. 4. Subsection A, paragraph 2 of this section involving an amount of marijuana having a weight of less than two pounds is guilty of a class 4 felony.. 5. Subsection A, paragraph 2 of this section involving an amount of marijuana having a weight of at least two pounds but not more than four pounds is guilty of a class 3 felony.. 6. Subsection A, paragraph 2 of this section involving an amount of marijuana having a weight of more than four ...
The FRC guidance proposes to add text to section 28 of FRS 102 with reference to multi-employer defined benefit pension schemes:. 28.11B When an entity participates in a defined benefit plan, which is a multi-employer plan that in accordance with paragraph 28.11 is accounted for as if the plan were a defined contribution plan, and sufficient information to use defined benefit accounting becomes available, the entity shall:. (a) apply defined benefit accounting in accordance with paragraphs 28.14 to 28.28 from the relevant date as defined in paragraph 28.11C; and. (b) recognise the difference between:. (i) its net defined benefit liability (after taking into account the effect of paragraph 28.22, if any) at the relevant date as defined in paragraph 28.11C; and. (ii) the carrying value at the relevant date of its liability for the contributions payable arising from an agreement to fund a deficit, if any, plus any liability recognised in accordance with paragraph 28.13(a);. as a separate item in ...
As a retinal implant, the ARGUS II technology has shown early benefits for patients with retinitis pigmentosa. A new study from the United Kingdom is examining its benefits in patients with the dry form of age related macular degeneration.
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After years of research, we are… able to offer a viable long-term solution for people suffering from advanced retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa [RP], said Robert Greenberg, managing director, president and chief executive officer of Second Sight. The CE Mark approval… represents a huge step forward for the field and for these patients who have, until now, had no proven treatment alternatives.. Argus II is Second Sights second-generation implantable device intended to treat profoundly blind people suffering from degenerative diseases such as RP.. Second Sight said in a statement that the system converts video images captured from a camera - housed in the patients glasses - into a series of small electrical pulses that are transmitted wirelessly to an array of electrodes on the retina.. These pulses then stimulate the retinas remaining cells, resulting in the corresponding perception of patterns of light in the brain. Patients learn to interpret these visual ...
Second Sight Medical Products Inc. will conduct a clinical study in Germany to evaluate Argus II, its retinal prosthetic system, the company has announced.
A few years back, ophthalmologists diagnosed Niki Bayats father with glaucoma, a degenerative eye disease and leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide.. Bayat, a PhD student in chemical engineering at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, watched helplessly as her father failed to take his drops three times daily as prescribed. Sometimes he forgot. Sometimes he had difficulty getting them into his eyes. Sometimes he only administered them once or twice a day because of the discomfort they caused.. Bayat, whose research includes developing biomaterials to treat eye trauma, thought there had to be another way. So she decided to develop one.. Bayat co-founded AesculaTech, a biomedical device company spun out of the research labs of Mark Thompson - her doctoral adviser, an expert in new materials for optoelectronics and co-inventer of the phosphorescent OLEDs now found in displays in mobile devices and televisions worldwide - and Mark Humayun - the developer of the Argus II, an artificial ...
SILVA, G. M. L. L. da et al. The use of an axisymmetric formulation of the Finite Volume Method for the thermal analysis of the retina and ocular tissues following implantation of retinal prosthesis. J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. [online]. 2012, vol.34, n.3, pp.308-313. ISSN 1678-5878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-58782012000300011.. This study analyzes the heat transfer in human eyes following implantation of retinal prostheses using an axisymmetric formulation of the Finite Volume Method. The model used consisted of a vertex centered unstructured grid finite volume method in an edge-based data structure and an explicit time integration. The results of the finite volume thermal analysis in ocular tissues were determined in the presence of two types of retinal implants: subretinal and epiretinal. For the subretinal device, the maximum temperature reached in the retina was 36.78°C (309.78 K) and the irreversible thermal damage occurred at 200 days. In the case of the epiretinal implant, the ...
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Introduction. Heart of Darkness Commentary Mitchell Watson Period 23 November 15, 2012 Paragraph 28, Part Three of Heart of Darkness, written by Joseph Conrad, is part of the climax of the novella. The aforementioned section exists to show the reader that Marlow, the protagonist, is developing a relationship with the antagonist, Kurtz, in terms of intimacy and betrayal. Another function of this section is to show Marlow as both physically and metaphorically standing between Kurtz and a final plunge into madness and depravity. Conrad also utilizes Marlow and Kurtz as characters to set up a dichotomy of the primitive and civilized. Kurtz is described with a negative connotation in this section, as in ?-this wandering and tormented thing,? ?-utterly lost,? and ??unsteady, long, pale, indistinct like a vapour exhaled by the earth?? The simile ??indistinct like a vapour exhaled by the earth?? allows the reader to see Kurtz as only part of man. ...read more. Middle. The primitive and the civilized ...
Breaking News English.com. A FREE paragraph jumble activity on Skull Shape. Comes with more reading, activities, quizzes and a listening.
Breaking News English.com. A FREE paragraph jumble activity on Eating Disorders. Comes with more reading, activities, quizzes and a listening.
Adds industry background in 2nd paragraph, Unicom average revenue per user in 5th paragraph, background on handset subsidies and iPhone sales in 7th-8th paragraphs, background on 3G user numbers in 9th-10th paragraphs). BEIJING (MarketWatch) -- China Unicom (Hong Kong) Ltd. CHU, +1.54% Tuesday reported its first-quarter unaudited net profit tumbled 86% from a year earlier as it continued to offer heavy subsidies on third-generation mobile phones in an attempt to catch up with its bigger rival.. China Unicom, Chinas second-biggest mobile carrier by accounts and the countrys only carrier to offer Apple Inc.s iPhone, is racing with China Telecom Corp. and China Mobile Ltd. to boost revenue by adding users of third-generation mobile services, which offer faster data speeds at a higher price. Tough competition and heavy spending on subsidies for 3G handsets weighed on China Unicoms net profit last year, though analysts say the subsidies could help accelerate the companys growth in 3G users this ...
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a)Rules of application - (1)In general. The provisions of this section apply solely for purposes of section 199 of the Internal Revenue Code. The amount of the deduction allowable under § 1.199-1(a) (section 199 deduction) to a taxpayer for any taxable year shall not exceed 50 percent of the W-2 wages (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) of the taxpayer. For this purpose, except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section and paragraph (b) of this section, the Forms W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, used in determining the amount of W-2 wages are those issued for the calendar year ending during the taxpayers taxable year for wages paid to employees (or former employees) of the taxpayer for employment by the taxpayer. For purposes of this section, employees of the taxpayer are limited to employees of the taxpayer as defined in section 3121(d)(1) and (2) (that is, officers of a corporate taxpayer and employees of the taxpayer under the common law rules). See paragraph (a)(3) of this ...
Federal Register: July 6, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 129)]. [[Page 38450]]. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Citizens Health Care Working Group Interim Recommendations. Correction. In notice document 06-5379 beginning on page 34369 in the issue of Wednesday, June 14, 2006, make the following corrections:. 1. On page 34370, in the first column, under the heading Preamble, in the first paragraph, in the ninth line, pried should read priced.. 2. On the same page, in the same column, under the same heading, in the second paragraph, in the third line, impeded should read impede.. 3. On the same page, in the second column, in the first indented paragraph, in the 11th line, experience should read experienced.. 4. On the same page, in the third column, in the third line from the bottom of the page, as should read at.. 5. On page 34371, in the first column, in the first indented paragraph, in the fifth line, 312 should read 31.. 6. On ...
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View Week 8 Case Study Assignment Bio.docx from MICROBIOLO BIO201 at Jersey College, School of Nursing . Case Study: Please answer in short paragraphs in your own words. Use the textbook as
Indong Oh came to the United States from Corea in 1970 with his wife Kyungja. He completed his post-graduate surgical internship training at Harvard Medical School where he eventually became a professor in orthopedic surgery. He was also a resident at Massachusets General Hospital in Boston. Diligent and intensive practice with dogs during his residency led him to invent several major improvements in the existing art of joint-replacement devices. He has obtained 11 patents and designed 3 major total hip replacement prosthesis systems and attendant surgical instruments. The royalties from these devices assure him a seven-figure income even if he were to stop performing operations. But he has no interest in leading a life of leisure.. He keeps up a hectic private practice in which he specializes in hip and knee replacement surgery for patients suffering from disabling arthritis. He has published over 100 scientific articles and won several prestigious research awards including the John Charnley ...
Losing focus within the passage. If you find yourself daydreaming or barely comprehending often, get in the habit of making the end of every paragraph a check point, where you pause to summarize the main idea of the paragraph you just read. Aside from forming a solid ongoing basis for your understanding of the passage, it also prevents you from continuing onward and compounding your lack of comprehension.. Passage is too boring. Note-taking is the most useful here; by forcing yourself to pay attention to something, your mind focuses more in general (this is also a fantastic technique for staying sharp in lectures and staff meetings, by the way!). You can also challenge yourself to take very concise, effective notes, which has the effect of forcing you to synthesize ideas and entire paragraphs into very small, meaningful phrases.. Passage is too interesting. This is a challenge, and is in some ways a little unfair: why should we have to stomp out a brief moment of fun in a four-hour stretch of ...
The fora for international cooperation THE FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) 184. We regret that a senior official from the secretariat of the FATF was not permitted to give us oral evidence on the organisation and current activities of the FATF. (paragraph 31) 185. Since the Government accept that they are accountable to Parliament for United Kingdom membership of the FATF, they should find a more systematic way to report to Parliament on FATF developments. Written statements after each plenary session would be a start. (paragraph 32) COOPERATION AT EU LEVEL 186. Nearly eight years after the signature of the 2001 Protocol to the Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters it is not yet in force for five Member States, so that there is still no full cross-border cooperation even on obtaining details of bank accounts. This is a situation which the EU Counter-terrorism Coordinator described as shocking. We think this is not too strong a word. (paragraph 36) 187. The Government should ...
click here.. How To Write A Persuasive Essay. Writing a thesis essay is one of the challenges that students face in their academic life. Essays should not be the most stressful time of your life, and our company offers you the essay writing help. Using transition words is helpful when writing expository essays. Introduction is, basically, used to prepare the readers for further discussion and analysis as enclosed in the later parts of the essay.. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. According to the desired and needed designation, people used to buy a life experience degree. This Study Guide addresses the topic of essay writing. The five paragraph essay is a formal essay comprising exactly five paragraphs: an introduction, three paragraphs of body or explanation, and a conclusion.. How To Write English Legal System Essay ...
click here.. How To Write A Persuasive Essay. Writing a thesis essay is one of the challenges that students face in their academic life. Essays should not be the most stressful time of your life, and our company offers you the essay writing help. Using transition words is helpful when writing expository essays. Introduction is, basically, used to prepare the readers for further discussion and analysis as enclosed in the later parts of the essay.. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. According to the desired and needed designation, people used to buy a life experience degree. This Study Guide addresses the topic of essay writing. The five paragraph essay is a formal essay comprising exactly five paragraphs: an introduction, three paragraphs of body or explanation, and a conclusion.. How To Write English Legal System Essay ...
This is probably the fourth time I bring to your notice the following. Please, if you are not going to create original content for the articles you contribute to, try to improve the quality with which you add said information. The Afghanistan page is an example of that. The different paragraphs taken from different articles have no form of cohesive narrative or connectors. The focus of the article should be Afghanistan, not the people that visited or lived on it. There are even portions of this copy-pasted information that have nothing to do with Afghanistan, after mentioning that Dust was born in there, the information in the paragraph moves to India, and continues talking about Dusts life experiences even though they are completely irrelevant for the article. The paragraph about Wolverine tracking down Mystique mentions Afghanistan at the beginning. Then theres a mention of a flashback which takes place in Muir Island that has nothing to do with Afghanistan at all, and the action moves to ...
Your introduction is quite expansive and the first paragraph gives an excellent overview of what the somatosensory system actually is. At the end of the first paragraph you do refer to a picture; however, there is no picture. Please add this to show the somatosensory organisation within the body. In the second paragraph you mention some key timepoints related to the somatosensory development, which is good. After this (Development of the system entails…lemniscal system.) the text is probably too specific for the introduction. This can be used as an introduction for your development subheading. Please make sure that you edit the in-text references to proper references which we can access via your reference list. Also make sure you start adding terms to the glossary, eg. dorsal column-medial lemniscal system (I do not know what this means!) You have started on your history section, but it would be more interesting and easier to read if you put this in a table. For instance: date - description ...
3. Chapter 5 was rearranged for logical reasons without any change of the content.. Changes to paragraphs 1.5.2, 2.2 and 6 were approved during the General Assembly on the 5th of November 1998.. The term active collective member was changed to active sponsoring member and adaptations were made to chapters 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 3.1 and 3.2 to reflect this modification. The General assembly approved the changes on 25th of November 2004 (exact changes see Newsletter Vol 22_2 pages 31-21.. Changes to paragraph 5.1.1, which allows to increase the committee to nine members, were approved during the General Assembly on the 27th of October 2011 (exact changes see Newsletter Vol 29_2 page 25). Changes to paragraph 2.4, reducing the numbers of reminders sent out befor termination of membership to one, was approved during the General Assembly on November 1st 2012 (exact changes see Newsletter Vol 30_1 page 18).. A hardcopy of the Statutes of the SGMS can be downloaded here.. ...
In Vol. 78, No. 8, on pages 1062 1063, several errors occurred in the news item Deficiencies in immunization campaigns highlighted in new UNICEF report, for which we apologize.. The corrected sentences are given below:. Page 1062, first paragraph: The impression was given that efforts exist to eradicate diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. The first sentence should read: ... immunization programmes aimed at the control of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus and the eradication of poliomyelitis are still failing to reach many children, leaving them at risk of catching these diseases .. Page 1062, second paragraph: Vaccination efforts were mistakenly attributed solely to UNICEF. The second sentence should read: ... is still lagging behind the goals of the organization and its partners... .. Page 1063, first paragraph: Poliomyelitis eradication efforts were mistakenly attributed solely to UNICEF. The first sentence should read: ... Among its efforts, UNICEF and partners have set about an ambitious ...
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What a weekend that was! The Retina Australia National Congress (hosted by us) at the ibis Melbourne Hotel between 23rd and 25th October was a resounding success. Officially opened by Frank McGuire MP, the Victorian Parliamentary Secretary for Medical Research, Frank spoke about his personal commitment to ensuring that government funds be found to support medical research. Frank remained at the Congress to hear the keynote address and to meet and chat to delegates over morning tea.. Dr Gerald Chader, Executive Director of the California Project to Cure Blindness, gave the Keynote Address. His talk Retinal Degeneration: Moving from Scientific Darkness to the Light of Clinical Trials outlined how research into inherited retinal diseases has developed during the last twenty-five years. Dr Chaders address ranged across developments in Genetics, Artificial Vision, Optogenetics, Neuroprotection, Antioxidants and Gene Therapy. He also described current and planned clinical trials. Dr Chader was ...
Introduction: The complexity of the retina is a challenge to the design of neuroprosthetic devices. It is now clear that the neural retina is not a passive bystander in retinal degenerations (RDs) and that extensive remodeling occurs on tissue, cellular, synaptic and molecular scales (Jones et al. 2003 J Comp Neurol 464: 1-16, Marc et al. 2003 Prog Ret Eye Res 22: 607-655). All intervention schemata (genetic, cellular or bionic) for blinding diseases will have to address the ongoing processes of neuronal death, gene expression revision, neuronal rewiring, neuronal migration, and the formation new glial barriers. I will review the nature and scope of retinal remodeling, focusing on critical rewiring phenomena that may represent the greatest challenge to artificial vision. Indeed prosthetics may be the essential tools with which to repattern retinal circuits.. Methods: We have used computational molecular phenotyping (CMP) to screen over twenty RD models, comprehensively tracking all cell types. ...
Retinal implants allowing sightless people struggling from diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration to regain basic vision are struggling with many obstacles. to ideals up to fourfold higher 64519-82-0 manufacture in the OFF bipolar model neuron in assessment to the ON bipolar cell. Furthermore, geometric properties influence the activation of bipolar cells strongly. Monophasic, biphasic, recurring and solitary pulses with identical measures, polarities and amplitudes were applied to the two model neurons. and ionic currents Iduring extracellular arousal requires quantitative understanding on the extracellular voltage Vwhich can be generated by the electrodes on the MPDA in a subretinal area. Consequently, the calculation is realized in two distinct and different steps methodologically. In the 1st stage Vis determined and in the second stage the response of a focus on cell can be examined using a multi-compartment model (Rattay, 1999; Rattay et al., 2003). 2.1. Extracellular ...
This report summarizes progress on a long-term implant study of a serrated ceramic dental implant designed for fresh extraction sites. The baboon study was successfully completed in 1983. Clinical studies are presently continuing. The implants are single tooth rectangular design with serrations arranged for maximal stress distribution of occlusal loads. 88 percent of the implants in baboons survived the initial ingrowth phase. The ingrowth failures were early implant attempts, suggesting technique or operative experience may be a contributing factor. 63 percent or 24 implants were complete functional units at time of necropsy. The pathologists evaluation was that there was no definitive evidence of any adverse effects related to the chronic implantation of ceramic teeth in the baboon. The system is based upon a series of rectangular implants specifically designed to be placed in fresh extraction sites. A rectangular socket must be fashioned to accept the implant. Fashioning of a tapered rectangular
To achieve their breakthrough, researchers used a technique called viral vectoring to make a certain type of cell in the eye glow under electrical stimulation. The technique relied on genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs)-fluorescent proteins which report cellular activity through changes in brightness. To produce GECIs in the targeted retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), researchers designed a viral vector that contained the DNA encoding for GECIs. Injecting the virus into the eye of an animal model caused the majority of RGCs to be infected by the virus. Within two weeks, cellular machinery of the infected RGCs converted their DNA into GECI proteins.. The experiments represent the first time that electrically elicited RGC activity was directly observed in a blind retina. Once the RGCs expressed GECIs - that is, showed that the GECIs were present - electrical stimulus was applied. Simultaneously, a highly sensitive camera captured the stimulated retinal ganglion glowing in response.. ...
The intent of this Success Criterion is to ensure that information and relationships that are implied by visual or auditory formatting are preserved when the presentation format changes. For example, the presentation format changes when the content is read by a screen reader or when a user style sheet is substituted for the style sheet provided by the author.. Sighted users perceive structure through various visual cues - headings are often in a larger, bold font separated from paragraphs by blank lines; list items are preceded by a bullet and perhaps indented; paragraphs are separated by a blank line; items that share a common characteristic are organized into tabular rows and columns; form fields may be positioned as groups that share text labels; a different background color may be used to indicate that several items are related to each other; words that have special status are indicated by changing the font family and /or bolding, italicizing, or underlining them and so on. Auditory cues may ...
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From the third paragraph of the story: Each book contains 410 pages; each page, 40 lines; each line, about 80 black letters. That makes 410 x 40 x 80 = 1,312,000 characters. The fifth paragraph tells us that there are 25 orthographic symbols including spaces and punctuation. The magnitude of the resulting number is found by taking logarithms. However, this calculation only gives a lower bound on the number of books as it does not take into account variations in the titles - the narrator does not specify a limit on the number of characters on the spine. For further discussion of this, see Bloch, William Goldbloom. The Unimaginable Mathematics of Borges Library of Babel. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2008. ...