Emerging virus discovery through meta-transcriptomics: a novel virus impacting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming in Chile.
... ,Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The lines of evidence described earlier combine to suggest the following tentative model of the emergence process for novel human viruses. First, humans are constantly exposed to a huge diversity of viruses, though those of others mammals (and perhaps birds) are of greatest importance. Moreover, these viruses are very genetically diverse and new genotypes, strains and species evolve rapidly (over periods of years or decades). A fraction of these viruses (both existing and newly evolved) are capable of infecting humans. It is not clear whether some of these human-infective viruses will already be capable of reaching higher levels of the pathogen pyramid-so-called off-the-shelf pathogens-or whether subsequent evolution of their ability to infect and transmit from humans is usually required-tailor-made [31]. The distinction is potentially important as it implies different determinants of the rate of emergence of viruses with epidemic or pandemic potential: for off-the-shelf pathogens this rate ...
All opinions are my own and do not represent medical advice or the views of any institution.. All graphics made by me are free-to-use. Please just cite the particular page, blog and me. A heads-up would be nice, but that can happen later.. ...
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are highly contagious pathogens infecting human and numerous animals. The viruses cause millions of infection cases and thousands of deaths every year, thus making IAVs a continual threat to global health. Upon IAV infection, host innate immune system is triggered and activated to restrict virus replication and clear pathogens. Subsequently, host adaptive immunity is involved in specific virus clearance. On the other hand, to achieve a successful infection, IAVs also apply multiple strategies to avoid be detected and eliminated by the host immunity. In the current review, we present a general description on recent work regarding different host cells and molecules facilitating antiviral defenses against IAV infection and how IAVs antagonize host immune responses.
An Introduction to Marine Viruses . What Is a Virus?. Virus Size & Structure. 1 Micron. Chlamydia. Pox virus. Herpes virus. Influenza Virus. Bacterium ( Staphyllococcus aureus ). Picornavirus (polio). Relative size of viruses and bacteria. Microbial Loop. CO2. DOC. Slideshow 1956999 by iona
... includes virus discovery from deep sequencing data to broaden our understanding of the diversity of viruses affecting humans and other organisms, phylogenetic to reconstruct the origin and evolution of different virus families, virus classification to group our complex knowledge about viruses into usable units, and virus-host interactions to analyze the interplay between viruses and the immune system and to explore whether certain viral infections can be linked to unexplained diseases like some types of human cancer.. Computational biology plays a vital role in virology and helps us to understand the structure of molecules, functioning of viral molecules, the dynamics of virus infections, and how do the virus epidemics spread and the origin and evolution of viruses. This Special Issue invites submissions of modeling and bioinformatics papers from all fields of virology at all levels of organization.. These strategies cowl bushed silico approaches like ...
It is clear that the unprecedented propagation of new virus variants witnessed on 2-3 March 2004 is the result of a war of viruses. The writers of Netsky, Bagle, and Mydoom have been competing in the release of new variants of their respective viruses, some of which are programmed to deactivate or delete their competitors.. In addition to this, a number of these new variants have statements and insults directed at the writers of competing viruses hidden in their code.. This barrage of new variants has been unusual in its speed. It normally takes virus writers a few days, or even weeks, to release new variants. However, these variants have all started spreading quickly after antivirus companies have released new virus signature files to counter previous versions. This is clearly an attempt to keep ahead of the antivirus companies in order to gain as wide spread a distribution as possible.. However, as seen by the number of variants it has been necessary for the virus writers to release in this ...
The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving two scFv binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single-gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, namely BiIA-SG, displayed significantly improved breadth and potency. BiIA-SG neutralized all 124 HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses tested, including global subtypes/recombinant forms, transmitted/founder viruses, and variants less or not susceptible to parental and many bnAbs, with an average IC50 value of 0.073 µ/ml (range , 0.001 to 1.03 µg/ml). In humanized mice, an injection of BiIA-SG conferred sterile protection when administered prior to challenges with diverse live HIV-1 stains. Moreover, while BiIA-SG delayed viral rebound in ...
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, ...
The central focus of our research is the synthesis, folding, processing and function of viral glycoproteins. Previous studies of the synthesis and processing of viral glycoproteins in the secretory pathway have led to fundamental discoveries of basic cellular processes, and our research on the folding and processing of paramyxovirus glycoproteins provides insight into both cellular functions and important viral proteins. Our studies on viral proteins aim to elucidate mechanisms of promotion of membrane fusion, and to provide new targets for antiviral treatments. Many major human pathogenic viruses (including HIV, herpes simplex virus, measles virus and Ebola virus) are packaged in a membrane. In order for these viruses to infect cells, specific viral proteins promote fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the host cell. Understanding this process of protein-mediated membrane fusion is the major focus of our work. We study fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. First, ...
If you were to make a solution containing different viruses you would have a solution containing different viruses. Nothing would happen, they wouldnt "fight", they would just sit there. Drinking it would probably be a bad idea, but nothing would actually happen.. If you were to infect someone with different viruses then you would have given someone multiple diseases. Once again, they wouldnt fight, they would just go about their business infecting the host cells. Now, it is possible that some sort of recombination would occur. Viruses work by inserting their genetic material (DNA or RNA depending on the virus) into the host DNA. Then, the cells own machinery would start making copies of the virus. If a cell were infected by multiple viruses, it is possible that both would insert their genetic material into the host genome. If that were to happen, the likeliest outcome would be that the cell would simply start making copies of each of the viruses separately. It is extremely unlikely that any ...
Clean MSN Virus is a free tool that detects and deletes the various viruses that are spread via MSN Messenger, which are generically called MSN or MSN Messenger viruses.
The research team used the screening technique on 569 patients from all over the world. To do this, they used a very large dataset of peptides (molecules part of amino acids) from 206 viral species - all of which represented some 1,000 different viral strains - to make a synthetic representation of all human viral peptides. They found that on average, people had been exposed to about 10 viral species in their lifetimes. Several people, however, had been exposed to over 84 viral species ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. Viral nucleic acids in the form of RNA and DNA from infected cells or allantoic fluid are available for use in a variety of applications.
In order to assess infertility or to ensure that patients receive proper treatment and are not exposed to unnecessary risk, Hayat conducts several investigations and tests for certain viruses, hormonal imbalances, and abnormalities along the reproductive tract.. ...
Although challenging, single-virus imaging has revealed key steps in the viral life cycle, and it will likely reveal more about viruses as imaging equ
Viruses infection millions annually, causing severe illness and threatening global public health. Limiting the impact of viral infection requires a multi-layered understanding of viral immunity, from basic research on viral recognition and host immune response, to the clinical applications of novel antiviral and host-targeted therapies and vaccines. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms of both both rapid host recovery as well as severe and fatal disease outcomes, are far from clear. This Keystone Symposia conference will cover a wide range of topics in viral immunity including innate immunity and inflammation, viral sensing and antigen presentation, adaptive T and B cell immunity, novel vaccine development, human immunology across anatomical sites, and innovative computational analyses. Animal models will be examined alongside human and clinical studies, and multi-disciplinary integration will enhance perspectives. A key outcome will be fostering collaborations across different approaches ...
Traces of a retrovirus similar to HIV are found in most patients with the mysterious disorder. It could be an opportunistic virus, but researchers want further testing to see if it causes the syndrome
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an "enveloped" RNA virus that is susceptible to many of the disinfectants already in use by healthcare facilities to disinfect counters and other hard, non-porous laboratory surfaces. However, the CDC recommends the use of disinfectants that work against non-enveloped viruses to provide a broader antiviral spectrum. Disinfectants labeled by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as effective against non-enveloped viruses are more potent and can inactivate both enveloped (eg, EVD) and non-enveloped (eg, poliovirus, rotavirus, norovirus) viruses ...
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria. For instance, many viruses (the bacteriophages) actually infect bacteria. Some viruses cause infections, while others may be asymptomatic. Certain viruses are integrated in the human genome. Viruses evolve rapidly and hence the human virome changes constantly. Every human being has a unique virome with a unique balance of species. Lifestyle, age, geographic location, and even the season of the year affects an individuals exposure to viruses; while their susceptibility to disease is effected by preexisting immunity and both viral and human genetics. The human virome is far from being completely explored and new viruses are discovered frequently. Multiple methods are available for the isolation and study of human viruses: ...
Virus are elusive foes. It seems like every year theres a new one in the news - Ebola recently and now Zika - not to mention the virus that cause the flu or common cold. Despite the considerable threat (and sometimes just annoyance) from viruses, theres remarkably little anyone can do about them.. They are small, but wily.. With that history in mind, microbiologist Jeffrey Glenn, MD, PhD, thought a better approach would be to find a way of helping our cells help themselves. Working with Stanford ChEM-H, he created a center called [email protected] dedicated to finding therapies that would allow our cells to fight a variety of viruses rather than trying to kill off one virus at a time.. Working with that Glenns center, a group of scientists led by chemist Chaitan Khosla, PhD, and geneticist Michael Bassik, PhD, unearthed a previously discarded drug, figured out how it fought viruses, then improved on it. They published their results March 28 in Nature Chemical Biology.. In their paper, they show ...
Researchers from Colorado State University exposed hundreds of mosquitoes to either chikungunya, Zika or dengue and different combinations of the three. They also exposed 48 mosquitoes to the three viruses--chikungunya, Zika and dengue--to see if one or all three of the diseases could appear in the saliva, which could then potentially infect a person. The researchers examined the saliva, gut and legs of the insects for signs of viral infection. They found that 92 percent of the mosquitoes tested positive for all three viruses. Of the 48 just one remained uninfected. They found that six saliva samples from the mosquito tested positive for all three viruses 14 days after the insects were exposed. Another two saliva samples tested positive 21 days after exposure. While not all the insects had the virus in the saliva, the researchers pointed out that the virus presence in the saliva occurs only after the infection has traveled through the body. As a result, the other mosquitoes that tested positive ...
in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Nuremberg was the third European city to host the European Congress of Virology in September this year (http://www.eurovirology.org). Some 1,500 scientists from Europe and elsewhere came together to share their knowledge on basic and applied research in clinical, veterinary and plant virology. The main focus was on human pathogenic viruses, providing a platform where basic research and clinical application came into contact. The topics covered all areas of research in virology, from basic molecular biology and immunology to epidemiology, vaccine development, and diagnostics. For this meeting report, the Editorial team has selected some of our highlights out of the many excellent keynote lectures and workshop contributions.
Next-generation sequencing has critical applications in virus discovery, diagnostics, and environmental surveillance. We used metagenomic sequence libraries for retrospective screening of plasma samples for the recently discovered human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1). From a cohort of 150 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive case-patients, we identified 2 persons with HHpgV-1 viremia and a high frequency of human pegivirus (HPgV) viremia (14%). Detection of HHpgV-1 and HPgV was concordant with parallel PCR-based screening using conserved primers matching groups 1 (HPgV) and 2 (HHPgV-1) nonstructural 3 region sequences. PCR identified 1 HHPgV-1-positive person with viremia from a group of 195 persons with hemophilia who had been exposed to nonvirally inactivated factor VII/IX; 18 (9%) were HPgV-positive. Relative to HCV and HPgV, active infections with HHpgV-1 were infrequently detected in blood, even in groups that had substantial parenteral exposure. Our findings are consistent with lower transmissibility or
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens and is highly conserved from insects to humans. While many key facets of the innate immune system...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to "Disposal system" of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to "Disposal system" of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.. It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop ...
Coursera - Virology II: How Viruses Cause DiseaseWEBRip | English | MP4 | 960 x 540 | VP8 ~670 kbps | 25 fpsVorbis | 128 Kbps | 48.0 KHz | 2 channels | 04:1...
Comparison of Respiratory Virus Detection Rates for Infants and Toddlers by Use of Flocked Swabs, Saline Aspirates, and Saline Aspirates Mixed in Universal Transport Medium for Room Temperature Storage and Shippin
Specific pharmacological targeting of viruses is extremely challenging since the vast majority of the molecular machinery required for viral replication is provided by host cells. Secondly, any replicative machinery of viral origin is often unique to the specific virus or viral family; consequently, antiviral agents are few and are not broadly effective against multiple classes of viruses ...
Page 1 of 2 - virus [Closed] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: I have an dell laptop that is almost a year old. Yesterday i was on netflix watching a movie and ads started popping up. I exited out of them not thinking anything of it but today i cant even get on the internet. When i open internet explorer it loads a page saying the site is under attack and i need to download security protection. Also things keep popping up on my home screen saying i have multiple viruses that nee...
The description you provide is for a specific bacteriovirus (a virus which infects bacteria). It applies to only one subclass of virus (in the case described, one called lambda).. Other bacteria infecting virus are not nearly so polite; they just kill the infected cell. As far as I am aware, there is no animal virus that has been demonstrated to behave in the same manner. Retroviruses do integrate into the host DNA but do not confer resistance on the host. So the suggested solution is a reasonable one for protecting some bacteria from getting specific virus infections; however I suspect the person asking the question was not the least bit interested in protecting bacteria from getting a viral infection! The principle is a good one, and might be useful if ever a virus if the type described was found that caused a disease in people.. One other interesting point: when a bacteria with lysogenized lambda virus (integrated into the genome of the host) is mated to a bacteria that does not have the same ...
Norton has been a PITA for years, I gave up on it well over a decade ago after multiple bouts of router problems with it. Its not even very good at its core job when you look at the various virus detection tests done over the years. The last notepad I bought new was a Win7 i5 ASUS about six years ago and Norton was part of the free crapware loaded and cocked ready to go on that. Of course it was only free for a short period and it took me quite a while to figure out how to get rid of it. No doubt ASUS and Norton shared the spoils from those who couldnt get rid of it ...
Sprout rediscovered Plague inc evolved today, and chatted to me lots about the options that you use as the pathogen to either wipe out or enslave the human race. It involved virulence, viruses, bacteria, Ebola, DNA, RNA... we looked up electron microscope scans of various viruses and he was curious about how close to real life it was... he told me about the similarity of one aspect of the game to Aliens xenomorphs... talked about what affects the success of a pathogen, whether wiping out its host is wise, how severity or otherwise might lead to better or worse spread... he told me about looking at infecting high density populations in poorer areas compared to lower density and richer areas, and the comparative consequences of this. He asked me what I thought the necro virus might be, and after guessing something quickly fatal, or something necrotising, I guessed at a zombie virus which he gleefully confirmed was correct :) We chatted briefly about the behaviour modification in mice due to ...
Ive started to see an increasing amount of threads here with people getting infected with various viruses, getting hacked etc. This is in 99.9% of cases due to carelessness and/or ignorance. In this day and age, you have a responsibity to keep you computer from getting hacked and used in attacks towards other computers. I equal this to careless or drunk driving, only that people fortunately dont die from it (yet). So here goes my quick and dirty guide to securing your computer. 1. Get a
This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection.
In article ,Pine.SUN.3.91.960212130947.721A-100000 at chuma,, Elaine Morse , (BIO) ,morse at chuma.cas.usf.edu, wrote: , , , Microbiology undergrad seeks feedback on the following questions related , , to virology....All responses greatly appreciated! Thanks for your time, E. , , , , 1) Are viruses ALIVE? Yes. , , 2) What is the definition of viral purity? When its pure. , , 3) What factors limit host range? Many. , , 4) What is the minimum info needed to:a) uniquely id a virus within a , , Group? Shirt colour a Family? Name a Genus? Nickname a Species? Name only heard during pillowtalk as a Strain? If its heavy as Unique/new? b) If its COOOLLLL... , , diagnose pathology as a consequence of virus infection? & Damn! Hes sick with a virus!! c) diagnose , , pathology as a consequence of specific virus infection? Damn! Hes sick with the FLU virus!! , , 5) Which assays give high resolution answers for diagnosis? Electron micrsocopy and Why? Because it is a high resolution technique , , 6) What ...
Simulate the spread of an illness through a population. Using a safe, simulated disease agent, students model the transmission of a communicable viral disease, identify its origin …
Reverse transcription is the flow of information from RNA to DNA, opposite the standard process cells use to make proteins. It is a method employed by certain viruses to embed their own genetic information into a hosts DNA, effectively hijacking the cell and using its organelles to produce more virus particles rather than proteins. These retroviruses, such as HIV, have the most complex reproductive cycle seen in any class of viruses. All retroviruses are ...
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have unlocked the structure of a key protein that, when sensing certain viruses and bacteria, triggers the bodys immediate immune response.
Something Ive always wondered about, I know certain viruses can alter DNA of surrounding cells and also alter themselves through mutation. The question is will we ever be able to alter DNA to the point where we could change things like hair color, or perhaps correct certain genetic related predisposition to disease. I dont think we will ever be able to change a persons overall look as thats something you grow into, not something thats constantly updated. Bone for example I dont think would just change shape based on genetic changes. I could be wrong ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: The Role of the Human Virome in Heart, Lung, and Blood Health and Resilience (R61/R33) RFA-HL-17-002. NHLBI
When it comes to the microbiome, bacteria get all the press. But virologists are starting to realize that their subjects also do a lot more than make people sick.
viral infection - MedHelps viral infection Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for viral infection. Find viral infection information, treatments for viral infection and viral infection symptoms.
A panel of ten purified respiratory viruses pooled that have been inactivated to render them non‐infectious and formulated in viral transport medium.
Botanist Phyllis Clinch paved the way for new disease-resistant crop varieties and effective procedures for controlling plant diseases by investigating the viruses that can decimate commercial crops.
Viral Immunity: A 10-Step Plan to Enhance Your Immunity against Viral Disease Using Natural Medicines (Book, 2002) by J.E. Williams, O.M.D.. $29.95. Paperback. Red Wheel/Weiser imprints include Conari Press which publishes titles on spirituality, personal growth, relationships to parenting, and social issues; Weiser Books offers an entire spectrum of occult and esoteric subjects.
Soil is a reservoir for a diversity of transient human pathogenic viruses and protozoa that include some species with truly edaphic lifestyles. The ability to detect these pathogens in soil has increased in tandem with concerns about the impact of human activity on soil quality. Separation from the sample matrix and concentration in solution free of interfering contaminants are key preliminary steps to the detection and/or identification of specific species, which is increasingly performed with sensitive molecular methods. The present chapter describes procedures applied in the separation of viruses from soil by desorption from soil particles, their concentration and detection/quantification in laboratory-grown mammalian cell cultures using Quantal methods or plaque assays. Methods for extraction of nucleic acids to permit detection of viruses that are presently difficult or impossible due grow in vitro due to a lack of suitable cell lines (noroviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis
Using the one-step growth technique the production of the virus T2 in its host, measured by latent period and burst size, was shown to depend on the nutritional environment of the host cell.. When E. coli, grown in broth, was transferred to a simple medium, single organic compounds such as some amino acids and nucleosides were found to increase or accelerate the synthesis of virus.. An antimetabolite of glutamic acid, an amino acid important for virus synthesis, was shown to be inhibitory.. Several naturally occurring amino acids, leucine, serine, and cysteine, inhibited virus synthesis in the simple medium.. A chemically defined mixture was found which supported a rate of virus synthesis very nearly comparable to that found for host cells in nutrient broth.. ...
The Virology Laboratory performs diagnostic tests for the entire HUG. These activities include viral culture, molecular tests and infectious serology.
Virologica Sinica publishes peer-reviewed original research articles and reviews concerning the latest developments in all branches of virology, including the research on the viruses of animals, plants and microbes. The journal welcomes studies on viruses as well as on viral infections and diseases. The journal will feature articles on new virus discovery, molecular characterization of viruses, viral pathogenesis and host immunity, vaccine development, antiviral agents and therapies.;中国病毒学杂志官方网站
Virologica Sinica publishes peer-reviewed original research articles and reviews concerning the latest developments in all branches of virology, including the research on the viruses of animals, plants and microbes. The journal welcomes studies on viruses as well as on viral infections and diseases. The journal will feature articles on new virus discovery, molecular characterization of viruses, viral pathogenesis and host immunity, vaccine development, antiviral agents and therapies.;中国病毒学杂志官方网站
Two particular viruses have nothing to do with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), despite earlier evidence of a link, a study has shown.
When a virus infects a person, it hijacks the bodys natural processes in order to fuel its rampage.. A pair of Stanford scientists aims to turn this strength into a weakness and develop what could become a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.. Most antiviral drugs are concocted to act against a specific viral protein. As such, they usually provide a "one drug/one bug" approach.. "Penicillin can kill many types of bacteria, but most antiviral drugs work only against one virus, and sometimes a single subtype of a virus," said Shirit Einav, an assistant professor of medicine and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford School of Medicine.. Additionally, targeting viral proteins is problematic; viruses can mutate quickly, and a single change in the viral sequence can render it fully resistant to the drug.. "With the exception of HIV, we still have very few antiviral drugs to offer patients with viral infections, and even those are often quite limited," Einav said. "No approved antiviral drugs or ...
This fascinating book explores the hidden world of viruses-a world that we all inhabit. Here Carl Zimmer, popular science writer and author of Discover magazines award-winning blog The Loom, presents the latest research on how viruses hold sway over our lives and our biosphere, how viruses helped give rise to the first life-forms, how viruses are producing new diseases, how we can harness viruses for our own ends, and how viruses will continue to control our fate for years to come. In this eye-opening tour of the frontiers of biology, where scientists are expanding our understanding of life as we know it, we learn that some treatments for the common cold do more harm than good; that the worlds oceans are home to an astonishing number of viruses; and that the evolution of HIV is now in overdrive, spawning more mutated strains than we care to imagine. ...
HIV-AIDS. SARS. Ebola. Bird flu. Swine flu. Rabies. These are emerging infectious diseases where the viruses have jumped from one animal species into another and now infect humans. This is a phenomenon known as cross-species transmission and scientists are working to determine what drives it. Gary McCracken, a professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is one of those scientists and has made a groundbreaking discovery into how viruses jump from host to host.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has recently created a new grant program called Prophecy that is geared towards investigations into how viruses might evolve in order to improve efforts by biopharmaceuticals to head off health threats.
Formulations comprising combinations of APCs and tumor cells and APCs and virally infected cells are disclosed. These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell
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When I talk to parents of young children about vaccines, many of them express concerns. When they realize that some vaccines contain the DNA of aborted human babies, and others contain the DNA of cows, chickens, monkeys and other animals, as well as multiple viruses, bacteria, and toxins such as aluminum, mercury, polysorbate 80 and formaldehyde, parents really start to become concerned. Parents who believe in God often express their belief that injecting multiple toxins, viruses, bacteria and the DNA of animals and aborted children goes against Gods perfect design of the human body in His image. I agree.. Thankfully, in Indiana, I have the right to say no to this practice. I have prayed about it and asked God for guidance. I have asked Him to guide me to the understanding of what He wants me to see and to give me the knowledge I need to make informed decisions for my family. It is my deeply held religious conviction that God designed our immune systems to work in a specific way. The immune ...
The objective: Binding viruses to designer ViroCatcher cells that cannot support viral replication to diagnose, attenuate, and prevent infection. What we intended to do: (1) Make our designer cell safe, (2) Express specific cell surface receptors and antibodies to catch the virus, (3) Transduce the signal after viruses attached for feedback control, and (4) Remove the viruses along with ViroCatcher itself. Anticipated results: the ViroCatcher is made safe for the bloodstream. When it is injected into the bloodstream, our ViroCatcher passively lies around letting viruses attach to it by using its 4 receptors: CD4 (for HIV), Integrin (for various viruses), Sialic Acid (for Influenza), and Antibodies (for Influenza). After enough viruses attach to it, or after a certain amount of time elapses, it removes itself from the bloodstream by calling macrophages to eat it up. ...
A mobile field-deployable laboratory to more conveniently enable the detecting, sequencing and analyzing of biological agents at the point-of-need. This device enables field operators to go from sample to actionable information in the field without the need for an internet connection or grid-based power. The present mobile laboratory is configured in a footlocker configuration including a plurality of different compartments specifically configured for holding all of the necessary equipment for use in a wide variety of different applications including successfully extracting, amplifying, sequencing and characterizing specific viruses, pathogens and other bacteria directly in the field including an integrated power supply for providing power to the relevant components for up to 72 hours of continuous use without the need for any external power source. The present mobile laboratory includes a deployable workbench area which provides a stable workstation when the footlocker configuration is deployed.
For a long time, TLR7 has kinda been the unwanted stepchild of the innate immunity field. Some folks had discovered a couple of ligands that induced anti-viral immunity in immune cells, but those ligands dont follow the typical mold of being associated with pathogens. Mice that lack TLR7 dont have a profound defect in combating viruses, and most people tend to ignore TLR7 entirely.. It made sense to look for immune functions, since other members of that receptor family have immune functions, but theres no reason why TLR7 must be an immune receptor, and these authors found something altogether different. When imiquimod - one of the ligands originally described for TLR7 - is injected into mice, the mice get itchy. Mice that dont have TLR7 dont get as itchy.. ...
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Metagenomic detection of viral agents in clinical samples Viral pathogens in clinical samples here refer to the human viruses isolated (or been discovered) in clinical samples that associate with...
Acyclovir (Zovirax)is the generic name of a prescription medication used to treat certain virus infections. This drug works by preventing viruses from dividing and
Infections with certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites have been recognized as risk factors for several types of cancer in humans. Learn more here.
Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver caused by certain viruses attack on it. This affects the overall functionality of the liver and if remain untreated for longer duration can cause major damaging to this vital organ. So it is very crucial that the symptoms of hepatitis should not be ignored and its patient… Read More. ...
The idea has been around for some time. Not only did the classical Greeks make the observation but there have been a couple of instances of cancer patients entering spontaneous remission after exposure to certain viruses in the last century ...
This weekend was supposed to be the start of the season for us but a certain virus didnt want it that way. Spring Nats at Gardermoen should have been this ...
All the Virology on the WWW seeks to be the best single site for Virology information on the Internet. We have collected all the virology related Web sites that might be of interest to our fellow virologists, and others interested in learning more...
The Duke Center for Virology sponsors a number of activities to support virology research and the virology research community at Duke, including monthly journal clubs, happy hours and works in progress meetings; annual symposia; and periodic Distinguished Virologist lectures. We also offer travel grants to support grad students and postdocs who are presenting their research at conferences.. ...
Health officials are seeing a spike in a lesser-known illness. Hospitals here are bringing in additional staff to meet the demand.
Cancer can be triggered by infectious diseases, especially in impoverished parts of the world. Scientists in the US and Africa are working to unravel how viruses and bacteria cause malignancies.
An orchid-growing friend of mine has successfully managed to cure a virussed strain of a particularly important orchid clone by using a mixture of human antiviral drugs. It was not easy or straightforward. His advice--seeds are almost always free of virus anyway, so dont be afraid to use virussed plants for breeding. Curing them is too much trouble. Lou ...
Virology Division must diagnose infection involving a wide variety of host and viral species. To do this, staff use many different laboratory techniques and methods, some of which are described below. ...
[115 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Virology Test Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Virology Test Revenue,...
Buy or Rent Methods in Virology as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Please refer to the specific agent in the Test and Services Guide for prices and details. If agent not listed above may be available as a referred out test or new test (contact PDS).. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
|p|Federal funding began flowing this month on a $370,000 grant to University of Mississippi Medical Center Associate Professor of Microbiology Eva Bengtén to study catfish anti-viral immunity.|/p|
Host genetic variation in components of both specific and innate immune responses affects susceptibility to viral infections. Innate immunity provides the first line of defense, and the development of adaptive immunity is stimulated by innate responses. Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) initiate signaling pathways that result in the production of antiviral interferons and cytokines. Mutations or genetic variants (polymorphisms) have been recognized in several factors of innate immunity. Notably, human populations from distinct geographic areas have different frequencies of immune gene variants. The genetic susceptibility may vary from life-threatening manifestations of specific virus infections to a moderately increased frequency of nonsevere infections. Although the innate immunity is nonspecific by nature, the reactions are stereotypic for viral infections compared with bacterial infections. Even infections caused by specific viruses can be differentiated from each other based on the innate immune
Special precautions should be taken when working with pantropic and amphotropic vectors, which are capable of infecting human cells.. Integration and Mutagenesis Potential of Viral Vectors. The DNA of some viruses, such as lentivirus and gammaretrovirus, is able to integrate in the genome of the host cells as a provirus. Integration of the viral genome may disrupt endogenous genes resulting in mutations. This can lead to a wide range of disorders depending on the site of integration. Of special concern are the activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes, which can lead to the development of cancer.. Environmental Stability of Viral Vectors. Viruses may be more or less sensitive to external factors depending on the presence or absence of viral envelopes. Naked or non-enveloped viruses - e.g., adenovirus - exit the host cell by lysis. Enveloped viruses - e.g., retroviruses - exit the host cell by budding through the cell membrane. The envelope is composed of fragments ...
The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular eukaryotic alga that forms vast blooms in the oceans impacting large biogeochemical cycles. These blooms are often terminated due to infection by the large dsDNA virus, E. huxleyi virus (EhV). It was recently established that EhV-induced modulation of E. huxleyi metabolism is a key factor for optimal viral infection cycle. Despite the huge ecological importance of this host-virus interaction, the ability to assess its spatial and temporal dynamics and its possible impact on nutrient fluxes is limited by current approaches that focus on quantification of viral abundance and biodiversity ...
Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which
The mechanism by which CD4+ T cells mediate protection against respiratory virus infections is unclear. However, there is substantial evidence that IFN-γ production is a key player in this protection. In this regard, the presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lungs capable of rapidly producing IFN-γ is consistent with the idea that this cytokine plays a critical role. The absolute numbers of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung is relatively small (∼20% of the number in the spleen; Table 2). But these cells are present in a highly activated state and are able to respond immediately at the site of infection when the viral load is still very low. Thus, a relatively small number of cells may be sufficient to have a significant impact on the early stages of the infection, especially if the cells proliferate and mediate sustained cytokine production. In addition, these cells may function to rapidly recruit other inflammatory cells to the site of infection through the production of ...
GFI MailSecurity for Exchange/SMTP is an email content checking, exploit detection, threats analysis and anti-virus solution that removes all types of email-borne threats before they can affect an organizations email users. GFI MailSecuritys key features include multiple virus engines, to guarantee higher detection rate and faster response to new viruses; email content and attachment checking, to quarantine dangerous attachments and content; an exploit shield, to protect against present and future viruses based on exploits.
Investigating and assigning gene functions of herpesviruses is a process, which profits from consistent technical innovation. Cloning of bacterial artificial chromosomes encoding herpesvirus genomes permits nearly unlimited possibilities in the construction of genetically modified viruses. Targeted or randomized screening approaches allow rapid identification of essential viral proteins. Nevertheless, mapping of essential genes reveals only limited insight into function. The usage of dominant-negative (DN) proteins has been the tool of choice to dissect functions of proteins during the viral life cycle. DN proteins also facilitate the analysis of host-virus interactions. Finally, DNs serve as starting-point for design of new antiviral strategies.
Eligible candidates are invited for a walk-in-interview for recruitment of following posts in the SVIMS Microbiology department, virology laboratory established under the "DHR/ICMR VIRUS RESEARCH AND DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY NETWORK FOR MANAGING EPIDEMICS AND NATURAL CALAMITIES" on 04.04.2015 at 11 AM in Committee Hall, SVIMS, Tirupati. The engagement will be made purely on temporary basis for a period of one year and it can be terminated at any time without notice or without assigning any reason thereof by the Nodal officer the Virology Laboratory. The person engaged shall not be entitled for any claim implicit or explicit for absorption in the University.. ...
Electives for senior residents are customized with the Rotation and Program Director depending on the residents learning objectives which may range from learning general microbiology in greater detail or pursuing an advanced clinical research project in a specific area of microbiology. ...
Most upper respiratory infections are caused by various viruses, although some sore throats may be caused by a bacterium called Beta-Streptococcus (Also known as Strep Throat). Even with todays modern medical technology, most of us cant avoid the occasional respiratory infection.
This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection. Viral infections can cause illnesses anywhere in the body. This includes the skin, digestive tract, urinary tract, brain, lungs, and eyes. These illnesses can range from minor problems to serious diseases. Viral cultures are done in different ways, depending on your condition and the virus the healthcare provider thinks you may have. You may need to give a sample of blood, urine, or bodily fluids. In general, your test sample will be treated in the lab to keep the cells alive and allow them to grow. After a certain period of time, your culture sample will be checked to see if viruses are growing. ...
In general, viral diagnostic tests can be grouped into three areas, namely, direct detection, indirect examination following virus isolation, and serology. Direct methods generally test for virus particles, virus antigen or viral nucleic acids, while indirect approaches involve culture and isolation. Historically, serology has been the mainstay of activities in the virology laboratory, where antibody titre methods are important. However, the last decade has seen increasing use of direct tests, notably with the evolution of molecular methods, which is the subject of the current study. This report presents the findings from a new market study of viral molecular diagnostics, and gives commercial insights to suppliers in this field. Market studies carried out by Biopharm Reports are designed to assist laboratory suppliers to profile current and evolving market opportunities. All of our studies are carried out through specialist groups of experienced researchers and clinicians, and therefore findings ...
Remdesivir (GS-5734) is an adenosine analog antiviral drug that inhibits viral RNA polymerase and has demonstrated in vitro activity against various viruses including Ebola, SARS-CoV, and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). More recently, remdesivir has demonstrated potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 in in vitro and animal model studies, and holds some promise for treatment of COVID-19.2,3 A recent case series describing the compassionate use of remdesivir in 61 adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 demonstrated that 68% of patients experienced an improvement in the need for oxygen support over a median 18 day follow-up period, while 15% of patients clinically worsened. Clinical improvement was observed in 84% of patients, but was less frequent among older patients (70 or older vs less than 50), and in patients who were on invasive ventilation compared with patients on noninvasive ventilator support. Mortality occurred in 13% of patients, with older patients (70 or older) and ...
Background :- The role of viruses in acute exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease (AECOPD) needs further elucidation, since reliable clinical or biological markers to detect respiratory viruses are lacking.. Objective :- To determine the frequency of respiratory virus infection by mPCR in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD).. Method :- Tracheal aspirates (TA) and Nasal pharyngeal aspirates (NPA) samples were collected from 137 hospitalized patients with AECOPD and analyzed by mPCR, using primers Inf A (Matrix Gene), Inf B (Matrix Gene), RSV (N Gene), PIV1 (N Gene), PIV2 (N Gene), PIV3 (N Gene) and hMPV (N Gene).. Results :- The mean (SD) age of the entire group was 62.3 (11.4) years, among which 78.8% were males. The proportion of current smokers, ex smokers and non smokers was 35%, 46% and 19% respectively. The results for the detection of respiratory viruses were obtained within 4-5 hours. The overall prevalence of respiratory viruses in the entire group was 13.1%. These included RSV - ...
I compliment you on your handling of the nomenclature issue for the AIDS-associated retroviruses. You have summarized the responses to your poll extremely well, and have attempted to narrow the selection so we can reach a decision very soon. While I really would prefer having the virus carry the designation ARV because it distinguishes the major disease associated with it, and the specific virus family I can understand the political implications of accepting that term. We should, nevertheless, be prepared for the possibility that there will be a new CMV isolate or herpes isolate that might be linked with AIDS. Thus, it could be called the AIDS-associated herpes virus, etc ...
This thesis describes the impact of respiratory virus infections in patients with chronic chest disease and investigates the role of influenza vaccine and the possibility of preventing infection with intranasal interferon. The thesis begins by defining respiratory virus infection and presenting a brief historical introduction. This is followed by an account of the important respiratory viruses, the major causes of chronic chest disease and the relationship between respiratory virus infections and exacerbations of chest disease. The introduction concludes by describing the nature of interferons and reviews clinical trials of interferon therapy. The subjects, materials and methods are followed by the results of the clinical and laboratory studies. Respiratory virus infections were significantly more severe in adults with chronic chest disease than in previously healthy individuals. Unfortunately prophylaxis with intranasal interferon was not associated with any benefit. A preliminary study in ...
Animal and human viral discovery has long been focused on pathogenic infections and viruses that could be readily grown in cell cultures and cause visible cytopathic effects. Viral metagenomics is a recent approach to analyzing mixtures of viral nucleic acids enriched directly from a variety of sources without a prerequisite for amplification in tissue culture. Viral metagenomics has recently been used in numerous animal virus discoveries [14, 30, 59-62], providing information on the composition of animal viromes, helping to provide candidates to identify the etiology of infectious disease in animals and identify zoonotic and emerging viruses. We describe here the eukaryotic viral communities in the feces, blood, nasopharyngeal secretion, and five tissues of giant pandas. The animals analyzed here consisted of an extremely emaciated wild giant panda who died of an unknown cause, one healthy wild giant panda, and 46 healthy captive giant pandas. The highest percentage reads of a new picornavirus ...
Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhoea, are common in non-treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Although various enteric pathogens have been implicated, the aetiology of diarrhoea remains unexplained in a large proportion of HIV-1 infected patients. Our aim is to identify the cause of diarrhoea for patients that remain negative in routine diagnostics. In this study stool samples of 196 HIV-1 infected persons, including 29 persons with diarrhoea, were examined for enteropathogens and HIV-1. A search for unknown and unexpected viruses was performed using virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche-454 sequencing (VIDISCA-454). HIV-1 RNA was detected in stool of 19 patients with diarrhoea (66%) compared to 75 patients (45%) without diarrhoea. In 19 of the 29 diarrhoea cases a known enteropathogen could be identified (66%). Next to these known causative agents, a range of recently identified viruses was identified via VIDISCA-454: cosavirus, Aichi virus, human gyrovirus, and non-A non-B
Sapovirus is a genetically diverse genus of single-stranded positive-sense RNA, non-enveloped viruses within the Caliciviridae family. Together with norovirus, sapoviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (commonly called the "stomach flu" although it is not related to influenza) in humans and other animals. Natural hosts for the virus are humans and swine. The virus is transmitted through oral/fecal contact. Sapovirus most commonly occurs in children and infants and therefore is often spread in nurseries and daycares; however, it has been found in long term care facilities. This could be due to a lack of personal hygiene and sanitation measures. Symptoms most commonly include diarrhea and vomiting. The sapovirus was initially discovered in an outbreak of gastroenteritis in an orphanage in Sapporo, Japan, 1977. Sapovirus is spread via the fecal/oral route. Infected individuals expel more than 10 9 {\displaystyle 10^{9}} particles/gram of feces or vomit. Particles from the ...
387440791 - EP 0832191 A4 2000-11-15 - RECOMBINANT VIRAL NUCLEIC ACIDS - [origin: WO9640867A1] The present invention relates to a recombinant viral nucleic acid selected from a (+) sense, single stranded RNA virus possessing a native subgenomic promoter encoding for a first viral subgenomic promoter, a nucleic acid sequence that codes for a viral coat protein whose transcription is regulated by the first viral subgenomic promoter, a second viral subgenomic promoter and a second nucleic acid sequence whose transcription is regulated by the second viral subgenomic promoter. The first and second viral subgenomic promoters of the recombinant viral nucleic acid do not have homologous sequences relative to each other. The recombinant viral nucleic acid provides the particular advantage that it systematically transcribes the second nucleic acid in the host. Host organisms encompassed by the present invention include procaryotes and eucaryotes, particularly animals and plants. The present invention also relates
Porcine parvoviruses (PPV) are known to be particularly resistant to many disinfectants used to control other non-enveloped viruses. However, effective disinfectants used against PPV are harsh and corrosive to animal health facilities and the environment. We propose a noncorrosive green disinfectant that generates peracetic acid in-situ and is capable of inactivating PPV completely at a 1% concentration for a 10-minute contact time.