Coursera - Virology II: How Viruses Cause DiseaseWEBRip | English | MP4 | 960 x 540 | VP8 ~670 kbps | 25 fpsVorbis | 128 Kbps | 48.0 KHz | 2 channels | 04:1...
HIV-AIDS. SARS. Ebola. Bird flu. Swine flu. Rabies. These are emerging infectious diseases where the viruses have jumped from one animal species into another and now infect humans. This is a phenomenon known as cross-species transmission and scientists are working to determine what drives it. Gary McCracken, a professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is one of those scientists and has made a groundbreaking discovery into how viruses jump from host to host.
This fascinating book explores the hidden world of viruses-a world that we all inhabit. Here Carl Zimmer, popular science writer and author of Discover magazines award-winning blog The Loom, presents the latest research on how viruses hold sway over our lives and our biosphere, how viruses helped give rise to the first life-forms, how viruses are producing new diseases, how we can harness viruses for our own ends, and how viruses will continue to control our fate for years to come. In this eye-opening tour of the frontiers of biology, where scientists are expanding our understanding of life as we know it, we learn that some treatments for the common cold do more harm than good; that the worlds oceans are home to an astonishing number of viruses; and that the evolution of HIV is now in overdrive, spawning more mutated strains than we care to imagine. ...
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has recently created a new grant program called Prophecy that is geared towards investigations into how viruses might evolve in order to improve efforts by biopharmaceuticals to head off health threats.
I do not see it there. It only shows Gag, Pro and Pol. At viralzone http://viralzone.expasy.org/all_by_species/67.html I see a gammaretro gnome is...
No New Virus Under the Sun?Most "emergent" viruses that are new to humans are regular inhabitants of other species. In some cases, the animal hosts have reached a peaceful coexistence with their viruses, as in the case of bats. In other cases, the viruses are as deadly in their wild animal hosts as ...
A virus is a pathogen that knows more about us than we do, and by understanding it, we can understand more about ourselves, " explains Dr David Jacques, a structural biologist who was recruited to Single Molecule Science (SMS) at the end of 2017. David secured funding via an ARC Discovery Project grant - beginning in 2018 - to set up a new research group investigating the molecular interactions between a virus and its host.. It remains unclear exactly how viruses like HIV evade host defence mechanisms. David explains that to get a better understanding of how viruses manipulate the host and escape harm, you need to see the host and viral proteins together. "A protein structure on its own doesnt tell you the full story. With a structure in complex with another protein, then youre starting to look at real interfaces," he says. "We can literally see what is important to the virus, and this information can be used to focus drug development".. Before returning to Australia, David studied how ...
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Simulate the spread of an illness through a population. Using a safe, simulated disease agent, students model the transmission of a communicable viral disease, identify its origin …
Until now, we have concerned ourselves with the molecular details of how viruses replicate in our cells to produce hundreds of progeny per cell. Now we will broaden our view to take account of the fact that these repeated rounds of virus replication are occurring in a body made up of about a hundred trillion cells, including an elaborate immune system that tries to fight off the infection.. Virus infection in vertebrates results in two general types of immune response. The first is a rapid-onset innate response against the virus, which involves the synthesis of proteins called interferons and the stimulation of natural killer lymphocytes. In some cases, the innate response may be enough to prevent a large scale infection. However, if the infection proceeds beyond the first few rounds of viral replication, the adaptive immune response, kicks into high gear. The adaptive immune response itself has two components, the humoral response (the synthesis of virus-specific antibodies by B ...
We still dont know enough about how viruses evolve to predict what would happen in a twenty-first century viral pandemic. New research in insects provides a clue - in a well-connected and well-travelled world, we would expect viruses to evolve to become more infectious. If the media is to be believed, we are under the…
LiveScience: Scientists study how viruses jump from birds to humans, in order to understand the roots of a pandemic and develop defenses against it.
Molecular mechanisms that allow the Rhesus macaque CMV to cross species barriers shed light on how viruses can replicate in other species.
Cancer can be triggered by infectious diseases, especially in impoverished parts of the world. Scientists in the US and Africa are working to unravel how viruses and bacteria cause malignancies.
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) play an important role in the innate immune response to several retroviruses. They seem to be effective in controlling the in vivo infection, though many of the clinical signs of retroviral infection may be due to their continual presence which over-stimulates the immune system and activates apoptosis. IFN-I not only affect the immune system, but also operate directly on virus replication. Most data suggest that the in vitro treatment with IFN-I of retrovirus infected cells inhibits the final stages of virogenesis, avoiding the correct assembly of viral particles and their budding, even though the mechanism is not well understood. However, in some retroviruses IFN-I may also act at a previous stage as some retroviral LTRs posses sequences homologous to the IFNstimulated response element (ISRE). When stimulated, ISREs control viral transcription. HIV-1 displays several mechanisms for evading IFN-I, such as through Tat and Nef. Besides IFN-α and IFN-β, some other type I IFN,
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The novel technique, called helium ion microscopy (HIM), was used to image hard-to-see interaction between bacteria and viruses infecting bacteria, or so called bacteriophages. These phages are currently actively considered as a novel "smart weapon" against bacterial infections, which are becoming more and more difficult to treat with traditional antibiotics. The images demonstrated in clear images the different stages of how the phages in question attacked the bacteria (E. coli), for example showing the process where the virus has latched onto the bacterial surface, grabbing it with a tentacle like structure, and being in the process of injecting its genome into the bacterial cell ...
... ,Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The scientists showed for the first time how the virus called "Lambda" evolved to find a new way to attack host cells, an innovation that took four mutations to accomplish. This virus infects bacteria, in particular the common E. coli bacterium. Lambda isnt dangerous to humans, but this research demonstrated how viruses evolve complex and potentially deadly new traits, noted Justin Meyer, MSU graduate student, who co-authored the paper with Richard Lenski, MSU Hannah Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics.. "We were surprised at first to see Lambda evolve this new function, this ability to attack and enter the cell through a new receptor--and it happened so fast," Meyer said. "But when we re-ran the evolution experiment, we saw the same thing happen over and over.". ...
7. From Mobile Devices How Viruses effect your computer a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same Viruses are self-reproducing programs designed to move from computer to computer ...
Lexi Walls is a graduate student in Biochemistry. She utilizes microscopes to visualize the infection machinery of viruses at the nanoscopic level. These viral snapshots will improve our understanding of how viruses function and how best to inhibit their infection.…. ...
An orchid-growing friend of mine has successfully managed to cure a virussed strain of a particularly important orchid clone by using a mixture of human antiviral drugs. It was not easy or straightforward. His advice--seeds are almost always free of virus anyway, so dont be afraid to use virussed plants for breeding. Curing them is too much trouble. Lou ...
Harvard Medical School researchers have improved the design of tiny nanodiscs-synthetic models of cell membranes used to study proteins that control what enters and leaves a cell. The enhancements provide an unprecedented view of how viruses infect cells.. The new nanodiscs are more stable than previous versions and, for the first time, can be made in several precise sizes and shapes.. Get more HMS news here. "We finally have a defined environment where we can study how viruses or other proteins interact with membrane proteins and get details as never seen before," said Gerhard Wagner, the Elkan Blout Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at HMS and senior author of the study.. The design improvements mean scientists can now watch under a microscope as viruses-in this case, polioviruses-dock with the nanodiscs, open a pore and inject their genetic material.. "One of the major goals in virology is to understand step by step how viruses enter cells and to make a molecular ...
A team of researchers has solved the structure of a molecule that controls the ability of viruses of the paramyxovirus family, including the viruses that cause measles, mumps, and many human respiratory diseases, to fuse with and infect human cells. Determining the structure of this molecule and its role in the viral fusion mechanism may aid the development of drugs and vaccines that target these types of viruses, say the scientists, whose work was funded by NIGMS and NIAID, both parts of NIH.
Your immune system responds to the infection, and in the process of fighting, it produces chemicals called pyrogens that cause your body temperature to increase. This fever actually helps you to fight the infection by slowing down the rate of viral reproduction, because most of your bodys chemical reactions have an optimal temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius). If your temperature rises slightly above this, the reactions slow down. This immune response continues until the viruses are eliminated from your body. However, if you sneeze, you can spread thousands of new viruses into the environment to await another host.. ...
Standard influenza is typically spread by people sneezing or coughing virus-laden particles into the air, which others breath in. Another way is by touching infected surfaces and then scratching your nose, eyes, face or ears. Viruses can live up to two days on surfaces which is why it is important to wash your hands and wipe down door handles, keyboards, machines, counters and other areas regularly. Another way to protect from airborne viruses is to use a spray bottle or diffuser with essential oils or natural formula. A simple spritz in the air will help neutralize those airborne critters while making your office, home or car smell great. Dont use lysol to spritz unless critical as this product as some studies have shown that continual inhalation of these chemicals has potential side effects ...
We are expert in classical virology, molecular biology and cellular biology approaches, and use state-of-the-art techniques ranging from single cell imaging to proteomics, RNAseq and translatomics to help us build a greater understanding of how viruses successfully subvert their host cells.. ...
Our general aim is to understand the functioning of the immune system in pigs and other veterinary species. Our laboratory is focusing on phagocytes, in particular dendritic cells and macrophages but also neutrophils. These represent central cells in the innate immune response and are also essential to induce adaptive immune responses. With the tools available we are developing new vaccine adjuvants and vectors designed to induce specific types of immune responses in pigs to improve antibody and T-lymphocyte responses, both systemically and at mucosal surfaces. In addition, our research aims to understand the mechanisms of how viruses induce disease and evade the host immune response with a focus on phagocyte-pathogen interaction.. Projects:. ...
Narnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Narnaviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus. Genomes are linear and non-segmented. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are parental and sexual. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Narnavirus ...
In the last two decades, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, nearly half of the new pathogens that affect human and animal health have been viruses. As with the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in 2009, most of these diseases can quickly adapt and morph into nastier strains that resist attacks by vaccines and immune systems.. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), through a program called DARPA Prophecy, has tapped Harvard University and APL to develop methods to predict how, and how fast, these viral agents might mutate.. The current approach to dealing with viruses is reactive, explains Andrew Feldman, DARPA Prophecy project manager and principal investigator in the Research and Exploratory Development Department. Existing vaccines and therapies are designed to protect against viruses that are already out there, and new vaccines take years to develop. But we are trying to get out in front of emerging diseases by predicting how viruses ...
On Sunday, Aug. 13, 1961, The New York Times called a report by Roger Herriott "a whole new dimension to the study of virus diseases.". A decade earlier, Dr. Herriott had separated the nucleic acid from the protein of a bacterial virus and found that the toxic but not the reproductive properties of the virus were carried by the protein component. This finding suggested the nucleic acid was important for viral reproduction, although there was no way of testing the theory at that time. Infections by free nucleic acid later were produced in laboratories by the viruses of polio, Eastern encephalitis, and several other diseases of humans, animals, and plants.. Dr. Herriotts discovery was a valuable clue to the puzzle of how viruses multiply. To continue his investigations, he received a grant from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1954.. He also was part of a major national study in the early 1950s to find methods to sterilize human blood for transfusion.. In addition to his ...
UWS academic discovers that the HIRA protein has anti-virus properties which can increase our understanding of how viruses evade host cellular responses.
Hello everyone, Ive been doing loads of educational research just to try work out whats happening to me and possibly why. Years ago I had viral meningitis (about 28 years ago) and was really ill in hospital for 3 weeks but more recently under anaesthetic for an operation (which went wrong immediately and surgery was abandoned) due to the fact that the acid from my stomach filled my lungs and I ended up on a life support with asperation pneumonia and also had sepsis (that they didnt tell me about). Ive read a lot of research about how viruses and bacterial infections can be significant in ms. I was also extremely stressed with work at the time of my first major attack and have heard this can also be a massive trigger. Also my hubby has parkinsons and I attended a talk by a top neurologist at parkinsons UK recently who said research believes that parkinsons (as well as Ms) can start in the gut which reflected research Id read about gut flora and the gut/brain connection. my hubby and I have ...
If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck, so the adage goes, it must be a duck. But if the duck gets infected by a virus so that it no longer looks or quacks like one, is it still a duck? For a team led by researchers from The Ohio State University and the University of Michigan studying how virus infections cause significant metabolic changes in marine microbes, the answer is no. They refer to the infected microbial cells as virocells, the name change reflecting the metabolic changes the cells have undergone. Read more ...
If scientists could track the motion of a single molecule within a living cell it could reveal a world of information. Among other things, scientists could determine how viruses invade a cell or how proteins operate in the body. Such technology also could help doctors pinpoint the exact location of cancer cells in order to better focus treatment and minimize damage to healthy tissue. Outside the body, the technology could help speed up detection of such toxins as anthrax ...
Levivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Leviviridae. Enterobacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Enterobacteria phage MS2. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Leviviridae Genus: Levivirus Enterobacteria phage BZ13 Enterobacteria phage MS2 Viruses in Levivirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Spherical geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 26 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 4kb in length. The genome codes for 4 proteins. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by bacteria lysis. Enterobacteria serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Levivirus ...
The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 protein is a multifunctional RNA binding protein implicated in a wide range of biological functions. Mechanisms and putative hnRNP A1-RNA interactions have been inferred primarily from the crystal structure of its UP1 domain bound to ssDNA. RNA stem loops represent an important class of known hnRNP A1 targets, yet little is known about the structural basis of hnRNP A1-RNA recognition. Here, we report the first high-resolution structure (1.92 Å) of UP1 bound to a 5′-AGU-3′ trinucleotide that resembles sequence elements of several native hnRNP A1-RNA stem loop targets. UP1 interacts specifically with the AG dinucleotide sequence via a "nucleobase pocket" formed by the β-sheet surface of RRM1 and the inter-RRM linker; RRM2 does not contact the RNA.. The inter-RRM linker forms the lid of the nucleobase pocket and we show using structure-guided mutagenesis that the conserved salt-bridge interactions (R75:D155 and R88:D157) on the α-helical ...
Researchers at Michigan State University (MSU) have demonstrated how a new virus evolves, shedding light on how easy it can be for diseases to gain dangerous mutations. The findings appear in the current issue of the journal Science.. The scientists showed for the first time how the virus called "Lambda" evolved to find a new way to attack host cells, an innovation that took four mutations to accomplish. This virus infects bacteria, in particular the common E. coli bacterium. Lambda isnt dangerous to humans, but this research demonstrated how viruses evolve complex and potentially deadly new traits, noted Justin Meyer, MSU graduate student, who co-authored the paper with Richard Lenski, MSU Hannah Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics.. "We were surprised at first to see Lambda evolve this new function, this ability to attack and enter the cell through a new receptor--and it happened so fast," Meyer said. "But when we re-ran the evolution experiment, we saw the same ...
The Munger laboratory studies how viruses and cancer-causing mutations manipulate cellular metabolic processes to enable their proliferation. Both cancerous cells and viruses depend on the metabolic resources provided by the host to supply the energy and biochemical building blocks necessary for their replication. Many anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, such as nucleotide analogs, target these parasites utilization of cellular metabolic resources and have proven to be clinically successful. Despite these successes, very little is known about the mechanisms governing the pathogenic manipulation of the small molecule metabolic network. Our laboratorys goal is to elucidate these mechanisms and thereby identify potential therapeutic targets to block cancer and virally-associated disease. Towards the end, we couple molecular genetics with LC-MS/MS-based metabolomic analysis to probe how viral infection and cancer-causing mutations alter metabolic regulatory pathways as part of the pathogenic ...
A study examining whether mass shootings are contagious identified a 13-day period after high-profile mass shootings when the chance of another spikes.
The findings open the door to the development of new drugs to combat these deadly viruses that infect more than 180 million people worldwide.. The team of international scientists led by and Professor Gideon Davies from the University of York and Associate Professor Spencer Williams from the University of Melbourne, studied bacterial endomannosidase as a model for the same human enzyme and successfully determined the three dimensional structure of the enzyme using state of the art synchrotron technology.. Professor Davies, of the Department of Chemistry at York, said that knowing the structure of the enzyme revealed details on how viruses play biological "piggy-back", borrowing our cellular machinery to replicate and cause disease. "If we understand how the viruses use our enzymes, we can develop inhibitors that block the pathway they require, opening the door to drug developments," he said.. In the past the problem has been that this group of viruses including HIV, Hepatitis C, Dengue Fever and ...
New research points to treatment breakthrough for viruses-12 July 2017. Each year the flu virus sends 13,500 Australians to hospital and causes more than 3000 deaths among those aged over 50. The global burden is also staggering, with more than 5 million cases of infection annually with up to 10 per cent resulting in death.. Now, ARC-funded researchers-including 2012 ARC Future Fellow Dr Stavros Selemidis from RMIT University, Professor Doug Brooks from University South Australia and Professor Christopher Porter from Monash University-have collaborated with other Australian and international scientists and clinicians to investigate how viruses cause disease in humans. Their findings, published in the prestigious scientific and medical journal Nature Communications, have the potential to unlock better treatment of viral diseases, including the flu and common cold.. The researchers discovered that a 1.5 billion-year-old cell biological process found in plants, fungi and mammals enhances viral ...
Scientists have discovered that a biological molecule important in cell growth (STAT3) is also critical in protecting us against infection - so much so that we would be unable to fight the common flu virus without it. Their discovery could pave the way to the development of new therapeutics charged with restoring our natural immunity to a whole spectrum of viruses that have evolved roadblocks to the immune response.. The team behind the work was led by Assistant Professor in Immunology at Trinity College Dublin, Dr Nigel Stevenson, who is based in the Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute. The findings have recently been published in the journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS.. In a world of newly emerging viral infections such as SARS, ZIKA and Ebola, the importance of understanding how viruses target our immune system, and the need to develop new therapies to cure and protect us, has never been greater.. During any viral infection our cells produce an immune molecule called ...
By and large, the emphasis in science used to be on solving mysteries. Discovering the mechanism of genetic inheritance; decoding the structure of DNA; deciphering how viruses take over cells. Scientists were billed as detectives, and the height of scientific achievement was to find an "aha" insight that solved an outstanding mystery. But- though some scientists may voraciously deny this- weve been so successful at solving the fundamental mysteries out there that were running out of this kind of mystery in many branches of science. In turn, science is gradually becoming less about solving foundational unknowns (like decoding the structure of DNA) and more about creating tools by which to more richly and more quantifiedly understand what is no longer mysterious but too complex to trust to our intuitions and simple equations ...
Primo febbraio 2008. A Bregenz, ridente cittadina austriaca e capitale del Voralberg adagiata sulle rive del lago di Costanza, ci si va di solito per ragioni musicali, ovvero per il Bregenzer Festspiele e la sua piattaforma palcoscenico flottante sulle placide acque lacustri. Ma ci voleva quel matto straordinario di Maurizio Cattelan a farcene scoprire altre facce, altre suggestioni. A Bregenz, più precisamente nellalgida e radiosa Kunsthaus-mausoleo aperta nel 1997 e progettata dal genio elvetico delle terme più cool, Peter Zumthor, Cattelan da par suo ha celebrato un rituale di profonda meditazione sulla morte. Accolti da vecchi poster che ricordavano il terribile bombardamento alleato subito dalla città il 1 maggio 1945, raffiguranti un pollice verso che scende a trafiggere una linea di fuoco dietro cui si intravedono le sagome crollanti di chiese, alberghi, palazzi, lautodafè, oltre i due taxidermici Labrador-cartoon che a pianterreno vegliavano un pulcino, esplodeva nei nove feretri ...
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Just like birds, pigs can harbor influenza viruses that can jump to humans and cause public-health emergencies, like the H1N1 global pandemic of 2009 . To understand how viruses interact with their hosts and develop better vaccines against them, researchers want to know what molecules viruses bind to on their hosts cell surfaces.. In a paper just out in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, researchers demonstrate that the individual influenza viruses have their own particular preferences for the sugars they bind to on the lung cells of the pig. There isnt a common motif that all viruses recognize. The research could better inform vaccine development.. Richard Cummings and David Steinhauer at Emory University led a team to check out the sugar molecules that cover cell surfaces. These sugar molecules are known to be essential for the virus-host interaction.. The researchers had earlier studied sugar chains, also called glycans, which they had made in the laboratory, but "of ...
Dr. Amélie Fradet-Turcotte, Ph.D., owns a Canada Research Chair in molecular virology and genomic instability and is an assistant professor in the Department of molecular biology, medical biochemistry and pathology of the Laval University School of Medicine. Recruited to the CHU de Québec research center in September 2015, she is a member of the St-Patrick Research Group in Fundamental Oncology and of Laval Universitys Cancer Research Center (CRC). The main interest of Dr. Fradet-Turcottes laboratory is to understand how the mechanisms that safeguard genomic integrity in our cells are challenged during viral infections. Her laboratory uses a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry, and cellular biology to determine how the infection by DNA viruses such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) impacts the genomic integrity of the infected cell and to tackle how viruses usurp the DNA-damage machinery to promote the viral life cycle. Specifically, the work in her laboratory aims at elucidating ...
Free Online Course Explains Cells, Immunity and Vaccines Shot of Prevention (January 4, 2018) - Often times, the concerns people have about vaccines can be addressed through a better understanding of science. It begins with a more comprehensive explanation of how the cells in our body work, how viruses can infect us, how our bodies fight off infections, and how vaccines help in that process. Fortunately, you dont have to devote your life to being a doctor or scientist to benefit from an improved understanding of immunology. While many people strive to better educate themselves on these topics, the challenge is in finding educational resources that are not only accessible to the general public, but are also scientifically accurate and comprehensible for non-scientists. Now Dr. Jonathan M. Gershoni, a Professor of Molecular Immunology and Virology at Tel Aviv University, has stepped in to help. After spending thirty years investigating the immune response towards viruses such as HIV, HCV and ...