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Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining ...
Clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae organisms collected from February 2004 through April 2005 were systematically isolated from 2 rural Bangladeshi locales. Their genetic relatedness was evaluated at 5 loci that contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). The observed minimal overlap in VNTR patterns between the 2 communities was consistent with sequential, small outbreaks from local sources.
Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies in the circulation. These responses were compared with those in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease. Strong immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM ASC responses were seen against the homologous lipopolysaccharide or serogroup of V. cholerae. The magnitude and isotype of the responses were similar in O139- and O1-infected patients. Vibriocidal antibody responses were seen against bacteria of the homologous but not heterologous serogroup, and these responses reflect the lack of cross-protection between the infections caused by the two serogroups. The two groups of patients showed comparable cholera toxin-specific ASC ...
V. cholerae and many related Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to become nonculturable under specific experimental conditions, although the time required for these cells to become nonculturable is variable (8, 9, 19-21). In this study, V. cholerae O1 cells in all microcosms became nonculturable on TCBS agar within 10-15 days, as has been reported by other investigators (19-21). V. cholerae O1 in biofilms collected from MW and in the biofilm in clinical specimens, when suspended in autoclaved MW that had tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by both culture and DFA, became nonculturable within 15 days. Conversely, MW-RT and MW-4C microcosms inoculated with freshly grown V. cholerae O1 showed culturability on TTGA and LA for 40 and 68 days, respectively. Miller et al. (22) suggested that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 could remain culturable for longer periods at a salinity of 0.25-3.0%, a pH of 8.0, and 25°C. The temperature, pH, and salinity of MW used in the studies reported here were not very ...
Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. Twenty environmental isolates and 42 clinical isolates were selected for study by matching serotype, geographic location of isolation in Bangladesh, and season of isolation. Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. Five significant clonal clusters of haplotypes were found from 57 electrophoretic types. Isolates from different areas or habitats intermingled in two of the five significant clusters. Frequencies of haplotypes differed significantly only between the environmental populations (exact test; P , 0.05). Analysis of molecular variance yielded a population genetic structure reflecting the differentiating effects of geographic area, habitat, and sampling time. Although a ...
Epidemic cholera is caused byVibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and a single other serogroup,V. cholerae O139, which emerged in 1992. V. cholerae O1 comprises two distinct biotypes, classical and El Tor, which differ in several biochemical traits. Data from many investigators suggests that V. cholerae O139 is likely to have derived from a V. cholerae O1 El Tor organism which underwent a recombinational event resulting in the substitution of the cluster of genes encoding the O139 serogroup antigen for the cluster of genes encoding the O1 serogroup antigen (1, 2, 4, 5,11-13). In addition to changes in the cell surface structure ofV. cholerae O139, two potentially mobile genetic elements have been found in this organism that are not present inV. cholerae O1 of the El Tor biotype. Waldor et al. (14) have described the presence in V. cholerae O139 of a conjugative transposon-like transmissible element that mediates resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin. A κ-type vibriophage is ...
An epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the Australian environment based on rRNA gene polymorphisms - Volume 115 Issue 3 - P. M. Desmarchelier, F. Y. K. Wong, K. Mallard
Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Vibrio cholerae O1 Serovar Inaba antibody (ab79793) : Vibro cholerae Agglutination Protocol
On 13 November, WHO reported 4 additional cases of cholera in Mexico. Since the beginning of the outbreak in September 2013, Mexico has reported 180 confirmed cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa, including one death.. ...
On 13 November, WHO reported 4 additional cases of cholera in Mexico. Since the beginning of the outbreak in September 2013, Mexico has reported 180 confirmed cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa, including one death.. ...
Transduction with TLC-Knϕ1 phage cures cell filamentation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains which have likely defects in resolution of chromosome dimers. Panels a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the vibriocidal antibody response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O139 bengal with the response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1. AU - Qadri, F.. AU - Mohi, G.. AU - Hossain, J.. AU - Azim, T.. AU - Khan, A. M.. AU - Salam, M. A.. AU - Sack, R. B.. AU - Albert, M. J.. AU - Svennerholm, A. M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139, now considered to be the second organism capable of causing epidemic severe dehydrating cholera, contains a capsular polysaccharide which makes it difficult for it to be used in the conventional vibriocidal antibody assay optimized for V. cholerae O1. After modification of the procedure, which involved tile use of specific bacterial strains, a lower bacterial inoculum, and increased amounts of complement, the vibriocidal antibody responses to V. cholerae O139 were measured in acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 33 V. choleras O139-infected and 18 V. cholerae O1-infected patients and in single serum samples ...
A toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by vibrios of both classical and EI Tor biotypes. By comparing TCP produced by various strains of the two biotypes in immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) us …
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the acute intestinal disorder cholera. The source of cholera infection is typically fecal contamination of potable water sources. V. cholerae is able to colonize the host intestine and trigger the onset of cholera symptoms due to the expression of two primary virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). TCP is a type IVb pilus encoded by the tcp operon. While many components encoded within the tcp operon have been well characterized, there remain two that we know little about: TcpB and TcpS. In this work, we take a genetic approach to initiate the characterization of each of these pilus components. We have found the large putative pilin, TcpB is not requisite for formation of a pilus structure, but remains essential for all TCP functions. The formation of TCP by a tcpB null mutant represents a surprising finding that has led to a new research emphasis with respect to TCP functions. Additionally, we have characterized the ...
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the acute intestinal disorder cholera. The source of cholera infection is typically fecal contamination of potable water sources. V. cholerae is able to colonize the host intestine and trigger the onset of cholera symptoms due to the expression of two primary virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). TCP is a type IVb pilus encoded by the tcp operon. While many components encoded within the tcp operon have been well characterized, there remain two that we know little about: TcpB and TcpS. In this work, we take a genetic approach to initiate the characterization of each of these pilus components. We have found the large putative pilin, TcpB is not requisite for formation of a pilus structure, but remains essential for all TCP functions. The formation of TCP by a tcpB null mutant represents a surprising finding that has led to a new research emphasis with respect to TCP functions. Additionally, we have characterized the ...
Innate immune responses to V. cholerae infection have not been intensely studied in part due to the absence of a murine model for pathogenesis. The suckling mouse model has proven useful for the study of bacterial colonization and regulation of virulence factors (37). However, these 5-6-d-old mice do not have immune systems sufficiently developed for study of immunomodulation. Adult germ-free mouse models have been useful for evaluation of immunogenic potential of oral V. cholerae vaccine strains even though colonization may not occur (38), yet neither of these models is applicable for study of acute inflammatory responses. In this study, we report the use of a novel mouse model conceptually adapted from the studies of S. flexneri (30-32) and technically based on previous studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39). We have demonstrated that V. cholerae can infect the lung of BALB/c mice leading to the development of inflammation.. The identity of the "reactogenicity factor" of V. cholerae vaccine ...
We examined the distribution of class I integrons and SXT elements in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains, isolated in Calcutta, India, before and after the V. cholerae O139 outbreak in 1992. Class I integrons, with aadA1 gene cassette, were detected p ...
Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) of DNA using φ29 (phi29) DNA polymerase amplifies DNA several billion-fold, which has proved to be potentially very useful for evaluating genome information in a culture-independent manner. Whole genome sequencing using DNA from a single prokaryotic genome copy amplified by MDA has not yet been achieved due to the formation of chimeras and skewed amplification of genomic regions during the MDA step, which then precludes genome assembly. We have hereby addressed the issue by using 10 ng of genomic Vibrio cholerae DNA extracted within an agarose plug to ensure circularity as a starting point for MDA and then sequencing the amplified yield using the SOLiD platform. We successfully managed to assemble the entire genome of V. cholerae strain LMA3984-4 (environmental O1 strain isolated in urban Amazonia) using a hybrid de novo assembly strategy. Using our method, only 178 out of 16,713 (1%) of contigs were not able to be inserted into either chromosome ...
We identified 281 Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains from patients with diarrhea in Kolkata, India. Cholera-like diarrhea was the major symptom (66.0%); some patients (20.3%) had severe dehydration. These strains lacked the ctxA gene but many had hlyA, rtxA, and rtxC genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed no genetic link among strains.
Surveillance was conducted during February and March 1991 in the pediatric emergency department of Cayetano Heredia Hospital, Lima, Peru, to contrast the characteristics of children with epidemic cholera with those of children with non-cholera-associated diarrhea. Among 626 patients 14 years of age or younger, Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated...
1F4W: Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis for serotype specificity.
Colorized light micrograph showing Vibrio cholerae bacteria, the causative agent of cholera, an infectious and contagious disease characterized by brutal diarrhoea. Without treatment, the major form of cholera is fatal in over half of cases, within a few hours to three days. Image colorization and HDRI treatments on optical microscopy; magnification X1850. - Stock Image C027/9047
Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in water ...
The Ministry of Health in Mexico has reported an additional four cases of infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Of these, two are from the state of Hidalgo and two from the state of Veracruz.
Attridge, Stephen R. et al "Sensitive Microplate Assay for Detection of Bactericidal Antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O139." Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9.2 (2002): 383-387. Web. 15 Aug. 2020. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Imported cholera associated with a newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain--California, 1993 -- Smoking cessation during previous year among adults--United States, 1990 and 1991 -- Availability of comprehensive adolescent health services--United States, 1990 -- Salmonella serotype Tennessee in powdered milk products and infant formula--Canada and United States, 1993 -- Update: Hantavirus Infection--United States, 1993 ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
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Background Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Tanzania since 1974. To date, the genetic epidemiology of these outbreaks has not been assessed.
Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
BACKGROUND Cholera is an ancient disease that continues to cause epidemic and pandemic disease despite ongoing efforts to limit its spread. Mathematical models provide one means of assessing the utility of various proposed interventions. However, cholera models that have been developed to date have had limitations, suggesting that there are basic elements of cholera transmission that we still do not understand. METHODS AND FINDINGS Recent laboratory findings suggest that passage of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba El Tor through the gastrointestinal tract results in a short-lived, hyperinfectious state of the organism that decays in a matter of hours into a state of lower infectiousness. Incorporation of this hyperinfectious state into our disease model provides a much better fit with the observed epidemic pattern of cholera. These findings help to substantiate the clinical relevance of laboratory observations regarding the hyperinfectious state, and underscore the critical importance of human-to-human versus
Via IRIN Africa: GUINEA: New cholera strain poses prevention challenges. The cholera that struck more than 7,000 people in Guinea this year was caused by a new generation of cholera strains - atypical variants of vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor,...
In the present study, using biochemical and genetic approaches, we have investigated the stability, localization, and protein-protein interaction of TcpT with respect to the TCP biogenesis apparatus components. We present evidence for IM localization of TcpT in WT V. cholerae. The fact that TcpT localizes to the IM in WT V. cholerae is consistent with previously reported IM localization of the cognate ATPases of other Tfp and T2SS complexes (4, 8, 32, 34, 40). We used a collection of in-frame tcp single-gene deletion mutants to investigate the requirement of the corresponding TCP components in tethering TcpT to the IM and found that TcpR was necessary for TcpT association with the IM. TcpR is a predicted bitopic IM protein that is a GspL homolog (33). Our results add to a common theme emerging from various studies showing IM localization of the cognate ATPase by a bitopic IM protein, GspL, of the IM platform of a T2SS or a Tfp (4, 8, 32, 35, 40).. In this study, we have demonstrated interaction ...
Mohammad Murshid Alam, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan and Firdausi Qadri-Short Communication on: Study of Avidity of Antigen-Specific Antibody as a Means of Understanding Development of Long-Term Immunological Memory after Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection
Cholera is caused by consuming water or food contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.. Like nearly all other bacteria, Vibrio cholerae forms a biofilm - a bacterial community stitched together with a glue of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It produces these biofilms in water while it awaits its thirsty host and then, once ingested, to protect against the acidic environment of the stomach, allowing it to survive and enter the small intestine, where it produces the toxin that causes severe diarrhea, dehydration and even death.. Becoming a biofilm has its benefits. Bunches of bacteria are less vulnerable than singletons to predation by protozoa and bacteriophages. Theyre also more potent: Biofilms pack higher doses of bacteria and hyperinfective cells.. Scientists at Wesleyan University have been studying the bits and pieces of Vibrio cholerae biofilms found in water and the gut, and they recently reported a new finding about two components of the biofilm matrix in the Journal ...
AFRICAN NEWS AGENCY. The only independent news agency dedicated exclusively to Africa. S o Tom asks for help to stop cholera epidemic
Only in recent years has it been revealed that V. cholerae is a normal inhabitant of esturine and riverine waters. This means that even if the disease can be...
Taun (kolera) ialah penyakit ciri-birit yang disebabkan Vibrio cholerae. Taun boleh membawa maut jika tidak dikesan dengan serta-merta. Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is potentially lethal if not diagnosed on time.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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This study compared the efficacy of a single, 1.0 g oral doses of azithromycin versus ciprofloxacin in male patients, with cholera due to V. cholerae O1 or
The army has begun putting up walls of barbed wire on stretches running parallel to the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir during a major counter-insurgency drive codenamed Operation Sarp Vinash carried out from April 20 to May 18. ... , Read.. ...
Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates belonging to the Ogawa serotype, El Tor biotype, harbouring the classical CTX prophage were first isolated in Mozambique in 2004. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using nine genetic loci showed that the Mozambique isolates have the same sequence type (ST) as O1 …