Cobaxin,M. Martinez,H. Ayala,G. Holmgren,J. Sjoling,A. Sanchez,J. 2014. Cholera toxin expression by El Tor Vibrio cholerae in shallow culture growth conditions Microbial Pathogenesis, 66, 5-13 * ...
هدف: عامل کلونیزاسیون پیلی tcpAو توکسین کلرا مهم‌ترین عوامل بیماری‌زایی ویبریو کلرا هستند و توانایی تحریک سیستم ایمنی را دارند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی بیوانفورماتیکی، بیان پروتئین کایمر نوترکیب CTXB-TCPA در باکتری اشریشیا کلی و تولید آنتی‌بادی علیه آن در موش بود. مواد و روش‌ها: کاست ژنی دربردارنده ژن‌های ctxB، tcpAو فاصله‌انداز با روش‌ بیوانفورماتیکی طراحی شد. شاخصه‌هایی از قبیل ساختار پروتئین کایمر و اپی توپ‌ها بررسی شد. برای ساخت کاست ژنی، ژن‌های ctxBو tcpAتکثیر و در ناقل pET28a همسانه‌سازی شدند. بیان ژن‌های ctxB-tcpAدر pET28a(+) تحت القای IPTG انجام شد. پروتئین نوترکیب CTXB
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A toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), that is important for intestinal colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1, may be produced by vibrios of both classical and EI Tor biotypes. By comparing TCP produced by various strains of the two biotypes in immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) us …
Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies in the circulation. These responses were compared with those in patients with V. cholerae O1 disease. Strong immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM ASC responses were seen against the homologous lipopolysaccharide or serogroup of V. cholerae. The magnitude and isotype of the responses were similar in O139- and O1-infected patients. Vibriocidal antibody responses were seen against bacteria of the homologous but not heterologous serogroup, and these responses reflect the lack of cross-protection between the infections caused by the two serogroups. The two groups of patients showed comparable cholera toxin-specific ASC ...
Epidemic cholera is caused byVibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and a single other serogroup,V. cholerae O139, which emerged in 1992. V. cholerae O1 comprises two distinct biotypes, classical and El Tor, which differ in several biochemical traits. Data from many investigators suggests that V. cholerae O139 is likely to have derived from a V. cholerae O1 El Tor organism which underwent a recombinational event resulting in the substitution of the cluster of genes encoding the O139 serogroup antigen for the cluster of genes encoding the O1 serogroup antigen (1, 2, 4, 5,11-13). In addition to changes in the cell surface structure ofV. cholerae O139, two potentially mobile genetic elements have been found in this organism that are not present inV. cholerae O1 of the El Tor biotype. Waldor et al. (14) have described the presence in V. cholerae O139 of a conjugative transposon-like transmissible element that mediates resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin. A κ-type vibriophage is ...
An epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the Australian environment based on rRNA gene polymorphisms - Volume 115 Issue 3 - P. M. Desmarchelier, F. Y. K. Wong, K. Mallard
Background Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Tanzania since 1974. To date, the genetic epidemiology of these outbreaks has not been assessed.
The crystal structure of the murine Fab S-20-4 from a protective anti-cholera Ab specific for the lipopolysaccharide Ag of the Ogawa serotype has been determined in its unliganded form and in complex with synthetic fragments of the Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP). The upstream terminal O-SP monosaccharide is shown to be the primary antigenic determinant. Additional perosamine residues protrude outwards from the Ab surface and contribute only marginally to the binding affinity and specificity. A complementary water-excluding hydrophobic interface and five Ab-Ag hydrogen bonds are crucial for carbohydrate recognition. The structure reported here explains the serotype specificity of anti-Ogawa Abs and provides a rational basis toward the development of a synthetic carbohydrate-based anti-cholera vaccine.
1F4X: Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis for serotype specificity.
1F4W: Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis for serotype specificity.
2-Oxocarboxylic acids, also called 2-oxo acids and alpha-keto acids, are the most elementary set of metabolites that includes pyruvate (2-oxopropanoate), 2-oxobutanoate, oxaloacetate (2-oxosuccinate) and 2-oxoglutarate. This diagram illustrates the architecture of chain extension and modification reaction modules for 2-oxocarboxylic acids. The chain extension module RM001 is a tricarboxylic pathway where acetyl-CoA derived carbon is used to extend the chain length by one. The chain modification modules RM002 (including RM032) and RM033, together with a reductive amination step (RC00006 or RC00036), generate basic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. The modification module RM030 is used in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a class of plant secondary metabolites, for conversion to oxime followed by addition of thio-glucose moiety. Furthermore, the chain extension from 2-oxoadipate to 2-oxosuberate is followed by coenzyme B biosynthesis in methonogenic archaea ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Vibrio cholerae O1 Serovar Inaba antibody (ab79793) : Vibro cholerae Agglutination Protocol
On 13 November, WHO reported 4 additional cases of cholera in Mexico. Since the beginning of the outbreak in September 2013, Mexico has reported 180 confirmed cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa, including one death.. ...
On 13 November, WHO reported 4 additional cases of cholera in Mexico. Since the beginning of the outbreak in September 2013, Mexico has reported 180 confirmed cases of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa, including one death.. ...
Transduction with TLC-Knϕ1 phage cures cell filamentation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains which have likely defects in resolution of chromosome dimers. Panels a
Attridge, Stephen R. et al "Sensitive Microplate Assay for Detection of Bactericidal Antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O139." Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9.2 (2002): 383-387. Web. 15 Aug. 2020. ...
In the present study, using biochemical and genetic approaches, we have investigated the stability, localization, and protein-protein interaction of TcpT with respect to the TCP biogenesis apparatus components. We present evidence for IM localization of TcpT in WT V. cholerae. The fact that TcpT localizes to the IM in WT V. cholerae is consistent with previously reported IM localization of the cognate ATPases of other Tfp and T2SS complexes (4, 8, 32, 34, 40). We used a collection of in-frame tcp single-gene deletion mutants to investigate the requirement of the corresponding TCP components in tethering TcpT to the IM and found that TcpR was necessary for TcpT association with the IM. TcpR is a predicted bitopic IM protein that is a GspL homolog (33). Our results add to a common theme emerging from various studies showing IM localization of the cognate ATPase by a bitopic IM protein, GspL, of the IM platform of a T2SS or a Tfp (4, 8, 32, 35, 40).. In this study, we have demonstrated interaction ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Fig. 1 Chr1 and Chr2 replication coordination is promoted by the presence of a timer on Chr1 and not by the requirement to terminate their replication synchronously.. (A) Top: Genome structure of wild-type (WT) V. cholerae. Ovals indicate the origins of replication (ori1 and ori2) and triangles show dif sites (dif1 and dif2) on Chr1 (green) and Chr2 (red). Bottom: MFA of exponentially growing WT cultures using a corrected reference sequence of Chr1 (fig. S1). Log2 of number of reads starting at each base (normalized against reads from a stationary phase WT control) is plotted against their relative position on Chr1 and Chr2. Positions of ori1 and ori2 are set to 0 for a better visualization of the bidirectional replication. Any window containing repeated sequences is omitted; thus, the large gap observed in the right arm of Chr2 consists of filtered repeated sequences within the superintegron (28). Green (Chr1) and red (Chr2) dots indicate the average of 1000-bp windows; black dots indicate the ...
Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. Water samples collected during the summer months from Lisi Lake and Kumisi Lake were positive for both V. cholerae and V. cholerae ctxA, tcpA, zot, ompU and toxR by PCR. Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide evidence for an environmental presence of ...
Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Ogawa, Biotype El Tor Strain -- La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, José; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Eugenia Jiménez-Corona, María; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/27/2014, Vol. 63 Issue 25, p552 The article reports on the outbreak of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain in the La Huasteca region in Mexico in September 2013. Topics discussed include the identification of two cases of cholera in Mexico City by Mexicos National System of... ...
V. cholerae and many related Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to become nonculturable under specific experimental conditions, although the time required for these cells to become nonculturable is variable (8, 9, 19-21). In this study, V. cholerae O1 cells in all microcosms became nonculturable on TCBS agar within 10-15 days, as has been reported by other investigators (19-21). V. cholerae O1 in biofilms collected from MW and in the biofilm in clinical specimens, when suspended in autoclaved MW that had tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by both culture and DFA, became nonculturable within 15 days. Conversely, MW-RT and MW-4C microcosms inoculated with freshly grown V. cholerae O1 showed culturability on TTGA and LA for 40 and 68 days, respectively. Miller et al. (22) suggested that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 could remain culturable for longer periods at a salinity of 0.25-3.0%, a pH of 8.0, and 25°C. The temperature, pH, and salinity of MW used in the studies reported here were not very ...
Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. Twenty environmental isolates and 42 clinical isolates were selected for study by matching serotype, geographic location of isolation in Bangladesh, and season of isolation. Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. Five significant clonal clusters of haplotypes were found from 57 electrophoretic types. Isolates from different areas or habitats intermingled in two of the five significant clusters. Frequencies of haplotypes differed significantly only between the environmental populations (exact test; P , 0.05). Analysis of molecular variance yielded a population genetic structure reflecting the differentiating effects of geographic area, habitat, and sampling time. Although a ...
Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two...
Innate immune responses to V. cholerae infection have not been intensely studied in part due to the absence of a murine model for pathogenesis. The suckling mouse model has proven useful for the study of bacterial colonization and regulation of virulence factors (37). However, these 5-6-d-old mice do not have immune systems sufficiently developed for study of immunomodulation. Adult germ-free mouse models have been useful for evaluation of immunogenic potential of oral V. cholerae vaccine strains even though colonization may not occur (38), yet neither of these models is applicable for study of acute inflammatory responses. In this study, we report the use of a novel mouse model conceptually adapted from the studies of S. flexneri (30-32) and technically based on previous studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39). We have demonstrated that V. cholerae can infect the lung of BALB/c mice leading to the development of inflammation.. The identity of the "reactogenicity factor" of V. cholerae vaccine ...
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We examined the distribution of class I integrons and SXT elements in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains, isolated in Calcutta, India, before and after the V. cholerae O139 outbreak in 1992. Class I integrons, with aadA1 gene cassette, were detected p ...
Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) of DNA using φ29 (phi29) DNA polymerase amplifies DNA several billion-fold, which has proved to be potentially very useful for evaluating genome information in a culture-independent manner. Whole genome sequencing using DNA from a single prokaryotic genome copy amplified by MDA has not yet been achieved due to the formation of chimeras and skewed amplification of genomic regions during the MDA step, which then precludes genome assembly. We have hereby addressed the issue by using 10 ng of genomic Vibrio cholerae DNA extracted within an agarose plug to ensure circularity as a starting point for MDA and then sequencing the amplified yield using the SOLiD platform. We successfully managed to assemble the entire genome of V. cholerae strain LMA3984-4 (environmental O1 strain isolated in urban Amazonia) using a hybrid de novo assembly strategy. Using our method, only 178 out of 16,713 (1%) of contigs were not able to be inserted into either chromosome ...
In this dissertation, I present an examination of the role of two biotic interactions in the population dynamics of Vibrio cholerae. Traits with a genetic basis such as size, physiological processes, stress tolerance, and even behavior, are key factors in competition among individuals. The allocation of resources to these traits can influence the performance of a strain under a given set of conditions. In Chapter Two, I explore the competitive abilities of one strain of O1 El Tor biotype and two strains of O1 classical biotype, under carbon-limiting conditions. Although I only examined competition under very simple conditions, the ability to turn a limited resource into growth more quickly or more efficiently can affect the dominance of a particular biotype in the presence of such factors (Northrup et al. 1972, Faruque et al. 2005). Determining what factors lead to the dominance of one V. cholerae strain over another could be important because of the range in virulence between strains. In ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ. ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Chitin concentrations greater than 0.04% (wt/wt) protected cholera vibrios against killing at low temperature. This protective effect was detected with both the soluble form of chitin, glycol chitin, and the insoluble particulate form of chitin. Some amino acids or peptides also showed the same protective effect. ...
Imported cholera associated with a newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain--California, 1993 -- Smoking cessation during previous year among adults--United States, 1990 and 1991 -- Availability of comprehensive adolescent health services--United States, 1990 -- Salmonella serotype Tennessee in powdered milk products and infant formula--Canada and United States, 1993 -- Update: Hantavirus Infection--United States, 1993 ...
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Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
The Ministry of Health in Mexico has reported an additional four cases of infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Of these, two are from the state of Hidalgo and two from the state of Veracruz.
The death toll from a cholera outbreak in Haiti has risen to more than 150 confirmed deaths, according to health officials with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Agency for International Development.
As death toll from Hurricane Matthew reaches 1,000 with almost 800 people missing, aid agencies warn that Haiti may be struck by fresh cholera outbreak
While the United Nations warned that protests were hampering efforts to save lives in the Haiti cholera outbreak, a leading non-profit group lashed out at organizations for what it called an inadequate response.
The conflict in Mali could turn a cholera outbreak that has already killed 60 people in the Sahel this year into a serious regional epidemic, the UN childrens agency said Tuesday.
The preparedness of the health cluster to respond to cholera outbreak; effective partner coordination, and swift activation of the emergency operation centre, efficient case management and surveillance were the strong points that helped disrupt transmission and reduce mortality by about one per cent," he said. ...
The humanitarian group said 10,000 people have been affected by the fast-spreading cholera outbreak and 175 people have died in some northeast states as of early November 2018
Mohammad Murshid Alam, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan and Firdausi Qadri-Short Communication on: Study of Avidity of Antigen-Specific Antibody as a Means of Understanding Development of Long-Term Immunological Memory after Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection
Alternative names: dysentery (though dysentery is actually a different condition, the two are often confused). Type of infection: bacterial. Incubation period: 12 hours to 5 days. Mortality rate: up to 50% when untreated. Vector: contaminated water. History The earliest reports of cholera-like symptoms are from India, about 1000 years ago, but there have been notable outbreaks around the world right up into current times. During an outbreak in England in 1854, contaminated water was discovered to be the root of the epidemic. That discovery led to the decline of the disease as citys began to improve their drinking water systems with more sanitary conditions. Catching Cholera Drinking unclean water that has been contaminated with cholera bacteria is the typical usual route for getting sick, though eating food that has been exposed to dirty water will also do it. It is not transferred from person to person in any way. Signs and Symptoms Severe diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of ...
As the cholera epidemic in Haiti rages on, the local population struggles not only to gain access to clean water, but also to learn about how to prevent a
CIDRAP News) The first cases in Haitis cholera outbreak were confirmed nearly a year ago, and public health lessons from the experience and scientific clues about the Vibrio cholerae strain continue to emerge, including new details from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its research partners. ...
Only in recent years has it been revealed that V. cholerae is a normal inhabitant of esturine and riverine waters. This means that even if the disease can be...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...