BioAssay record AID 406643 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum serotype O2b 04/09/367-5043 isolate containing gyrA position 83 Ser-Ile substitution mutation from Atlantic cod at 30 ug by disc diffusion assay.
Vibrio costicola grown in the presence of different NaCl concentrations contains cell-associated Na+ and K+ ions whose sum is equal to or greater than the external Na+ concentration. In the presence of 0.5 M NaCl, virtually no in vitro protein is synthesized in extracts of cells grown in 1.0 M NaCl. However, we report here that active in vitro protein synthesis occurred in 0.6 M or higher concentrations of Na2SO4, sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium aspartate, or sodium glutamate, whereas 0.6 M NaF, NaCl, or NaBr completely inhibited protein synthesis as measured by polyuridylic acid-directed incorporation of [14C]phenylalanine. Sodium glutamate, sodium aspartate, and betaine (0.3 M) counteracted the inhibitory action of 0.6 M NaCl. The cell-associated Cl- concentration was 0.22 mol/kg in cells grown in 1.0 M NaCl. Of this, the free intracellular Cl- concentration was only 0.02 mol/kg. Cells contained 0.11 mol of glutamate per kg and small concentrations of other amino acids. All of the ...
In developing countries, the fraction of treated wastewater effluents being discharged into watersheds have increased over the period of time, which have led to the deteriorations of the qualities of major rivers in developing nations. Consequently, high densities of disease causing bacteria in the watersheds are regularly reported including incidences of emerging Vibrio fluvialis. Vibrio fluvialis infection remains among those infectious diseases posing a potentially serious threat to public health. This paper addresses the epidemiology of this pathogen; pathogenesis of its disease; and its clinical manifestations in humans.
Vibrio strains isolated from plankton, sediments, and seawater in two coastal areas south of Valencia, Spain, were genotypically and phenotypically different from other Vibrio species. The guanine-plus-cytosyine content of the strains was 43 mol%. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization studies revealed that the strains were genetically homogeneous and exhibited very low levels of genetic relatedness to Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802T(T = type strain) (0%), Vibrio harveyi NCMB 1280T(11%), Vibrio vulnificus NCMB 2046T(7%), Vibrio nereis NCMB 1897T(0%), Vibrio natriengens NCMB (9%), and Vibrio splendidus NCMB 1T(0%). Strain CECT 621 of the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo was designated the type strain of the proposed new species Vibrio mediterranei.
16S rRNA from seven different Vibrio anguillarum strains was partially sequenced and compared. From this sequence information we could design a 25-base-long oligonucleotide and use it as a specific probe for identification of V. anguillarum. This was determined by RNA-DNA colony hybridization and slot-blot hybridization. Strong, specific hybridization to the probe was observed for all V. anguillarum strains tested. Furthermore, no cross-hybridization could be seen against five other bacterial species. The detection limit was 5 x 10(3) bacteria per ml. It was even possible to detect V. anguillarum, by slot-blot hybridization, directly in a homogenized kidney from a fish that had died of vibriosis. The partial sequence information revealed small but significant differences between strains of the same species. These sequence differences are sufficiently significant to allow serotyping on the RNA level. Comparing strains of different serotypes revealed a 10-base and an 11-base difference in V. ...
Numerous prevalence studies of Vibrio spp. infection in fish have been extensively reported worldwide, including Malaysia. Unfortunately, information on the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in groupers (Epinephelus spp.) is limited. In this study, groupers obtained from nine farms located at different geographical regions in Malaysia were sampled for the presence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their susceptibility profiles against seven antibiotics. Out of 270 grouper samples, 195 (72%) were detected with the presence of Vibrio spp. Vibrio communis showed highest prevalence in grouper (28%), followed by V. parahaemolyticus (25%), V. alginolyticus (19%), V. vulnificus (14%), V. rotiferianus (3%), Vibrio sp. (3%), V. campbellii (2%), V. mytili (2%), V. furnissii (2%), V. harveyi (1%), V. tubiashii (1%), V. fluvialis (0.3%) and V. diabolicus (0.3%). Assessment on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the Vibrio spp. revealed that majority of the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin,
The enzymes for luminescence in Vibrio fischeri are induced by the accumulation of a species-specific metabolite (autoinducer) in the culture medium. Tritium-labeled autoinducer was used to study the mechanism of autoinduction. When 3H-autoinducer was added to suspensions of V. fischeri or Escherichia coli, cellular concentrations equaled external concentrations. For V. fischeri, equilibration of 3H-autoinducer was rapid (within 20 s), and greater than 90% of the cellular tritium remained in unmodified autoinducer. When V. fischeri or E. coli cells containing 3H-autoinducer were transferred to autoinducer-free buffer, 85 to 99.5% of the radiotracer escaped from the cells, depending on the strain. Concentrations of autoinducer as low as 10 nM, which is equivalent to 1 or 2 molecules per cell, were sufficient for induction, and the maximal response to autoinducer occurred at about 200 nM. If external autoinducer concentrations were decreased to below 10 nM after induction had commenced, the ...
Scale drop and muscle necrosis disease with high mortality widely occurred recently in the hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂), a crucial cultured marine fish species in China. In this study, 30 Harveyi clade isolates of 27 Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from diseased hybrid groupers in the south‐east and north‐east coastal areas of China. A total of 22 V. harveyi strains were determined to be pathogenic, and most challenged fish died within 2 days of infection; surviving individuals exhibited scale drop and deep dermal lesions as naturally diseased fish. Although five typical virulence genes, including luxR, toxRVₕ, chiA, serine protease and vhh widely existed in V. harveyi, no obvious correlation was established between virulent strains and virulence genes harboured in them. Furthermore, multiple antibiotic resistance was widely exhibited in Harveyi clade strains, particularly for penicillins, polypeptides, lincomycins, acetylspiramycin, ...
Proteorhodopsin (PR), a ubiquitous membrane photoprotein in marine environments, acts as a light-driven proton pump and can provide energy for bacterial cellular metabolism. However, knowledge of factors that regulate PR gene expression in different bacteria remains strongly limited. Here, experiments with Vibrio sp. AND4 showed that PR phototrophy promoted survival only in cells from stationary phase and not in actively growing cells. PR gene expression was tightly regulated, with very low values in exponential phase, a pronounced peak at the exponential/stationary phase intersection, and a marked decline in stationary phase. Thus, PR gene expression at the entry into stationary phase preceded, and could therefore largely explain, the stationary phase light-induced survival response in AND4. Further experiments revealed nutrient limitation, not light exposure, regulated this differential PR expression. Screening of available marine vibrios showed that the PR gene, and thus the potential for PR ...
This project is complete.. Goals. Several strains of Vibrio species will be sequenced under this project. The goal is to identify the specific genes and/or polymorphisms that are correlated with expression of virulence and disease via comparative genomic analysis. This work will increase our knowledge of the virulence of this understudied biothreat pathogen and provide a foundation for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic countermeasures. Several strains of Vibrio cholerae and closely related Vibrio species have been approved for sequencing under this project.. Data Release. Chromatogram Files: We will submit all sequences and trace files (chromatograms) generated under this project to the Trace Archive at NCBI. These data will also include information on templates, vectors, and quality values for each sequence.. Genome Assemblies:We will assemble and release the sequences for the three Vibrio strains being sequenced to 8X at the 3X coverage. A second data release will occur once 8X ...
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Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester, is a member of a family of signaling molecules used in quorum sensing. AI-2 is one of only a few known biomolecules incorporating boron. First identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, AI-2 is produced and recognized by many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. AI-2 arises by the reaction of 1-deoxy-3-dehydro-D-ribulose, which is produced enzymatically, with boric acid and is recognized by the two-component sensor kinase LuxPQ in Vibrionaceae. AI-2 is actively transported by the Lsr ABC-type transporter into the cell in Enterobacteriaceae and few other bacterial taxa (Pasteurella, Photorhabdus, Haemophilus, Bacillus), where it is phosphorylated by LsrK . Then, Phospho-AI-2 binds the transcriptional repressor protein, LsrR, which subsequently is released from the promoter/operator region of the lsr operon - and transcription of the lsr genes is initiated. AI-2 signalling is also regulated by glucose and cAMP/CRP via the lsr operon. ...
FIG 2 Production of FlaEF and their roles in motility and flagellation of V. vulnificus. (A and B) FlaE and FlaF. Cell lysates and the culture supernatants were prepared from the wild-type, ΔflaABCD, and ΔflaJ strains of V. vulnificus. Sixty micrograms of crude cell extracts (A) and 2 μg of the concentrated proteins in culture supernatants (B) were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies reacting with all the flagellin-like proteins from FlaA to FlaF. As loading controls for cell lysate and culture supernatant, the antibodies specific to IIAGlc and OmpU were utilized, respectively. The ΔflaJ strain was included as a negative control in this assay. Each immunoreactive band detected by specific antibodies is indicated with an arrow. Numbers on the left sides of the blots are molecular weight markers, in kilodaltons. (C) Motility on a soft agar plate. Fresh cultures of ΔflaABCD, flaE::nptI, ΔflaF, and ΔflaEF strains were spotted onto a soft agar ...
The genus Vibrio is a metabolically diverse group of facultative anaerobic bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbionts with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of ...
Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus.
The genus Vibrio includes serious human pathogens, such as V. vulnificus (Vv) and V. cholerae (Vc). Some species infect shellfish, such as Vibrio nigripulchritudo (Vn), which is a shrimp pathogen. Vibrio species encode PecS, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors. PecS is encoded by the pecS gene and expression is auto regulatory. The pecS gene is divergently oriented to pecM, which encodes an efflux pump. Vibrio species feature frequent duplication of pecS-pecM genes, which may facilitate how these species adapt from being free living motile bacteria in water columns to colonizing host tissues as biofilms to evade distinct environmental pressures. Vibrio vulnificus, commonly associated with consumption of undercooked oyster encodes a single pecS-pecM gene pair. Vv PecS was shown to bind two sites within the pecS-pecM (iSM) intergenic region with Kd = 0.3 ± 0.1 nM, a binding that is attenuated by purine ligands xanthine and urate. A unique DNA
Home. Vibrios are Gram-negative bacteria found in aquatic environments. These bacteria show a wide range of niche specialization, from free-living forms to those attached to biotic and abiotic surfaces and from symbionts to pathogens. In addition to human pathogens such as V. cholerae, V. parahemolyticus and V. vulnificus, vibrios have been associated with disease in numerous aquatic organisms, including coral, shrimp and oysters, and infections due to these pathogens have profound environmental and economic consequences. Not surprisingly, the vibrio genus provides models for extremely diverse scientists, including those who study ecology, evolution, genome plasticity and maintenance, gene regulation, bacterial pathogenesis and host microbe interactions, bacterial social behavior and epidemiology. To foster interactions between these diverse communities, we invite all scientists who work on vibrios to participate at the next Vibrio conference at the Marine Biological Station of Roscoff in 2016. ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves the generation of a single-stranded region of DNA, followed by strand invasion, formation of a Holliday junction, DNA synthesis using the intact strand as a template, branch migration and resolution. It is investigated that RecA/Rad51 family proteins play a central role. The breast cancer susceptibility protein Brca2 and the RecQ helicase BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through HR ...
Vibrio harveyi is a bioluminescent bacterium and the organism in which quorum sensing was discovered. It was recently found that a class of molecules, cyclic dipeptides, may be a new kind of quorum sensing signal that may affect other species in the genus. The purpose of this study was to determine if V. harveyi produced one of these molecules, cyclo(Phe-Pro) or cFP, and the effects it has on bioluminescence, growth and gene expression. Electrospray Mass Spectrometry was used to detect cFP, and it was found. While growth and gene expression were not significantly affected by cFP, bioluminescence was slightly induced at low concentrations. It appears that V. harveyi does not produce cFP and it does not significantly affect the luminescence quorum sensing controlled genes, and is most likely not a true signal, in V. harveyi.
4E3R: Redesigning and characterizing the substrate specificity and activity of Vibrio fluvialis aminotransferase for the synthesis of imagabalin.
The membrane lipid composition of living cells generally adjusts to the prevailing environmental and physiological conditions. In this study, membrane activity and lipid composition of the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio sp. DSM14379, grown aerobically in a peptone-yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.76, 3, 5 or 10% (w/v) NaCl, was determined. The ability of the membrane to reduce a spin label was studied by EPR spectroscopy under different salt concentrations in cell suspensions labeled with TEMPON. For lipid composition studies, cells were harvested in a late exponential phase and lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol-water, 1:2:0.8 (v/v). The lipid polar head group and acyl chain compositions were determined by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographies. 31P-NMR spectroscopy was used to study the phase behaviour of the cell lipid extracts with 20 wt.% water contents in a temperature range from −10 to 50 °C. The results indicate that the ability of the membrane to reduce ...
Commas are the least forceful of the 3 marks. There are definite rules for using commas; however, usage is often subjective. Some writers and editors use the comma frequently to indicate what they see as a natural pause in the flow of words, but commas can be overused. The trend is to use them sparingly. Follow the accepted rules and use commas only when breaks are needed for sense or readability or to avoid confusion or misinterpretation. The comma is used to separate phrases, clauses, and groups of words and to clarify the grammatical structure and the intended meaning. Use
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Sailors have long reported miraculous sightings of luminous, glowing seawater. Consider Captain Kingman s report, made in the dead of night in June, 1854, in the ocean south of Java, Indonesia. The whole appearance of the ocean was like a plain covered with snow, Kingman wrote. Ocean-going myth? It turns out that the stories are true.. The milky sea effect of constant light over a wide area comes from the luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi, living alongside microalgal blooms. In order to create the effect of a milky sea, the populations of these bacteria are, as predicted, phenomenally large. Each contains an estimated 200 times more than the number of background, free-living bacteria spread over the continental shelf waters of all the oceans put together.. Scientists gained the first ever pictures of the milky sea effect in the fall of 2005. The photos, gleaned from images taken by the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, show a glowing portion of the ocean that s about the size of ...
Vibrio harveyi ATCC ® 700106™ Designation: BB721 TypeStrain=False Application: Produces light, expression of luminescence not being influenced by culture density
Commas, semicolons, and colons can be used to indicate a break or pause in thought, to set off material, or to introduce a new but connected thought. Each has specific uses, and the strength of the break in thought determines which mark is appropriate. | Commas are the least forceful of the 3 marks. There are definite rules for using commas; however, usage is often subjective. Some writers and editors use the comma frequently to indicate what they see as a natural pause in the flow of words, but commas can be overused. The trend is to use them sparingly.
Vibrio alebo vibrión[1] je rod patriaci do čeľade Vibrionaceae. Najdôležitejšími druhmi sú Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor (dnes považované skôr za variant v rámci druhu V. cholerae), pôvodcovia cholery. Okrem nich existujú ďalšie patogénne druhy, ktoré môžu vyvolať ochorenia tráviaceho traktu i celkové ochorenia človeka. Typickým znakom rodu je rast tejto skupiny vo vode a citlivosť na koncentrácie solí v nej.. ...
Vibrios are facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are metabolically similar to the Enterobacteriaceae. They are ubiquitous to oceans, coastal waters, and estuaries. The best known species is Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrheal illness in humans.The genus Vibrio consists of Gram-negative straight or curved rods, motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Vibrios are capable of both respiratory and fermentative metabolism.Classic cholera is characterised by an abrupt onset of vomiting and profuse watery diaorrhea. Fluid losses can be significant (up to 20 L/day) and hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis can cause death within a few hours of onset, especially in children. Mortality, in untreated cases, is as high as 60%. In the past 180 years, 7 pandemics were reported, usually of Bengali origin, with the latest pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961 and moving to the Western hemisphere. In 1991, a cholera outbreak in Peru and 20 other countries in the Western hemisphere ...
NR283 Quiz 1, NR283 Quiz 2, NR283 Quiz 3, NR283 Quiz 4, NR283 Quiz 5 (2019,Latest): Chamberlain College of Nursing (Verified Answers by GOLD rated Expert, Download to Score A)
Team:Cambridge/Templates/header}} {{:Team:Cambridge/LumNavTemplate}} ==Photinus Pyralis (Firefly Luciferase)== ==EPIC luciferase== ==Bacterial Bioluminescence== *[[Team:Cambridge/VibrioFischeri, Vibrio Fischeri]] *[[Team:Cambridge/VibrioHarvei, Vibrio Harveyi]] *[[Team:Cambridge/ProjectBioluminescence/Luciferase/WikiGeneticsLuxCDABE, Genetics of luxCDABE (adapted from wikipedia)]] *[http://parts.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Lux_operon, 2006 attempts at BioBricking the lux operon] *[[Team:Cambridge/ProjectBioluminescence/Luciferase/Notes, Notes]] *[http://partsregistry.org/Lux The lux wiki from parts registry] *[http://departments.kings.edu/biology/lux/bacterial.html Vibrio plasmid experiment] -possible source of lux operon *[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF170104.1?report=graph&log$=seqview NCBI Lux operon sequence] *[http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_G10001 parts registry lux operon] -currently waiting on an email to see how useful/available this part is ...
The original aim of this thesis was to utilise Vibrio harveyi luciferase as a reporter of the expression of cell division genes during the cell cycle. Several plasmids expressing luxAB genes from ftsZ promoters were constructed. To achieve maximal luciferase expression, the ribosome binding site in front of the luxA gene was improved, which led to increased expression of luciferase. The level of expression of the improved luciferase reporter from plasmids was sufficiently high to be detected in single cells, although not high enough to be used in lower copy number constructs. However, luciferase activity showed significant fluctuations that did not appear to be linked to cell cycle events. These fluctuations made the detection of any cell cycle related changes in luciferase expression impossible. Another direction of this thesis is represented by the studies on the topology of the cell shape determining RodA protein. The ampicillin resistance levels were measured in 52 fusions with the topology ...
... species account for a significant amount of foodborne illness, stemming from consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. Learn more about vibrio.
4E3R: Redesigning and characterizing the substrate specificity and activity of Vibrio fluvialis aminotransferase for the synthesis of imagabalin.
[200 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Vibrio: US, Europe, Japan--Market Analysis, Competitive Intelligence, Technology Trends, Opportunities for Suppliers report by Venture Planning Group. The report presents a detailed analysis of the Vibrio diagnostics...
The Vibrio harveyi cgtA gene product belongs to a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, called Obg-like proteins. Members of this subfamily are present in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. On the other hand, the functions of these proteins in the regulation of cellular processes are largely unknown. Genes coding for these proteins are essential in almost all bacteria investigated thus far. However, a viable V. harveyi insertional mutant in the cgtA gene was described recently. Therefore, this mutant gives a unique opportunity to study functions of a member of the subfamily of Obg-like proteins. Here we demonstrate that the mutant cells often form long filaments with expanded, non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome partition. Flow cytometric studies revealed that synchronization of chromosome replication initiation is also significantly disturbed in the cgtA mutant. Moreover, in contrast to ...
Vibrio halioticoli is a non-flagellated, bacilli shaped bacterium. Vibrio halioticoli cells are rod-shaped, with rounded ends, and are 0.6-0.8 micrometers in diameter and 1.7-2.0 micrometers long when the organism is grown in ZoBell 2216E broth, but cells are spherical shaped 0.7-1.0 micrometers in diameter and 1.0-1.6 micrometers long when the organism is grown in ZoBell2216E broth containing alginate; the cells occur singly in the broth, or in irregular clusters, or chained in the broth containing alginate. No endospores or capsules are formed. Colonies on ZoBell 2216E agar are beige, circular, smooth and convex with entire edge. Sodium ion is essential for growth. Mesophilic and neutrophilic chemo-organotroph which grows at 15-30 degrees Celsius. No growth occurs at 40 degrees Celsius. (Sawabe, 1998) ...
Vibrio Testing Market 2021: Sales Segment Forecasts by Country, Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Technologies, Instrumentation and Opportunities Vibrio Testing Market 2021: Sales Segment Forecasts by Country, - Market research report and industry analysis - 11143451
A Pseudomonas sp PS-102 recovered from Muttukkadu brackish water lagoon, situated south of Chennai, showed significant activity against a number of shrimp pathogenic vibrios. Out of the 112 isolates of bacterial pathogens comprising Vibrio harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis, and Aeromonas spp, 73% were inhibited in vitro by the cell-free culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sp PS-102 isolate. The organism produced yellowish fluorescent pigment on Kings B medium, hydrolysed starch and protein, and produced 36.4% siderophore units by CAS assay and 32 μM of catechol siderophores as estimated by Arnows assay. The PS-102 isolate showed wide ranging environmental tolerance with, temperatures from 25 to 40 °C, pH from 6 to 8, salinity from 0 to 36 ppt, while the antagonistic activity peaked in cultures grown at 30 °C, pH 8.0 and at 5 ppt saline conditions. The antagonistic activity of the culture supernatant was evident even at 30% v / v dilution against V. ...
PI: Martin Polz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aoy Tomita, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Project Number:2000-RC-75. Start Date:2000-03-01End Date:2002-02-28. Proposal Summary. Objectives: To develop and apply molecular techniques that allow the quantification of diversity and abundance of pathogenic vibrios in marine environmental sampels. To design and test ribosomal DNA specific primers for the identification of specific vibrios in complex communities. To adapt and optimize Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE) for the separation and quantification of specific amplification products. To develop a competitive, quantitative PCR protocol for the enumeration of the dominant vibrio species in coastal environments and for the determination of vibrio diversity. To test these protocols in environmental samples.. Methodology: To date, identification and enumeration of pathogens in the environment is still largely carried out by culturing the bacteria in specific media. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Although not as conspicuous as charismatic marine animals and plants, bacteria play an important role in the function of marine habitats. Most species are harmless to humans and provide valuable ecosystem services. However, some species are pathogenic and can pose a significant threat to both marine organisms and human health.. This important study reveals the widespread occurrence of a key group of marine pathogens - bacteria from the Vibrio genus, a group of bacteria that includes the causative agent of cholera - within the Sydney Harbour estuary.. "We believe our observations are essential for predicting future risks and hotspots for pathogen outbreaks," says lead author Dr Nachshon Siboni, a marine microbial marine ecologist in the Ocean Microbes and Healthy Oceans Research Program within the Climate Change Cluster (C3) at UTS.. Read more at Frontiers in Microbiology and UTS. Related: ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Im only halfway through my college career, but I feel like I am a decent English major. Ive taken all the classes on grammar that Im going to take and I can write a solid essay under the right circumstances. For me, learning grammar wasnt the desirable part of being an English major. I was interested in finding out how meaning is conveyed in a story. I was interested in learning how authors weave language into emotion. I was not interested in learning about comma splices and semicolons. The professors here taught me smidgens of grammar despite my resistance. I wont be diagramming your sentences anytime soon and if you read this blog you will find typographical and grammatical errors aplenty, but comma splices are a particularly grievous error I attempt to avoid. In the same way that listening to the Pachelbel Rant makes it so you cant unhear Pachelbels canon in every modern pop song and the Death Star will always look like the AT&T logo after someone points it out, once you know what a ...
The comma operator is a hackish operator pretty much by definition - its to hack in 2 things where only one is allowed. Its almost always ugly, but sometimes thats all youve got. And thats the only time you should use it - if you have another option, dont use the comma operator.. Off the top of my head I cant think of too many other reasons to use the operator, since you can get a similar effect by evaluating the expressions in separate statements in most other situations (though Im sure that someone will comment on a another use that Ive overlooked).. ...
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NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 1, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 2, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 3, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 4, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 5 (2019,Latest ): Chamberlain College of Nursing (Verified Answers by GOLD rated Expert, Download to Score A
NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 1, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 2, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 3, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 4, NR283 Pathophysiology Quiz 5 (2019,Latest ): Chamberlain College of Nursing (Verified Answers by GOLD rated Expert, Download to Score A
Séneca, repositorio institucional de la Universidad de los Andes, que permite la conservación, el libre acceso, la consulta de documentos y datos generados por la comunidad Uniandina, como resultado de los procesos de investigación y creación académica o científica.
Walter, T. Chad (2008). Boeckella fluvialis Henry, 1922. In: Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2017). World of Copepods database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=349227 on 2017-12- ...
Even though bacteria live their lives as single-celled entities, they still need to keep up to date with what their neighbors, friendly and otherwise, are doing. In a process called quorum sensing, Vibrio harveyi monitors its surroundings via two protein phosphorylation pathways that produce and detect autoinducers 1 and 2 (AI-1 and AI-2). The first is restricted to V. harveyi and a close relative, whereas the second is found in a wide variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Mok et al. identify a number of target genes whose expression is regulated by AI-2. From an analysis of the responses of these genes to combinations of AI-1 and AI-2, they propose that this pair of pathways may serve as a coincidence detector, primarily designed to signal the presence of both inducers and, in essence, acting as an AND gate. - GJC. EMBO J.22, 870 (2003).. ...
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Test and improve your knowledge of SBA ELA - Grades 6-8: Comma Rules with fun multiple choice exams you can take online with Study.com
This is a very common request recently - How to import CSV file into SQL Server? How to load CSV file into SQL Server Database Table? How to load comma del
Teachers have attacked the "punctuation police" who have marked down childrens SATs for incorrectly drawn commas and semi-colons.
In a comparison of 2 formalin killed vaccines, SHAWOGEN using an isolate (AVC U-13220) of Vibrio anguillarum (serotype 2) isolated from cod, and a ...
The bacterium Vibrio natriegens grows even faster than E. coli, and it could cut in half the amount of time geneticists spend on routine experiments.
These should be used to separate thoughts in a sentence, and to put into sentences places where one would normally pause, if saying the sentence aloud. It is also important to put commas around phrases that modify a noun. A comma is not used before the word "and" when it is used to connect two thoughts, or two items in a list. If there are three or more items in a list, or three or more ideas in a sentence, then there should be a comma preceding the final "and". ...
Faster removal of organic bottom sludge and toxic metabolites in pond soil and water. Maintain healthy pond ecosystem for faster growth and productivity.
All about reputation management and image communication. Examples of Shitstorms and the reputation strategy in a crisis and an overview of the tools of the professionals.
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Small-molecule inhibitor of HlyU attenuates virulence of Vibrio species / Z W Lee; Byoung Sik Kim; K K Jang; Y J Bang; S Kim; N C Ha; Y H Jung; H J Lee; H J Han; J S Kim; J Kim; P K Sahu; L S Jeong; Myung Hee Kim; S H Choi , 2019 ...
Display restriction enzyme binding sites in a nucleotide sequence Version: EMBOSS:6.5.0.0 Standard (Mandatory) qualifiers: [-sequence] seqall Nucleotide sequence(s) filename and optional format, or reference (input USA) -enzymes string [all] The name all reads in all enzyme names from the REBASE database. You can specify enzymes by giving their names with commas between then, such as: HincII,hinfI,ppiI,hindiii. The case of the names is not important. You can specify a file of enzyme names to read in by giving the name of the file holding the enzyme names with a @ character in front of it, for example, @enz.list. Blank lines and lines starting with a hash character or ! are ignored and all other lines are concatenated together with a comma character , and then treated as the list of enzymes to search for. An example of a file of enzyme names is: ! my enzymes HincII, ppiII ! other enzymes hindiii HinfI PpiI (Any string) -sitelen integer [4] This sets the minimum length of the ...
vanam ,vgvr620034 at gmail.com, wrote , For standard input from the keyboard raw_input will be used for , string and , input for number. input can read more than numbers. It will take whatever you type and try to evaluate it as a Python expression. Thats why input is so dangerous and should be avoided in programs you are distributing since a malicious user could enter a command that destroys your data (or worse!). But for your own use you can do things like: ,,, L = input(Enter a list: ) Enter a list: [1,2,3,4,five] ,,, print L [1, 2, 3, 4, five] ,,, In real programs its better to use raw_input and convert the string to the expected value, hence to read a number: n = int( raw_input(enter a number: ) ) to read a list you need to split the input string by some agreed separator, say commas: L = raw_input(enter a comma separated list: ) L = L.split(,) HTH, -- Alan Gauld Author of the Learn to Program web site http://www.freenetpages.co.uk/hp/alan.gauld ...
That looks really good. Is there a way to extract the values (rather than count them) and place the results in column C?. For example:. Cell B3 ("jj,oo,pp"). In column C3, it returns "2" as 2 of the values in cell B3 were found in column A. However, I am after which 2 values were found in column A. i.e. I am after a formula that returns "jj,pp") in cell c3 rather than "2". is this possible ...
Currently information on the equipment call out is all grouped together without separation. We have had this requested several times by our clients who would like this changed on our drawings. To currently meet this request we are spending to much time adjusting these individually. ...
the answer for process B ; assume the Irvine32 library is installed During this folder ; update if Its not. contain C:IrvineIrvine32.inc includelib C:IrvineIrvine32.lib .386 .stack 4096 ExitProcess PROTO,dwExitCode:DWORD .details prompt1 BYTE The biggest selection within the sequence which fits within a 32-bit sign up is , 0 prompt2 BYTE The value of n in sum(n) which generates the largest variety is , 0 comma BYTE , .code major PROC ; pseudocode, use unsigned integers ; sum = 0 ; stage = one ; while (genuine) ; newsum = sum + phase; ; if (newsum , 0) break; ; else ; sum = newsum; ; action = phase + one; ; print sum and a comma; ; ; ; print The end result (sum and stage - one) ; mov eax, 0 ; sum = 0 mov ecx, one ; next stage = 1 up coming: ; endeavor to make the next price during the sequence mov edx, eax add edx, ecx ; edx = eax + ecx, the new sum ; Test If your have flag is ready jc accomplished ; if not, print the value and go on increase new worth from the sequence mov eax, edx simply ...
Autonomous-car startup Comma.ai has a product called Comma One, is a little green unit about the size of a VHS tape, is essentially deep-learning software meant to take sensor input and translate it into output controlling the car.
Its" is a short way to communicate "it is" or "it has." So, if youre having trouble figuring out whether or not to include the apostrophe, silently say the sentence with the extra word included. "Its" is one of those weird words that indicates possession, even though theres no apostrophe, so its easy to see how that gets confusing ...
Aparatoare fata pentru MTB cu flapsuri din TPR. Geometria special proiectata ofera o arie larga de protectie impotriva prafului si a apei; .. Fabricata din doua tipuri de material compozit. Potrivit pentru orice bicicleta 27.5" si 29" cu furca cu suspensie. Sistem de eliberare TurnFix, si poate fi fixata in interiorul gatului de furca cu dimensiuni de la 18,5 - 34,0 mm. ...
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Im using the following code to capitalize company names, etc. But when a company name is like ABC Co it capitalizes the ABC just fine but when I put a comma after it like ABC, Inc it changes it to...
Lenny and Steve discuss Tapizar/Comma to the Top/Brethren, NTRA Safety Alliance, Life At Ten, John Nerud and Honest Ableboy.Sponsored by Darby Dan Farm. ...
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Which sentence is a comma splice? a) While the lawer propared the case, her assistant checked the report she found no mistakes. b) Because all the members were early, the meeting got underway ahead of schedule. c) Dr.
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I obtain a paramater from the request: is a String that represents certain number, but with a comma as a thousand - separator (i.e : 1,456.12), is the
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Butucii DT Swiss 440 Freeride au fost proiectati pentru a rezista la orice abuz in probele downhill si freeride. La sfarsitul zilei butucii 440 sunt cel mai sus, indiferent daca vorbim despre treapta de sus a podiumului sau de cea mai mare saritura de pe vreo stanca ...
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Vibrio tapetis is the marine bacterium responsible for the brown ring disease (BRD) affecting die manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. Identification of V tapelis has been previously performed using...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Production of an extracellular copper-binding compound by the heterotrophic marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
article{1079318, abstract = {Facultative anaerobic marine bacteria isolated from cultured clams Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum were previously investigated using AFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses. The isolates formed two AFLP clusters and belonged to the genus Vibrio, more precisely to the Splendidus clade. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the housekeeping genes rpoA, rpoD, pyrH, atpA and recA supported their inclusion in that clade forming two well differentiated groups with respect to the rest of the species within the clade, and confirmed they formed two groups, separated from the rest of the species of the clade. DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrated that the isolates constitute two novel Vibrio species, which can be phenotypically differentiated from their closest relatives. The names Vibrio atlanticus sp. nov. and Vibrio artabrorum sp. nov. are proposed, with Vb 11.11T (=CECT 7223T =LMG 24300T) and Vb 11.8T (=CECT 7226T =LMG 23865T) as the ...
Farming of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, has become an important part of Norwegian aquaculture, but disease problems are frequent. Vibriosis caused by Vibrio splendidus has caused problems in aquaculture to early life stages of several marine species. It may also become a problem in cod hatcheries, as the bacterium is widely distributed in marine environments. The aim of the present study was to increase the understanding of V. splendidus infections in cod yolk sac larvae. Cod eggs were randomly selected from a single batch delivered by a commercial hatchery. Single eggs were transferred to wells in multi well dishes. Each well contained 2 ml of 80% aerated and sterile seawater. The eggs were challenged with 7 different strains of V. splendidus the same day as they arrived. The experiment did also include a negative control group consisting of unchallenged larvae and two positive control groups consisting of larvae challenged with two strains of Vibrio anguillarum. For each challenge strain 2 x 3 ...
Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)Â is one of the most important aquaculture commodity in Indonesia. However, the luminous disease primarily caused by Vibrio harveyi bacteria still becomes an obstacle in penaeid shrimp farming, especially in shrimp hatchery. This study was aimed to identify the presence of V. harveyi in L. vannamei through nested PCR using haemolysin gene primer. First, initial primers were designed using V. harveyi VIB 391 haemolysin gene sequence (accession number: DQ640264), flanking the position 133 to 756. This primer pairs were used to identify haemolysin gene in both V. harveyi MR5339 and V. harveyi 275 strain. Sequencing results from each sample showed 99% similarity with haemolysin gene sequence in Genebank. Furthermore, the sequence of V. harveyi MR5339 haemolysin gene was used to design the nested PCR primers. The first primer pairs of nested PCR have successfully amplified the haemolysin gene fragment of all V. harveyi strains samples from position 52 to 405. ...
The research was aimed to determine the present status of probiotics (Lactobacillus spp.) and pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio spp.) of culture pond as well as to determine whether the isolated probiotic Lactobacillus spp. can act as a controlling agent on experimentally pathogenic Vibrio spp. infected Penaeus monodon. In In-vitro test of gills and intestinal tracts, the potential antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus spp. toward Vibrio spp. was gradually observed at 4th hour of probiotic treatment. At 12th hour the viable count of Vibrio spp. was drastically reduced in gill from 2.33×105 to 1.03×103 (CFUg-1) and in intestinal tract 2.35×105 to 6.43×102 (CFUg-1). While, in In-vivo test, in case of muscle, gills and intestinal tract antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus spp. toward Vibrio spp. was noticed after 9 hours, 21 hours and 27 hours respectably of probiotic injected shrimps. However, only the result of in-vitro challenge test revealed that, Lactobacillus spp. significantly reduced the ...
lginate is a polysaccharide found within brown seaweeds and has been targeted as a carbon source for biofuel production. Alginate consists of α-L-guluronate (G) and β-D-mannuronate (M) linked in various patterns, which results in either a homo- or heteropolymeric structure. Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade the linkage between G and M blocks and can have specificity to either polyG, polyM, or polyMG block degradation. The marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus 12B01 contains four putative alginate lyases which were investigated in this study. We identified, purified, and characterized the four PL7 alginates lyases. We found that these lyases have optimal activity between pH 7.5-8.5 and 20-25°C, consistent with use in a marine environment. Additionally, Ca 2+ is necessary for optimal enzyme activity. The binding constant (K m ) of the lyases toward alginate was found to be between 22 and 123 mM alginate and the maximum reaction rate (V max ) was found to be between 0.13 and 0.83 μM s -1 . ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic activation of Vibrio mimicus (Vm) major outer membrane protein haemagglutinin (HA) with Vm-HA/Protease. T2 - Implication for understanding bacterial adherence. AU - Alam, Munirul. AU - Miyoshi, Shin Ichi. AU - Ahmed, Kabir Uddin. AU - Hasan, Nur A.. AU - Tomochika, Ken Ichi. AU - Shinoda, Sumio. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - Vibrio mimicus (Vm) haemagglutinins (HAs), such as an extracellular HA/protease (Vm-HA/protease) and a major outer membrane protein-HA (Vm-OMPHA), have been recognized as the putative adherence factors for the bacterium. However, the mechanism by which HAs coordinate the adherence function of the bacterium remains as yet unknown. We report herein the positive interaction between Vm-HA/protease and Vm-OMPHA resulting in significant enhancement of the haemagglutinating ability. In this interaction, no cleaved polypeptide was detected; however, limited proteolysis of Vm-OMPHA was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The proteolytic activation of the native ...
Vibrio proteolyticus vibriolysin protein: a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the marine microorganism Vibrio proteolyticus; amino acid sequence given in first source
In aquaculture, vibriosis is known as a major bacterial disease in fish culture systems and can cause considerable loss in terms of production and processing (Toranzo et al. 2005). Many Vibrio species have been recognized as fish pathogens that can cause infection with various symptoms. For example, Vibrio scophthalmi infection results in hemorrhage on fish body surface and inner surface of the abdomen, severe enteritis, and ascites (Qiao et al. 2012); Vibrio ichthyoenteri infection cause opaque intestines and necrotizing fasciitis with high mortality rates (Ishimaru et al. 1996; Lee et al. 2012); Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection causes diseases not only in fish, shrimp, oysters, and mussels, etc. (Montilla et al. 1994; Quintoil et al. 2007), but also is important in public health and causes gastrointestinal disorders in humans who ingest contaminated fish and shellfish (Kubota et al. 2008; Iwamoto et al. 2010); and Vibrio vulnificus has been associated with vibriosis outbreaks in fish and ...
A story map has been created to describe the different Vibrio Predictive Models produced by NCCOS. These predictive models help ensure oysters are harvested when they are safer to eat, assisting coastal managers and oyster growers in oyster harvest decision making nationwide.. Vibrio spp. are bacteria that occur naturally in our coastal waters. The majority of the cases annually are associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, usually resulting in self limiting gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw seafood. Vibrio vulnificus is another species of Vibrio bacteria that can cause human illness. Although cases are rare, Vibrio vulnificus infections stemming from water contact with open wounds or consumption can be serious and sometimes fatal.. The story map presents an assortment of predictive models and weather related tools to address issues surrounding safe harvest of shellfish around the nation. In partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, state and academic partners, NOAA is ...
Definition of vibrio salmonicida in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of vibrio salmonicida. What does vibrio salmonicida mean? Information and translations of vibrio salmonicida in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Although turbot is produced in substantial quantities in aquaculture in Europe the major limitation in expansion of the industry is the supply of juvenile fish for on- growing. High mortalities can occur during early life stages during the critical times of transition from yolk sac larvae to feeding on rotifers and Artemia. There is good evidence that microorganisms are the major cause of the problems associated with early-feeding, as improved survival is seen when antibiotics are used or when larvae are reared in bacteria-free conditions. Several studies have shown that the bacterial flora of the larval turbot gut originates from the food. However, high levels of certain bacteria in the gut flora are not harmful, rather it is particular bacterial types that appear to determine larval rearing success. The present study concentrated on determining the virulence mechanisms of Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 (biovar 1), which was isolated from a batch of turbot larvae suffering very high mortality at a ...
Coral microbiomes are known to play important roles in organismal health, response to environmental stress, and resistance to disease. The coral microbiome contains diverse assemblages of resident bacteria, ranging from defensive and metabolic symbionts to opportunistic bacteria that may turn harmful in compromised hosts. However, little is known about how these bacterial interactions influence the mechanism and controls of overall structure, stability, and function of the microbiome. We sought to test how coral microbiome dynamics were affected by interactions between two bacteria: Vibrio coralliilyticus, a known temperature-dependent pathogen of some corals, and Halobacteriovorax, a unique bacterial predator of Vibrio and other gram-negative bacteria. We challenged reef-building coral with V. coralliilyticus in the presence or absence of Halobacteriovorax predators, and monitored microbial community dynamics with 16S rRNA gene profiling time-series. Vibrio coralliilyticus inoculation increased the
Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Vibrio splendidus UCD-SED7 and UCD-SED10 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding Zostera marina roots near the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega, Bay, California). These assemblies contain 5,334,236 bp and 5,904,824 bp, respectively. ...
Vibrio coralliilyticus is a global marine pathogen that has been found to cause disease in several marine organisms, including corals. This study is the first report of the isolation of V. coralliilyticus from a diseased Caribbean octocoral, Pseudopterogorgia americana. Five sister phylotypes were positively identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, recA probes specific for V. coralliilyticus, and rep-PCR fingerprinting. The antimicrobial resistance was compared between pathogenic strains of V. coralliilyticus and the Caribbean strains. First, the antimicrobial resistance of V. coralliilyticus-type strain ATCC BAA-450 was determined using an agar-overlay antimicrobial bioassay at 24°C and 27°C, temperatures which are relevant to its known temperature-dependent virulence. From 108 distinct bacteria isolated from P. americana, 12 inhibited the V. coralliilyticus-type strain at 24°C and five at 27°C. Next, the phenotypic comparison of two Caribbean phylotypes and three V. coralliilyticus ...