BioAssay record AID 406643 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum serotype O2b 04/09/367-5043 isolate containing gyrA position 83 Ser-Ile substitution mutation from Atlantic cod at 30 ug by disc diffusion assay.
Vibrio costicola grown in the presence of different NaCl concentrations contains cell-associated Na+ and K+ ions whose sum is equal to or greater than the external Na+ concentration. In the presence of 0.5 M NaCl, virtually no in vitro protein is synthesized in extracts of cells grown in 1.0 M NaCl. However, we report here that active in vitro protein synthesis occurred in 0.6 M or higher concentrations of Na2SO4, sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium aspartate, or sodium glutamate, whereas 0.6 M NaF, NaCl, or NaBr completely inhibited protein synthesis as measured by polyuridylic acid-directed incorporation of [14C]phenylalanine. Sodium glutamate, sodium aspartate, and betaine (0.3 M) counteracted the inhibitory action of 0.6 M NaCl. The cell-associated Cl- concentration was 0.22 mol/kg in cells grown in 1.0 M NaCl. Of this, the free intracellular Cl- concentration was only 0.02 mol/kg. Cells contained 0.11 mol of glutamate per kg and small concentrations of other amino acids. All of the ...
In developing countries, the fraction of treated wastewater effluents being discharged into watersheds have increased over the period of time, which have led to the deteriorations of the qualities of major rivers in developing nations. Consequently, high densities of disease causing bacteria in the watersheds are regularly reported including incidences of emerging Vibrio fluvialis. Vibrio fluvialis infection remains among those infectious diseases posing a potentially serious threat to public health. This paper addresses the epidemiology of this pathogen; pathogenesis of its disease; and its clinical manifestations in humans.
Vibrio harveyi BAA-1116 (and its derived mutants in panel MP-6) has been reclassified as Vibrio campbellii based on microarray comparative genome hybridization and multilocus sequence analysis. RefLin B, et al. Comparative genomic analyses identify the Vibrio harveyi genome sequenced strains BAA-1116 and HY01 as Vibrio campbellii. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 2(1): 81-89, 2010. PubMed: 20686623
Vibrio strains isolated from plankton, sediments, and seawater in two coastal areas south of Valencia, Spain, were genotypically and phenotypically different from other Vibrio species. The guanine-plus-cytosyine content of the strains was 43 mol%. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization studies revealed that the strains were genetically homogeneous and exhibited very low levels of genetic relatedness to Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802T(T = type strain) (0%), Vibrio harveyi NCMB 1280T(11%), Vibrio vulnificus NCMB 2046T(7%), Vibrio nereis NCMB 1897T(0%), Vibrio natriengens NCMB (9%), and Vibrio splendidus NCMB 1T(0%). Strain CECT 621 of the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo was designated the type strain of the proposed new species Vibrio mediterranei.
Vibrio fluvialis is a halophilic Vibrio species associated with acute diarrhoeal illness in humans. It has the potential to cause outbreaks and has an association with paediatric diarrhoea. In this study, 11 V. fluvialis strains isolated from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhoea at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata were extensively characterized. All the strains showed growth in peptone broth containing 7 % NaCl. The strains showed variable results in Voges-Proskauer test and to a vibriostatic agent. There was also variation in their antibiograms, and some of the strains were multidrug resistant. Among the 11 strains, two showed only a single band difference in their PFGE profile and the remaining strains showed nine different PFGE patterns. However, unlike PFGE, the strains exhibited close matches and clustering in their ribotype patterns. The haemolytic effect on sheep red blood cells varied with strains. Partial sequence analysis revealed that the V. fluvialis haemolysin gene has 81 %
16S rRNA from seven different Vibrio anguillarum strains was partially sequenced and compared. From this sequence information we could design a 25-base-long oligonucleotide and use it as a specific probe for identification of V. anguillarum. This was determined by RNA-DNA colony hybridization and slot-blot hybridization. Strong, specific hybridization to the probe was observed for all V. anguillarum strains tested. Furthermore, no cross-hybridization could be seen against five other bacterial species. The detection limit was 5 x 10(3) bacteria per ml. It was even possible to detect V. anguillarum, by slot-blot hybridization, directly in a homogenized kidney from a fish that had died of vibriosis. The partial sequence information revealed small but significant differences between strains of the same species. These sequence differences are sufficiently significant to allow serotyping on the RNA level. Comparing strains of different serotypes revealed a 10-base and an 11-base difference in V. ...
Numerous prevalence studies of Vibrio spp. infection in fish have been extensively reported worldwide, including Malaysia. Unfortunately, information on the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in groupers (Epinephelus spp.) is limited. In this study, groupers obtained from nine farms located at different geographical regions in Malaysia were sampled for the presence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their susceptibility profiles against seven antibiotics. Out of 270 grouper samples, 195 (72%) were detected with the presence of Vibrio spp. Vibrio communis showed highest prevalence in grouper (28%), followed by V. parahaemolyticus (25%), V. alginolyticus (19%), V. vulnificus (14%), V. rotiferianus (3%), Vibrio sp. (3%), V. campbellii (2%), V. mytili (2%), V. furnissii (2%), V. harveyi (1%), V. tubiashii (1%), V. fluvialis (0.3%) and V. diabolicus (0.3%). Assessment on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the Vibrio spp. revealed that majority of the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin,
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process enabling a bacterial population to communicate via small molecules called autoinducers (Als). This intercellular communication process allows single cells to synchronize their behavior within a population. The marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi ATCC BAA-1116 channels the information of three Al signals into one QS cascade. Three receptors perceive these Als, the hybrid histidine kinases LuxN, Lux(P)Q and CqsS, to transduce the information to the histidine phosphotransfer (HPt) protein LuxU via phosphorelay, and finally to the response regulator LuxO. Hence, the level of phosphorylated LuxO depends on the Al concentrations. The phosphorylated LuxO (P-LuxO) controls the expression of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which together with the RNA chaperon Hfq, destabilize the transcript of the master regulator luxR. LuxR is responsible for the induction and repression of several genes (e.g., for bioluminescence, exoprotease and siderophore production). In vivo studies with ...
The enzymes for luminescence in Vibrio fischeri are induced by the accumulation of a species-specific metabolite (autoinducer) in the culture medium. Tritium-labeled autoinducer was used to study the mechanism of autoinduction. When 3H-autoinducer was added to suspensions of V. fischeri or Escherichia coli, cellular concentrations equaled external concentrations. For V. fischeri, equilibration of 3H-autoinducer was rapid (within 20 s), and greater than 90% of the cellular tritium remained in unmodified autoinducer. When V. fischeri or E. coli cells containing 3H-autoinducer were transferred to autoinducer-free buffer, 85 to 99.5% of the radiotracer escaped from the cells, depending on the strain. Concentrations of autoinducer as low as 10 nM, which is equivalent to 1 or 2 molecules per cell, were sufficient for induction, and the maximal response to autoinducer occurred at about 200 nM. If external autoinducer concentrations were decreased to below 10 nM after induction had commenced, the ...
Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar (TCBS Agar) is used for the selective isolation of Vibrio cholera and Vibrio parahaemolyticus from a variety of clinical and nonclinical specimens.. TCBS is the primary plating medium universally used for the selective isolation of vibrios that cause cholera, diarrhea and food poisoning. It was developed by Kobayashi et al., who modified the selective medium of Nakanishi. The combination of alkaline peptone water and TCBS Agar is used in many procedures for the isolation of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species from feces.. ...
faeces;faeces from patient with diarrhoea VL 5125 ATCC 33809; VL 5125; WDCM 00137 Vibrio fluvialis serovar group f ISOLATED BY HUG I 1976 - LEE J V PHLS MAIDSTONE
Scale drop and muscle necrosis disease with high mortality widely occurred recently in the hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂), a crucial cultured marine fish species in China. In this study, 30 Harveyi clade isolates of 27 Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from diseased hybrid groupers in the south‐east and north‐east coastal areas of China. A total of 22 V. harveyi strains were determined to be pathogenic, and most challenged fish died within 2 days of infection; surviving individuals exhibited scale drop and deep dermal lesions as naturally diseased fish. Although five typical virulence genes, including luxR, toxRVₕ, chiA, serine protease and vhh widely existed in V. harveyi, no obvious correlation was established between virulent strains and virulence genes harboured in them. Furthermore, multiple antibiotic resistance was widely exhibited in Harveyi clade strains, particularly for penicillins, polypeptides, lincomycins, acetylspiramycin, ...
Proteorhodopsin (PR), a ubiquitous membrane photoprotein in marine environments, acts as a light-driven proton pump and can provide energy for bacterial cellular metabolism. However, knowledge of factors that regulate PR gene expression in different bacteria remains strongly limited. Here, experiments with Vibrio sp. AND4 showed that PR phototrophy promoted survival only in cells from stationary phase and not in actively growing cells. PR gene expression was tightly regulated, with very low values in exponential phase, a pronounced peak at the exponential/stationary phase intersection, and a marked decline in stationary phase. Thus, PR gene expression at the entry into stationary phase preceded, and could therefore largely explain, the stationary phase light-induced survival response in AND4. Further experiments revealed nutrient limitation, not light exposure, regulated this differential PR expression. Screening of available marine vibrios showed that the PR gene, and thus the potential for PR ...
بكتيريا الفيبريو وهي مجموعة من البكتيريا سالبة الجرام التي تصيب في الأساس أسماك المياه المالحة والشروب. بكتيريا الفيبريو توجد بصورة كثيفة في مياه البحر الملوثة و خصوصا تلك الملوثة بمياه الصرف الصحي. في الدراسة الحالية تم عزل وتصنيف عدد أربعة عترات من ميكروب الفيبريو من أسماك المرجان العادي التي تم تجميعها من المنطقة الساحلية لطرابلس خلال موسم 2014 حتي موسم الربيع 2015 . تم تحديد هوية العترات المعزولة والتأكيد علي انها ميكروب V. Parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio alginolyticus وباستخدام بعض التقنيات البيوكيميائية التقليدية و تقنية API20E. وأكدت الاختبارات اتفاق ...
This project is complete.. Goals. Several strains of Vibrio species will be sequenced under this project. The goal is to identify the specific genes and/or polymorphisms that are correlated with expression of virulence and disease via comparative genomic analysis. This work will increase our knowledge of the virulence of this understudied biothreat pathogen and provide a foundation for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic countermeasures. Several strains of Vibrio cholerae and closely related Vibrio species have been approved for sequencing under this project.. Data Release. Chromatogram Files: We will submit all sequences and trace files (chromatograms) generated under this project to the Trace Archive at NCBI. These data will also include information on templates, vectors, and quality values for each sequence.. Genome Assemblies:We will assemble and release the sequences for the three Vibrio strains being sequenced to 8X at the 3X coverage. A second data release will occur once 8X ...
beets, bell peppers, black beans, black olives, broccoli, celery, cherry tomatoes, chickpeas, corn, crispy onions, croutons, cucumbers, grapes, golden raisins, granny smith apples, green peas, jalapeños, mandarin orange, mushrooms, onions, red beans, roasted peppers, scallions, shredded carrots, sprouts, sunflower seeds, tortilla strips, water chestnuts, wonton strips ...
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester, is a member of a family of signaling molecules used in quorum sensing. AI-2 is one of only a few known biomolecules incorporating boron. First identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, AI-2 is produced and recognized by many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. AI-2 arises by the reaction of 1-deoxy-3-dehydro-D-ribulose, which is produced enzymatically, with boric acid and is recognized by the two-component sensor kinase LuxPQ in Vibrionaceae. AI-2 is actively transported by the Lsr ABC-type transporter into the cell in Enterobacteriaceae and few other bacterial taxa (Pasteurella, Photorhabdus, Haemophilus, Bacillus), where it is phosphorylated by LsrK . Then, Phospho-AI-2 binds the transcriptional repressor protein, LsrR, which subsequently is released from the promoter/operator region of the lsr operon - and transcription of the lsr genes is initiated. AI-2 signalling is also regulated by glucose and cAMP/CRP via the lsr operon. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression, purification, characterization, and pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi hemolysin VHH. AU - Zhong, Yingbin. AU - Zhang, Xiao H.. AU - Chen, Jixiang. AU - Chi, Zhenghao. AU - Sun, Boguang. AU - Li, Yun. AU - Austin, Brian. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Vibrio harveyi VHH hemolysin is a putative pathogenicity factor in fish. In this study, the hemolysin gene vhhA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified VHH was characterized with regard to pH and temperature profiles, phospholipase activity, cytotoxicity, pathogenicity to flounder, and the signal peptide. Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.. AB - Vibrio harveyi VHH hemolysin is a putative pathogenicity factor in fish. In this study, the hemolysin gene vhhA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified VHH was characterized with regard to pH and temperature profiles, phospholipase activity, cytotoxicity, pathogenicity to flounder, and the signal peptide. ...
FIG 2 Production of FlaEF and their roles in motility and flagellation of V. vulnificus. (A and B) FlaE and FlaF. Cell lysates and the culture supernatants were prepared from the wild-type, ΔflaABCD, and ΔflaJ strains of V. vulnificus. Sixty micrograms of crude cell extracts (A) and 2 μg of the concentrated proteins in culture supernatants (B) were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies reacting with all the flagellin-like proteins from FlaA to FlaF. As loading controls for cell lysate and culture supernatant, the antibodies specific to IIAGlc and OmpU were utilized, respectively. The ΔflaJ strain was included as a negative control in this assay. Each immunoreactive band detected by specific antibodies is indicated with an arrow. Numbers on the left sides of the blots are molecular weight markers, in kilodaltons. (C) Motility on a soft agar plate. Fresh cultures of ΔflaABCD, flaE::nptI, ΔflaF, and ΔflaEF strains were spotted onto a soft agar ...
The genus Vibrio is a metabolically diverse group of facultative anaerobic bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbionts with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of ...
Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus.
The genus Vibrio includes serious human pathogens, such as V. vulnificus (Vv) and V. cholerae (Vc). Some species infect shellfish, such as Vibrio nigripulchritudo (Vn), which is a shrimp pathogen. Vibrio species encode PecS, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors. PecS is encoded by the pecS gene and expression is auto regulatory. The pecS gene is divergently oriented to pecM, which encodes an efflux pump. Vibrio species feature frequent duplication of pecS-pecM genes, which may facilitate how these species adapt from being free living motile bacteria in water columns to colonizing host tissues as biofilms to evade distinct environmental pressures. Vibrio vulnificus, commonly associated with consumption of undercooked oyster encodes a single pecS-pecM gene pair. Vv PecS was shown to bind two sites within the pecS-pecM (iSM) intergenic region with Kd = 0.3 ± 0.1 nM, a binding that is attenuated by purine ligands xanthine and urate. A unique DNA
Home. Vibrios are Gram-negative bacteria found in aquatic environments. These bacteria show a wide range of niche specialization, from free-living forms to those attached to biotic and abiotic surfaces and from symbionts to pathogens. In addition to human pathogens such as V. cholerae, V. parahemolyticus and V. vulnificus, vibrios have been associated with disease in numerous aquatic organisms, including coral, shrimp and oysters, and infections due to these pathogens have profound environmental and economic consequences. Not surprisingly, the vibrio genus provides models for extremely diverse scientists, including those who study ecology, evolution, genome plasticity and maintenance, gene regulation, bacterial pathogenesis and host microbe interactions, bacterial social behavior and epidemiology. To foster interactions between these diverse communities, we invite all scientists who work on vibrios to participate at the next Vibrio conference at the Marine Biological Station of Roscoff in 2016. ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves the generation of a single-stranded region of DNA, followed by strand invasion, formation of a Holliday junction, DNA synthesis using the intact strand as a template, branch migration and resolution. It is investigated that RecA/Rad51 family proteins play a central role. The breast cancer susceptibility protein Brca2 and the RecQ helicase BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through HR ...
Vibrio harveyi is a bioluminescent bacterium and the organism in which quorum sensing was discovered. It was recently found that a class of molecules, cyclic dipeptides, may be a new kind of quorum sensing signal that may affect other species in the genus. The purpose of this study was to determine if V. harveyi produced one of these molecules, cyclo(Phe-Pro) or cFP, and the effects it has on bioluminescence, growth and gene expression. Electrospray Mass Spectrometry was used to detect cFP, and it was found. While growth and gene expression were not significantly affected by cFP, bioluminescence was slightly induced at low concentrations. It appears that V. harveyi does not produce cFP and it does not significantly affect the luminescence quorum sensing controlled genes, and is most likely not a true signal, in V. harveyi.
Vibrio are bacteria that can lead to an infection called vibriosis. Vibrio are found naturally in saltwater and are common to the coastal waters in the United States and Canada. You can get sick after eating raw or undercooked shellfish (such as oysters, clams, mussels, lobster or crab) or by exposing a wound or broken skin to seawater. Vibrio infection is more common during summer months. Any person can get vibriosis. People with liver disease, cancer or a weakened immune system are most at risk for getting very sick. ...
4E3R: Redesigning and characterizing the substrate specificity and activity of Vibrio fluvialis aminotransferase for the synthesis of imagabalin.
Richards, G.P., Watson, M.A., Madison, D., Soffer, N., Needleman, D.S., Soroka, D.S., Uknalis, J., Baranzoni, G., Church, K.M., Poison, S.W., Elston, R., Langdon, C., Sulakvelictze, A. 2021. Bacteriophages against Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii: Isolation, characterization and remediation of larval oyster mortalities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 87. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00008-21 ...
The membrane lipid composition of living cells generally adjusts to the prevailing environmental and physiological conditions. In this study, membrane activity and lipid composition of the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio sp. DSM14379, grown aerobically in a peptone-yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.76, 3, 5 or 10% (w/v) NaCl, was determined. The ability of the membrane to reduce a spin label was studied by EPR spectroscopy under different salt concentrations in cell suspensions labeled with TEMPON. For lipid composition studies, cells were harvested in a late exponential phase and lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol-water, 1:2:0.8 (v/v). The lipid polar head group and acyl chain compositions were determined by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographies. 31P-NMR spectroscopy was used to study the phase behaviour of the cell lipid extracts with 20 wt.% water contents in a temperature range from −10 to 50 °C. The results indicate that the ability of the membrane to reduce ...
Commas are the least forceful of the 3 marks. There are definite rules for using commas; however, usage is often subjective. Some writers and editors use the comma frequently to indicate what they see as a natural pause in the flow of words, but commas can be overused. The trend is to use them sparingly. Follow the accepted rules and use commas only when breaks are needed for sense or readability or to avoid confusion or misinterpretation. The comma is used to separate phrases, clauses, and groups of words and to clarify the grammatical structure and the intended meaning. Use
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Sailors have long reported miraculous sightings of luminous, glowing seawater. Consider Captain Kingman s report, made in the dead of night in June, 1854, in the ocean south of Java, Indonesia. The whole appearance of the ocean was like a plain covered with snow, Kingman wrote. Ocean-going myth? It turns out that the stories are true.. The milky sea effect of constant light over a wide area comes from the luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi, living alongside microalgal blooms. In order to create the effect of a milky sea, the populations of these bacteria are, as predicted, phenomenally large. Each contains an estimated 200 times more than the number of background, free-living bacteria spread over the continental shelf waters of all the oceans put together.. Scientists gained the first ever pictures of the milky sea effect in the fall of 2005. The photos, gleaned from images taken by the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, show a glowing portion of the ocean that s about the size of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression, pruification, characterisation and pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi hemolysin VHH. AU - Zhong, Y. AU - Zhang, X-H. AU - Chen, J. AU - Chi, Z. AU - Sun, B. AU - Li, Y. AU - Austin, Brian. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. M3 - Article. VL - 74/10. SP - 6001. EP - 6005. JO - Infection and Immunity. JF - Infection and Immunity. SN - 0019-9567. ER - ...
Vibrio harveyi ATCC ® 700106™ Designation: BB721 TypeStrain=False Application: Produces light, expression of luminescence not being influenced by culture density
Commas, semicolons, and colons can be used to indicate a break or pause in thought, to set off material, or to introduce a new but connected thought. Each has specific uses, and the strength of the break in thought determines which mark is appropriate. | Commas are the least forceful of the 3 marks. There are definite rules for using commas; however, usage is often subjective. Some writers and editors use the comma frequently to indicate what they see as a natural pause in the flow of words, but commas can be overused. The trend is to use them sparingly.
Cuddys mother, Arlene, is admitted to Princeton Plansboro after complaining about unusual symptoms, but stubborn Arlene insists that House be removed from the case, forcing House to come up with non-conventional - and illegal - means to treat his patient. House instructs his team to follow his lead, and they discover details in Arlenes personal life that she kept secret from Cuddy and her sister Lucinda. Meanwhile, Taubs ex-wife, Rachel, puts him in contact with her brother who hires Taub to work a job on the side in exchange for much-needed income, which winds up taking a physical and emotional toll on him. Later, Cuddy places her trust in House to ensure that her mother receives the proper medical treatment, leading “by the book medical student Masters to reevaluate her responsibility to practice within a code of ethics and to follow her boss orders.. ...
Vibrio alebo vibrión[1] je rod patriaci do čeľade Vibrionaceae. Najdôležitejšími druhmi sú Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor (dnes považované skôr za variant v rámci druhu V. cholerae), pôvodcovia cholery. Okrem nich existujú ďalšie patogénne druhy, ktoré môžu vyvolať ochorenia tráviaceho traktu i celkové ochorenia človeka. Typickým znakom rodu je rast tejto skupiny vo vode a citlivosť na koncentrácie solí v nej.. ...
Vibrios are facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are metabolically similar to the Enterobacteriaceae. They are ubiquitous to oceans, coastal waters, and estuaries. The best known species is Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrheal illness in humans.The genus Vibrio consists of Gram-negative straight or curved rods, motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Vibrios are capable of both respiratory and fermentative metabolism.Classic cholera is characterised by an abrupt onset of vomiting and profuse watery diaorrhea. Fluid losses can be significant (up to 20 L/day) and hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis can cause death within a few hours of onset, especially in children. Mortality, in untreated cases, is as high as 60%. In the past 180 years, 7 pandemics were reported, usually of Bengali origin, with the latest pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961 and moving to the Western hemisphere. In 1991, a cholera outbreak in Peru and 20 other countries in the Western hemisphere ...
NR283 Quiz 1, NR283 Quiz 2, NR283 Quiz 3, NR283 Quiz 4, NR283 Quiz 5 (2019,Latest): Chamberlain College of Nursing (Verified Answers by GOLD rated Expert, Download to Score A)
Team:Cambridge/Templates/header}} {{:Team:Cambridge/LumNavTemplate}} ==Photinus Pyralis (Firefly Luciferase)== ==EPIC luciferase== ==Bacterial Bioluminescence== *[[Team:Cambridge/VibrioFischeri, Vibrio Fischeri]] *[[Team:Cambridge/VibrioHarvei, Vibrio Harveyi]] *[[Team:Cambridge/ProjectBioluminescence/Luciferase/WikiGeneticsLuxCDABE, Genetics of luxCDABE (adapted from wikipedia)]] *[http://parts.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Lux_operon, 2006 attempts at BioBricking the lux operon] *[[Team:Cambridge/ProjectBioluminescence/Luciferase/Notes, Notes]] *[http://partsregistry.org/Lux The lux wiki from parts registry] *[http://departments.kings.edu/biology/lux/bacterial.html Vibrio plasmid experiment] -possible source of lux operon *[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF170104.1?report=graph&log$=seqview NCBI Lux operon sequence] *[http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_G10001 parts registry lux operon] -currently waiting on an email to see how useful/available this part is ...
The original aim of this thesis was to utilise Vibrio harveyi luciferase as a reporter of the expression of cell division genes during the cell cycle. Several plasmids expressing luxAB genes from ftsZ promoters were constructed. To achieve maximal luciferase expression, the ribosome binding site in front of the luxA gene was improved, which led to increased expression of luciferase. The level of expression of the improved luciferase reporter from plasmids was sufficiently high to be detected in single cells, although not high enough to be used in lower copy number constructs. However, luciferase activity showed significant fluctuations that did not appear to be linked to cell cycle events. These fluctuations made the detection of any cell cycle related changes in luciferase expression impossible. Another direction of this thesis is represented by the studies on the topology of the cell shape determining RodA protein. The ampicillin resistance levels were measured in 52 fusions with the topology ...
Vibrio species account for a significant amount of foodborne illness, stemming from consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. Learn more about vibrio.
4E3R: Redesigning and characterizing the substrate specificity and activity of Vibrio fluvialis aminotransferase for the synthesis of imagabalin.
Vibrio tapetis is the marine bacterium responsible for the brown ring disease (BRD) affecting die manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. Identification of V tapelis has been previously performed using...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Production of an extracellular copper-binding compound by the heterotrophic marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
article{1079318, abstract = {Facultative anaerobic marine bacteria isolated from cultured clams Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum were previously investigated using AFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses. The isolates formed two AFLP clusters and belonged to the genus Vibrio, more precisely to the Splendidus clade. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the housekeeping genes rpoA, rpoD, pyrH, atpA and recA supported their inclusion in that clade forming two well differentiated groups with respect to the rest of the species within the clade, and confirmed they formed two groups, separated from the rest of the species of the clade. DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrated that the isolates constitute two novel Vibrio species, which can be phenotypically differentiated from their closest relatives. The names Vibrio atlanticus sp. nov. and Vibrio artabrorum sp. nov. are proposed, with Vb 11.11T (=CECT 7223T =LMG 24300T) and Vb 11.8T (=CECT 7226T =LMG 23865T) as the ...
Farming of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, has become an important part of Norwegian aquaculture, but disease problems are frequent. Vibriosis caused by Vibrio splendidus has caused problems in aquaculture to early life stages of several marine species. It may also become a problem in cod hatcheries, as the bacterium is widely distributed in marine environments. The aim of the present study was to increase the understanding of V. splendidus infections in cod yolk sac larvae. Cod eggs were randomly selected from a single batch delivered by a commercial hatchery. Single eggs were transferred to wells in multi well dishes. Each well contained 2 ml of 80% aerated and sterile seawater. The eggs were challenged with 7 different strains of V. splendidus the same day as they arrived. The experiment did also include a negative control group consisting of unchallenged larvae and two positive control groups consisting of larvae challenged with two strains of Vibrio anguillarum. For each challenge strain 2 x 3 ...
Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)Â is one of the most important aquaculture commodity in Indonesia. However, the luminous disease primarily caused by Vibrio harveyi bacteria still becomes an obstacle in penaeid shrimp farming, especially in shrimp hatchery. This study was aimed to identify the presence of V. harveyi in L. vannamei through nested PCR using haemolysin gene primer. First, initial primers were designed using V. harveyi VIB 391 haemolysin gene sequence (accession number: DQ640264), flanking the position 133 to 756. This primer pairs were used to identify haemolysin gene in both V. harveyi MR5339 and V. harveyi 275 strain. Sequencing results from each sample showed 99% similarity with haemolysin gene sequence in Genebank. Furthermore, the sequence of V. harveyi MR5339 haemolysin gene was used to design the nested PCR primers. The first primer pairs of nested PCR have successfully amplified the haemolysin gene fragment of all V. harveyi strains samples from position 52 to 405. ...
The research was aimed to determine the present status of probiotics (Lactobacillus spp.) and pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio spp.) of culture pond as well as to determine whether the isolated probiotic Lactobacillus spp. can act as a controlling agent on experimentally pathogenic Vibrio spp. infected Penaeus monodon. In In-vitro test of gills and intestinal tracts, the potential antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus spp. toward Vibrio spp. was gradually observed at 4th hour of probiotic treatment. At 12th hour the viable count of Vibrio spp. was drastically reduced in gill from 2.33×105 to 1.03×103 (CFUg-1) and in intestinal tract 2.35×105 to 6.43×102 (CFUg-1). While, in In-vivo test, in case of muscle, gills and intestinal tract antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus spp. toward Vibrio spp. was noticed after 9 hours, 21 hours and 27 hours respectably of probiotic injected shrimps. However, only the result of in-vitro challenge test revealed that, Lactobacillus spp. significantly reduced the ...
lginate is a polysaccharide found within brown seaweeds and has been targeted as a carbon source for biofuel production. Alginate consists of α-L-guluronate (G) and β-D-mannuronate (M) linked in various patterns, which results in either a homo- or heteropolymeric structure. Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade the linkage between G and M blocks and can have specificity to either polyG, polyM, or polyMG block degradation. The marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus 12B01 contains four putative alginate lyases which were investigated in this study. We identified, purified, and characterized the four PL7 alginates lyases. We found that these lyases have optimal activity between pH 7.5-8.5 and 20-25°C, consistent with use in a marine environment. Additionally, Ca 2+ is necessary for optimal enzyme activity. The binding constant (K m ) of the lyases toward alginate was found to be between 22 and 123 mM alginate and the maximum reaction rate (V max ) was found to be between 0.13 and 0.83 μM s -1 . ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic activation of Vibrio mimicus (Vm) major outer membrane protein haemagglutinin (HA) with Vm-HA/Protease. T2 - Implication for understanding bacterial adherence. AU - Alam, Munirul. AU - Miyoshi, Shin Ichi. AU - Ahmed, Kabir Uddin. AU - Hasan, Nur A.. AU - Tomochika, Ken Ichi. AU - Shinoda, Sumio. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - Vibrio mimicus (Vm) haemagglutinins (HAs), such as an extracellular HA/protease (Vm-HA/protease) and a major outer membrane protein-HA (Vm-OMPHA), have been recognized as the putative adherence factors for the bacterium. However, the mechanism by which HAs coordinate the adherence function of the bacterium remains as yet unknown. We report herein the positive interaction between Vm-HA/protease and Vm-OMPHA resulting in significant enhancement of the haemagglutinating ability. In this interaction, no cleaved polypeptide was detected; however, limited proteolysis of Vm-OMPHA was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The proteolytic activation of the native ...
Vibrioses are the predominant bacterial infections in marine shrimp farms. Vibrio nigripulchritudo is an emerging pathogen of the cultured shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in New Caledonia and other regions in the Indo-Pacific. The molecular determinants of V. nigripulchritudo pathogenicity are unknown; however, molecular epidemiological studies have revealed that recent pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo isolates from New Caledonia all cluster into a monophyletic clade and contain a small plasmid, pB1067. Here, we report that a large plasmid, pA1066 (247 kb), can also serve as a marker for virulent V. nigripulchritudo, and that an ancestral version of this plasmid was likely acquired prior to other virulence-linked markers. Additionally, we demonstrate that pA1066 is critical for the full virulence of V. nigripulchritudo in several newly developed experimental models of infection. Plasmid pB1067 also contributes to virulence; only strains containing both plasmids induced the highest level of shrimp
Vibrio proteolyticus vibriolysin protein: a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the marine microorganism Vibrio proteolyticus; amino acid sequence given in first source
In aquaculture, vibriosis is known as a major bacterial disease in fish culture systems and can cause considerable loss in terms of production and processing (Toranzo et al. 2005). Many Vibrio species have been recognized as fish pathogens that can cause infection with various symptoms. For example, Vibrio scophthalmi infection results in hemorrhage on fish body surface and inner surface of the abdomen, severe enteritis, and ascites (Qiao et al. 2012); Vibrio ichthyoenteri infection cause opaque intestines and necrotizing fasciitis with high mortality rates (Ishimaru et al. 1996; Lee et al. 2012); Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection causes diseases not only in fish, shrimp, oysters, and mussels, etc. (Montilla et al. 1994; Quintoil et al. 2007), but also is important in public health and causes gastrointestinal disorders in humans who ingest contaminated fish and shellfish (Kubota et al. 2008; Iwamoto et al. 2010); and Vibrio vulnificus has been associated with vibriosis outbreaks in fish and ...
A story map has been created to describe the different Vibrio Predictive Models produced by NCCOS. These predictive models help ensure oysters are harvested when they are safer to eat, assisting coastal managers and oyster growers in oyster harvest decision making nationwide.. Vibrio spp. are bacteria that occur naturally in our coastal waters. The majority of the cases annually are associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, usually resulting in self limiting gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw seafood. Vibrio vulnificus is another species of Vibrio bacteria that can cause human illness. Although cases are rare, Vibrio vulnificus infections stemming from water contact with open wounds or consumption can be serious and sometimes fatal.. The story map presents an assortment of predictive models and weather related tools to address issues surrounding safe harvest of shellfish around the nation. In partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, state and academic partners, NOAA is ...
Definition of vibrio salmonicida in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of vibrio salmonicida. What does vibrio salmonicida mean? Information and translations of vibrio salmonicida in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Cells of the marine bacterium, Ant-300, accumulate loosely bound amino acids during amino acid uptake. The fraction of amino acid taken up that exists in the loosely bound state depends on the substrate in question. Shock treatment studies indicate that, in general, the initial binding, uptake, and retention of amino acids are sensitive to reduced osmolarity and salt concentration. Cellular components that bind the amino acids arginine and lysine are released from the cells during shock treatment. Charge interactions appear to be responsible for the reversible formation of the ligand-protein complex. It is proposed that these components, presumably proteins, mediate the capture of the amino acids arginine and lysine at the surface of the cell. Chemotaxis provides the cell the opportunity to migrate from areas of low arginine concentration to areas of high arginine concentration. Arginine transport into the cell is mediated by two high affinity components with kinetic constants of 1.2 x 10⁻⁸ ...
Although turbot is produced in substantial quantities in aquaculture in Europe the major limitation in expansion of the industry is the supply of juvenile fish for on- growing. High mortalities can occur during early life stages during the critical times of transition from yolk sac larvae to feeding on rotifers and Artemia. There is good evidence that microorganisms are the major cause of the problems associated with early-feeding, as improved survival is seen when antibiotics are used or when larvae are reared in bacteria-free conditions. Several studies have shown that the bacterial flora of the larval turbot gut originates from the food. However, high levels of certain bacteria in the gut flora are not harmful, rather it is particular bacterial types that appear to determine larval rearing success. The present study concentrated on determining the virulence mechanisms of Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 (biovar 1), which was isolated from a batch of turbot larvae suffering very high mortality at a ...
Coral microbiomes are known to play important roles in organismal health, response to environmental stress, and resistance to disease. The coral microbiome contains diverse assemblages of resident bacteria, ranging from defensive and metabolic symbionts to opportunistic bacteria that may turn harmful in compromised hosts. However, little is known about how these bacterial interactions influence the mechanism and controls of overall structure, stability, and function of the microbiome. We sought to test how coral microbiome dynamics were affected by interactions between two bacteria: Vibrio coralliilyticus, a known temperature-dependent pathogen of some corals, and Halobacteriovorax, a unique bacterial predator of Vibrio and other gram-negative bacteria. We challenged reef-building coral with V. coralliilyticus in the presence or absence of Halobacteriovorax predators, and monitored microbial community dynamics with 16S rRNA gene profiling time-series. Vibrio coralliilyticus inoculation increased the
Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Vibrio splendidus UCD-SED7 and UCD-SED10 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding Zostera marina roots near the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega, Bay, California). These assemblies contain 5,334,236 bp and 5,904,824 bp, respectively. ...
Vibrio nigripulchritudo is an emerging pathogen of farmed shrimp in New Caledonia and other regions in the Indo-Pacific. The molecular determinants of V. nigripulchritudo pathogenicity are unknown; however, molecular epidemiological studies have suggested that pathogenicity is linked to particular lineages. Here, we performed high-throughput sequencing-based comparative genome analysis of 16 V. nigripulchritudo strains to explore the genomic diversity and evolutionary history of pathogen-containing lineages and to identify pathogen-specific genetic elements. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed three pathogen-containing V. nigripulchritudo clades, including two clades previously identified from New Caledonia and one novel clade comprising putatively pathogenic isolates from septicemic shrimp in Madagascar. The similar genetic distance between the three clades indicates that they have diverged from an ancestral population roughly at the same time and recombination analysis indicates that these genomes have
Vibrio coralliilyticus is a global marine pathogen that has been found to cause disease in several marine organisms, including corals. This study is the first report of the isolation of V. coralliilyticus from a diseased Caribbean octocoral, Pseudopterogorgia americana. Five sister phylotypes were positively identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, recA probes specific for V. coralliilyticus, and rep-PCR fingerprinting. The antimicrobial resistance was compared between pathogenic strains of V. coralliilyticus and the Caribbean strains. First, the antimicrobial resistance of V. coralliilyticus-type strain ATCC BAA-450 was determined using an agar-overlay antimicrobial bioassay at 24°C and 27°C, temperatures which are relevant to its known temperature-dependent virulence. From 108 distinct bacteria isolated from P. americana, 12 inhibited the V. coralliilyticus-type strain at 24°C and five at 27°C. Next, the phenotypic comparison of two Caribbean phylotypes and three V. coralliilyticus ...
Here in the state of Florida, dozens of confirmed cases of the bacterial infection caused by Vibrio vulnificus occur annually, along with dozens more in the other Gulf states.. My guest, Infectious Disease specialist, a Forbes contributor, Judy Stone, MD said in a recent piece, Infections from Vibrio vulnificus are a summer staple, and are increasing along with global warming.. Dr. Stone joined me to discuss Vibriosis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and the effects of warming seawaters on its presence in more parts of the world.. ...
Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative marine bacterium. It is medically important since it causes otitis and wound infection. It is also present in the bodies of animals such as pufferfish, where it is responsible for the production of the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. V. alginolyticus was first identified as a pathogen of humans in 1973. It occasionally causes eye, ear, and wound infections. It is a highly salt-tolerant species and can grow in salt concentrations of 10%. Most clinical isolates come from superinfected wounds that become contaminated at the beach. Tetracycline usually results in cure. V. alginolyticus is rare cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised hosts. Reilly, G D; Reilly, C A; Smith, E G; Baker-Austin, C (2011). Vibrio alginolyticus-associated wound infection acquired in British waters, Guernsey, July 2011 (PDF). Euro Surveill. 16 (42). PMID 22027377. Noguchi, T; Hwang, D F; Arakawa, O; Sugita, H; Deguchi, Y; Shida, Y; Hashimoto, K (1987). Vibrio alginolyticus, a ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Vibrio fischeri, Gram-negative, motile, bioluminescent, curved rod-shaped bacterium (prokaryote). Vibrio fischeri is a bioluminescent bacterium that occurs in global ocean environments. V. fischeri is most often found in a symbiotic relationship with certain deep sea marine life, such as the bobtail squid, within special light-organs.. V. fischeri causes the squid to produce a mucus substance that is secreted below the light organ on the squid. Cilia are used to draw more bacteria into this mucus matrix. The bacteria migrate into the light organ and colonize an area within it. They provide a light source for the squid to make it blend in with the ocean floor at night. Thus predators have a hard time seeing the squid. V. fischeri is a key research organism for examination of microbial bioluminescence, quorum sensing, and bacterial-animal symbiosis. Magnification: x8,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/1744
Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to distinct vibrio communities and sought to characterize their level of differentiation. A novel technique was used to quantify shifts in 16S rRNA gene abundance in samples from Barnegat Bay, N.J., collected over a 15-month period. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers specific for the genus Vibrio was combined with separation and quantification of amplicons by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE). Vibrio populations identified by QPCR-CDCE varied between summer and winter samples, suggesting distinct warm-water and year-round populations. Identification of the CDCE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional domains of a zinc metalloprotease from Vibrio vulnificus. AU - Miyoshi, Shin-ichi. AU - Wakae, H.. AU - Tomochika, K. I.. AU - Shinoda, S.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic human pathogen causing wound infection and septicemia, secretes a 45-kDa metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease; VVP). A plasmid which carries the entire vvp gene subcloned into pBluescriptIIKS+ was transformed into Escherichia coil DH5α for overproduction of the protease. The 45-kDa recombinant protease (rVVP) was isolated from the periplasmic fraction of the transformant by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by column chromatography on phenyl Sepharose. Biochemical characterization of the isolated rVVP showed that the recombinant protease was identical to that produced by V. vulnificus. When rVVP was incubated at 37°C, a 35-kDa fragment was generated through autoproteolytic removal of the C-terminal peptide. This 35-kDa fragment (rVVP-N) was found to have ...
Vibrio abundance generally displays seasonal patterns. In temperate coastal areas, temperature and salinity influence Vibrio growth, whereas in tropical areas this pattern is not obvious. The present study assessed the dynamics of Vibrio in the Arabian Sea, 1-2 km off Mangalore on the south-west coast of India, during temporally separated periods. The two sampling periods were signified by oligotrophic conditions, and stable temperatures and salinity. Vibrio abundance was estimated by culture-independent techniques in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables. The results showed that the Vibrio density during December 2007 was 10- to 100-fold higher compared with the February-March 2008 period. High Vibrio abundance in December coincided with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model indicated that diatom biomass was the primary predictor variable. Low nutrient levels suggested high water column turnover rate, ...
Microbial production is a promising method that can overcome major limitations in conventional methods of lycopene production, such as low yields and variations in product quality. Significant efforts have been made to improve lycopene production by engineering either the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway or mevalonate (MVA) pathway in microorganisms. To further improve lycopene production, it is critical to utilize metabolic enzymes with high specific activities. Two enzymes, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (Dxs) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (IspA), are required in lycopene production using MEP pathway. Here, we evaluated the activities of Dxs and IspA of Vibrio sp. dhg, a newly isolated and fast-growing microorganism. Considering that the MEP pathway is closely related to the cell membrane and electron transport chain, the activities of the two enzymes of Vibrio sp. dhg were expected to be higher than the enzymes of E. coli. We found that Dxs and IspA in Vibrio sp. dhg
Looking for medication to treat infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of infection+due+to+the+bacteria+vibrio+cholerae
Vibrio: Vibrio, (genus Vibrio), any of a group of comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Vibrios are aquatic microorganisms, some species of which cause serious diseases in humans and other animals. Vibrios are microbiologically characterized as gram-negative, highly motile, facultative
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Vibrio vulnificus, Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped bacteria (prokaryote). It is a human pathogen and causes an infection often after eating seafood, especially oysters. The bacterium occurs in marine environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds or coastal areas and it is highly salt tolerant. It is often present in contaminated waters and heated waters such as thermal or volcanic springs. Vibrio vulnificus can also enter the body through open wounds when swimming or wading, or via puncture wounds from the spines of fish such as tilapia. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, decreased blood pressure and a blistering dermatitis. Severe symptoms and even death can occur if the bacterium enters the bloodstream (more common in people with compromised immune systems or liver disease). Magnification: x5,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2229
EHA has vibrio vulnificus experts on staff. Vibrio vulnificus is a gram negative bacterium, most often associated with food borne illness after eating raw or inadequately cooked seafood, especially raw oysters.
The Boivin agent from Vibrio anguillarum was extracted with the use of 0.25M trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Chemical analysis revealed that the endotoxin contained approximately 35.1% protein, 18.1% carbohydrate, 39.3% lipid, 1.8% glucosamine and evidence of ethanolamine. Sixteen different amino acids made up the protein. The aliphatic amino acid concentration was 41.6%. The acidic amino acid content was higher than the basic amino acid content (25.8% vs. 14.4%) and glutamic and aspartic acid were the predominant amino acids. The carbohydrate fraction was composed of fucose (7.3%), arabinose (1.2%), deoxyglucose (tenative identification) (4.2%), galactose (0.8%), glucose (2.1%), and an unidentified sugar (2.5%). Injection of the endotoxin into mice resulted in an LD₅₀ value of 794 μg. When injected intramuscularly into juvenile chinook salmon, the endotoxin caused a zone of hemorrhaging at the site of injection. Upon prolonged storage of the endotoxin, this activity was lost. When incorporated ...
Looking for online definition of comma bacillus in the Medical Dictionary? comma bacillus explanation free. What is comma bacillus? Meaning of comma bacillus medical term. What does comma bacillus mean?
Inhibitory effect of commercial antibiotics and bioactive compounds produced by the isolate W3 against vibrios. Most of the antibiotics used could cause inhibition of all tested strains of V. harveyi (Table 1), Hence antibiotics could be used to control V. harveyi infections that affect aquaculture in Thailand. However, some of them such as chloramphenicol, furazolidone, tetracycline and oxonilic acid are now banned for use in aquaculture as previously mentioned. In general, β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin are preferred for use by shrimp farmers to treat luminous vibriosis disease since these groups of antibiotics do not cause significant side effects (Teo et al. 2002). Unfortunately, all tested strains in this study were resistant to ampicillin and this result is in agreement with Teo et al. (2002) who reported that many types of β-lactam antibiotics were no longer able to prevent vibriosis. In Thailand sulphamethoxazole is normally used in hatcheries against Vibrio sp.; however, in ...
Homologs of Toxin-Encoding Genes. Although V. fischeri is not known to be pathogenic, and strain ES114 is a beneficial symbiont, its genome carries homologs of Vibrio genes that may have toxin activity (Table 3, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site). As mentioned earlier, these include two CTX phage-encoded genes, zot (zona occludins toxin) and ace (accessory cholera enterotoxin), the latter of which has been found only in the V. cholerae and V. fischeri genome sequences. The proteins coded for by these genes have been shown to contribute to the structure of CTX phage (17), and their possible roles as toxins remain controversial (31, 32). At this time, it is not known whether the V. fischeri homologs of these two genes are expressed in this species, or whether they might play a role in this bacteriums symbiotic associations.. All sequenced Vibrio species carry genes encoding another putative toxin called RTX (repeats in structural toxins). RTX activity in V. ...
Thanks FOSL for getting her interview out……..We are presently looking at all the bacterial angles associated to these health issues being reported. One bacterium that everyone should take notice of is the Vibrio vulnificus (flesh eating strain of Vibrio). Vibrio vulnificus is a proteobacteria and a pathogen of humans. It causes wound infections, gastroenteritis, or primary septicemia (blood poisoning). Vibrio vulnificus causes disease in individuals who eat contaminated seafood (raw or undercooked oysters or have an open wound that is exposed to seawater. There have been several deaths due to this rare bacterial strain of Vibrio in the gulf region over the past couple of months. There are over 100 documented strains of this bacteria Vibrio with the possibility of thousands that have yet to be discovered. Back in June of this year the New York Times was reporting how scientist feared a possible bacterial plague erupting due to the Gulf spill. Are we now seeing a super bug? Is it an ...
The phylogenetic relationships of 50 reference strains, mostly marine bacteria which require Na+ for growth, were determined on the basis of 600 16S rRNA nucleotides by using reverse transcriptase sequencing. Strains belonging to 10 genera were included (four genera of the family Vibrionaceae, the g …
X-MOL提供的期刊论文更新,Estuaries and Coasts--Impact of Climate Change on Vibrio vulnificus Abundance and Exposure Risk.,Reem Deeb,Daniel Tufford,Geoffrey I Scott,Janet Gooch Moore,Kirstin Dow
Abstract The behavioral pattern of Vibrio parahaemolytics during the winter season (December 1988 to March 1989) in the water column, sediment, plankton and sinking particles was determined in a eutrophic marine environment. A total of 15 environmental parameters and seven microbial characteristics were examined. This halophile was isolated sporadically from bottom water and plankton materials, whereas it was undetectable in the surface water and sediment samples. However, V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from the sinking particles continuously throughout the sampling period with highest counts during February 1989. Out of 195 strains identified, 10 Vibrio spp. and 3 Listonella spp. were observed of which V. alginolyticus was predominantly isolated irrespective of the samples tested. Simple correlation and multiple regression analyses show that the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus is not governed by any single biotic or abiotic factor of the environment. Possibly, the cumulative effect of all ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|549689366|ref|YP_008621098.1| from Vibrio nigripulchritudo VibrioScope. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Vibrio diagnosis is made by taking blood, stool or wound samples from an infected person. The samples are allowed to grow more bacteria if present, and then studied in a laboratory. The Texas Department of State Health Services asks healthcare providers to send specimens from people who may have this illness to a laboratory. A special test is required to identify Vibrio. Health care providers should be on the lookout for this illness, especially when patients have been exposed to floodwaters. How are Vibrio infections treated? ...
Abstract Background Sequence closure often represents the end-point of a genome project, without a system in place for subsequent improvement and refinement. Building on the genome project of Vibrio fischeri ES114, we used a comparative approach to identify and investigate genes that had a high likelihood of sequence error. Results Comparison of the V. fischeri ES114 genome with that of conspecific strain MJ11 identified 82 target loci in ES114 as containing likely errors, and thus of high-priority for resequencing. Analysis of the targets identified 75 loci in which an error had occurred, resulting in the correction of 10,457 base pairs to generate the new ES114 genomic sequence. A majority of the inaccurate loci involved frameshift errors, correction of which fused adjacent ORFs. Although insertions/deletions are thought to be rare in microbial genome assemblies, fourteen of the loci contained extraneous sequence of over 300 bp, likely due to imperfect contig ends that were misassembled in ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Toxicity Of Sulcotrione Photoproducts Mixture Towards Vibrio Fischeri In The Aquatic Environment - Archives of Environmental Protection
Fisherman Offers Advice on Avoiding Vibrio. Food Safety,Our Blog,Vibrio , November 19, 2018. What jobs would you associate with the phrase flesh eating bacteria?Mad scientist, maybe? Something in the medical field? Perhaps a manufacturer of prosthetics? How about a fisherman? Would you trust a fishermans advice on avoiding vibrio? A Wise Fisherman Once Told… read more. ...