Many studies have been carried out, using several animal species, to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of exposure to whole exhaust and to components of exhaust from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engines. The studies are considered within six subgroupings: (i) whole diesel engine exhaust; (ii) gas-phase diesel engine exhaust (with particles removed); (iii) diesel engine exhaust particles or extracts of diesel engine exhaust particles; (iv) whole gasoline engine exhaust; (v) condensates/extracts of gasoline engine exhaust; and (vi) engine exhausts in combination with known carcinogens. Whole diesel engine exhaust Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by inhalation to a range of concentrations of whole diesel engine exhaust, with observations in some studies extending to the lifespan of the animals. Five studies conducted using two different strains of rats showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant lung tumours that was ...
A Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened in Lyon, France, June 5-12 to scrutinise the available knowledge base on the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes.1 Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and nitroarenes were previously evaluated by IARC in 1989.2 For gasoline engine exhaust the classification remained Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) as well as for seven of the nitroarenes. The newly evaluated nitroarene 3-nitrobenzanthrone was also added to this group. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene were classified as 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene are important exposure markers for diesel exhaust since metabolites of these substances have been found in workers exposed to diesel exhaust.3-5 The most prominent outcome of the IARC evaluation meeting was the upgrade of the classification of diesel exhaust, now in Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans with sufficient ...
Long-term diesel exhaust particles exposure may increase AHR, inflammation, lung fibrosis, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a mouse model.
Air pollution plays a role in cancer risk, particularly in lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancerrelated mortality worldwide. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a component of diesel exhaust products, is a complex mixture of particle compounds that include a large number of known and suspected human carcinogens. Historically, lung cancer, which is associated with DEPs, has been the focus of attention as a health risk in human and animal studies. However, the mechanism by which DEPs cause lung cancer remains unclear. The present study reports that DEPs increased miR21 expression and then activated the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, which may serve as an important carcinogenic mechanism. However, the data revealed that shortterm exposure to a high DEP concentration did not cause evident cell carcinogenesis in HBE cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. AU - Lan, Qing. AU - Vermeulen, Roel. AU - Dai, Yufei. AU - Ren, Dianzhi. AU - Hu, Wei. AU - Duan, Huawei. AU - Niu, Yong. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Fu, Wei. AU - Meliefste, Kees. AU - Zhou, Baosen. AU - Yang, Jufang. AU - Ye, Meng. AU - Jia, Xiaowei. AU - Meng, Tao. AU - Bin, Ping. AU - Kim, Christopher. AU - Bassig, Bryan A.. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Silverman, Debra. AU - Zheng, Yuxin. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in a diesel engine truck testing ...
The intake fraction is defined for a specific species and emission source as the ratio of attributable population intake to total emissions. Focusing on Californias South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study, we combine ambient monitoring data with time-activity patterns to estimate the population intake of carbon monoxide and benzene emitted from motor vehicles during 1996-1999. In addition to exposures to ambient concentrations, three microenvironments are considered in which the exposure concentration of motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Incorporating data on motor vehicle emissions estimated by the EMFAC2000 model, we estimate that the 15 million people in the SoCAB inhale 0.003-0.009% (34-85 per million, with a best estimate of 47 per million) of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. This population intake of primary ...
Studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) suppresses pulmonary host defense against bacterial infection. The present study was carried out to characterize whether DEP exposure exerts a sustained effect in which inhaled DEP increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection occurring at a later time. Brown Norway rats were exposed to filtered air or DEP by inhal
Background: Urban air pollution can trigger asthma exacerbations, but the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, or onset of airway disease and allergic sensitization in children is less clear. Methods: All 2107 children aged 9-14 from 40 schools in Rome in 2000-2001 were included in a cross-sectional survey. Respiratory symptoms were assessed on 1760 children by parental questionnaires (response rate=83.5%). Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests and lung function was measured by spirometry on 1359 children (77.2%). Three indicators of traffic-related air pollution exposure were assessed, i.e. self-reported traffic outside the childs home, the measured distance between the childs home and busy roads, and the residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels estimated by a land-use regression model (R2=0.69). Results: We found a strong association between estimated NO2 exposure per 10 μg/m3 and lung function, especially expiratory flows, in ...
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are major constituents of ambient air pollution and their adverse health effect is an area of intensive investigations. With respect to the immune system, DEP have attracted significant research attention as a factor that could influence allergic diseases interfering with cytokine production and chemokine expression. With this exception, scant data are available on the impact of DEP on lymphocyte homeostasis. Here, the effects of nanoparticles from Euro 4 (E4) and Euro 5 (E5) light duty diesel engines on the phenotype and function of T lymphocytes from healthy donors were evaluated. T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood obtained from healthy volunteers and subsequently stimulated with different concentration (from 0.15 to 60 μg/ml) and at different time points (from 24 h to 9 days) of either E4 or E5 particles. Immunological parameters, including apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation levels, mitochondrial function, expression of activation markers and cytokine
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
German researchers report more evidence of another risk factor for developing type II diabetes: traffic related air pollution. After following a group of middle-aged women for 16 years, the authors find that exposure to high levels of air pollution is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes in later years.... The study is one of the first to follow participants over many years in order to look at whether traffic-related air pollution might be linked to the risk of developing diabetes later in life. It agrees with a handful of prior human and animal studies that have suggested a link between the two. As the world becomes increasingly urban and megacities emerge, traffic-related air pollution is an increasingly serious problem. It poses environmental, ecological and human health risks, including well-documented respiratory illnesses such as asthma and lung cancer ...
Get this from a library! Automobile exhaust emission testing : measurement of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components, exhaust emission tests. [Horst Klingenberg]
Pris: 187,-. heftet, 2013. Sendes innen 5‑7 virkedager.. Kjøp boken Evaluation of Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs in Minnesota av U S Environmental Protection Agency (ISBN 9781288693511) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt fra 299 kr.
This paper deals with a research project concerning an effective utilization of exhaust gas heat. Exhaust gas from a exhaust gas-separate type two-stroke cycle engine containing a high concentration of unburned gas was temporarily stored in a floating-bell type tank as an form of heat energy conservation, while in the previous report [1]* exhaust heat was recovered with continuous operation. A Stirling engine with a hot-water supply system was then used to oxidize or burn again the exhaust gas in a catalyzer and an after-burner unit in order to recover the unspent heat energy from the exhaust gas. A three-way catalyzer was employed to remove pollutants both from the combustion gas in this process and the high-concentration burned gas from the two-stroke cycle engine.The results of the research in the present paper are intended as a follow-up of the previous report [1] to clarify a method for the more effective use of exhaust gas heat. Similarly to the results presented in the previous paper the ...
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attent
This paper compares the mass, composition and reactivity toward ozone formation of gasoline and methanol vehicle emissions. Methods used to estimate ozone forming potential include published reactivity scales and the EPA-OZIPM model. Evaluation of the available vehicle emission measurement data do
Human β-defensin (hBD)-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated A549 cells. IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional
Elemental carbon was collected with the possibility of using elemental carbon as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter. The terms elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC) and soot are often used by atmospheric researchers to designate products of incomplete combustion that contain randomly oriented graphitic structures interspersed with other compounds. Elemental carbon has been considered a good surrogate for diesel particulate matter because of the relatively high fraction of elemental carbon in diesel particle matter and the relatively high particulate matter emissions from diesel-powered vehicles, compared to gasoline-powered vehicles. Some studies imply a correspondence between elemental carbon measurements and diesel PM related to large truck traffic. But as diesel technologies improved and the diesel fleet became cleaner, it became more difficult to use elemental carbon alone as the marker for diesel particulate matter. Since other sources of elemental carbon became more significant ...
Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with ...
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) represent a key component of particulate matter pollution and a serious cardiopulmonary health risk, as these particles have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality following exposure. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of DEP on helper T cells by measuring changes in activation, cytokine production, and viability. The expression of CD40L, a key regulatory protein, was increased by DEP in the absence of physiologic stimuli without parallel increases in the expression of CD25 and CD69 activation markers. Additional studies utilizing a variety of T cell stimuli, including T cell receptor signaling and CD28 construction, showed consistent and reproducible increases in the expression of CD40L with negligible effects on other activation markers. Further studies demonstrated that the ability of DEP to augment CD40L production was restricted to the induction of the membrane-bound form of this protein, as soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was
Research Report 196, Developing Multipollutant Exposure Indicators of Traffic Pollution: The Dorm Room Inhalation to Vehicle Emissions (DRIVE) Study, describes a study by Dr. Jeremy A. Sarnat that evaluated single- and multipollutant metrics of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near and farther away from a major highway in Atlanta, as well as biological markers in a
This may not come as a surprise to many people, but the closer you are to a major road, the higher your exposure to air contaminants. In fact, according to a new report from the Metro Vancouver Regional District multiple traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) have been identified with adverse health effects. Living and spending time near a major roadway has been identified as a risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular problems.. Approximately half the population of Metro Vancouver lives near a major roadway.. Major roadways have more than 15,000 vehicles per day using them. In Langley, examples include 200th Street, 208th Street, the Langley Bypass, and Fraser Highway.. ...
The combined effects of turbocharging, high fuel injection pressure, and reduced oil consumption on diesel exhaust emissions were investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. The influence of these exhaust emission control concepts on particulate composition was determined using a new particulate analysis method. In addition, the dependence of particulate composition on engine load and air utilization was examined using the microfumigation technique. Simultaneous application of these emissions control concepts reduced exhaust particulates by 70 percent. High injection pressure reduced the insoluble component of particulates, while reducing oil consumption and turbocharging the engine lowered both soluble and insoluble particulates. Reductions in oil-derived particulates with increasing engine load were partially attributed to increases in volumetric air utilization. Ninety percent of the lube oil found in exhaust particulates was unburned; however, similar concentrations of unburned and ...
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
Protective Effect of Curcumin on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects Induced by Repeated Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This topic contains 6 study abstracts on Diesel Exhaust Particle Toxicity indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Catechin, Rosemary, and Onion
Li, J., Patterson, M., Chew, W. L., Cho, S-H., Gilmour, I., Oliver, T., ... Liedtke, W. (2011). TRPV4-Mediated calcium-influx into human bronchial epithelia upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 784 - 793. ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
The heat from the exhaust gas of diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power using a separate Rankine Cycle (RC) or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Water is the best working fluid for this type of applications in terms of efficiency of the RC system, availability and environmental friendliness. However, for small engines and also at part load operations, the exhaust gas temperature is not sufficient enough to heat the steam to be in superheated zone, which after expansion in the turbine needs to be in superheated zone. Ammonia was found to be an alternate working fluid for these types of applications which can run at low exhaust temperatures. Computer simulation was carried out with an optimized heat exchanger to estimate additional power with water and ammonia as the working fluids. ANSYS 14.0 CFX software was used for the simulation. It was found that at full load 23.7% and 10.9% additional power were achieved by using water and ammonia as the working fluids ...
A new study found strong evidence that inhaling harmful gases of traffic pollution poses more risk for asthma in adults and kids as well.. Study reports found that there is a strong connection between asthma risk and traffic pollutants.. In previous studies, researchers linked childhood asthma with traffic related pollutants, but in the current study they found link between harmful pollutants of traffic and onset of asthma in adults.. Over 11 years of follow up, 41 of the adults developed asthma. The results showed that adults most impacted by traffic-related particles had 50 to 100 percent higher risks of developing asthma, compared to those living at residences with low levels of traffic-related pollutants.. Ultimately, the findings suggest that pollutants emerging from traffic play a key role in developing asthma in adults.. Source: Thorax. ...
Editor: People with tic disorders have complained that riding in a vehicle sometimes increases symptoms. A new study supports the link between exposure to toxins in diesel exhaust and brain changes.. Research now shows that even a short exposure to diesel fumes can affect your brain. In a study published in Particle and Fibre Toxicology, an hour of sniffing exhaust induces a stress response in the brains activity. We already know that small particles from polluted air can be detected in the brain after exposures. But this is the first time that scientists have demonstrated that inhalation actually alters brain activity.. The study was conducted with EEG recordings while exposed to diesel exhaust versus clean air. Changes in brain activity were noticed after 30 minutes or so of exposure. The EEG data revealed that the brain displayed a stress response, indicative of changed information processing in the brain cortex. The effect continued even after the subjects had left the exposure ...
Traffic-Rrelated AAir Pollution and Respiratory Health: The East Bay Childrens Respiratory Health Study. Janice J. Kim1, Svetlana Smorodinsky1, Bart Ostro1, Michael Lipsett1, Brett C. Singer2, and Alfred T. Hogdsgon2. 1Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA. 2Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Traffic-related emissions are a major source of air pollution in most urban areas. Recent studies, primarily in Europe and Japan, have reported an association between an increased risk of respiratory health effectssymptoms associated withand residential proximity to traffic-related air pollutants near busy roadways. School location near a busy road may be an important surrogate of traffic-related exposures as well. To investigate whether these findings might apply in California, which has stringent motor vehicle emissions regulations, we conducted the East Bay Childrens Respiratory Health Study (EBCRHS), a cross-sectional ...
Why Emissions Testing Is EssentialThe quality of the air we breathe is more important than ever. All Arizonans deserve the cleanest possible air today, for our future -- especially those with compromised health. We all can make a positive difference by the choices we make and actions we take everyday. Vehicle emissions contribute to increased levels of air pollution like
A radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehiclesproduce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors. Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths ...
A radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehiclesproduce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors. Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths ...
Combustion-derived pure carbon nanoparticulate, or whats found in diesel fuel exhaust, was found to have adverse effects on the blood vessel system.
An apparatus for reducing exhaust gas contained in exhaust gas as an exemplary embodiment of the present invention may include: a DOC member that primarily oxidizes exhaust materials containing THC and CO in the exhaust gas by using a first DOC; a CPF member mounted downstream of the DOC member for receiving the exhaust gas oxidized primarily by the DOC member which contains the exhaust materials containing the THC and CO by heat generated during the primary oxidation; and further oxidizing an oxidizing agent coated therein, and oxidizing the NO in the exhaust gas into NO 2 using the generated heat and the oxidizing agent coated therein; a nozzle fixed downstream of the CPF component and metering a reducing agent into the exhaust gas; and an SCR component mounted downstream of the nozzle and reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the exhaust gas using the NO 2 generated in the CPF component and the reducing agent in N 2.
Children whose parents perceived their lives as unpredictable, uncontrollable, or overwhelming had increased risk of new onset asthma associated with TRP and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Furthermore, susceptibility to TRP attributable to parental education was markedly attenuated after accounting for the susceptibility attributable to parental stress. While parental stress may influence the development of asthma in a child due to biological and behavioral pathways other than psychological stress in children (26), the observed pattern of susceptibility to air pollution based on stress was not explained by potentially relevant history of illness and a range of behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental risk factors for asthma. Although there were relatively few children with a history of in utero tobacco smoke exposure, significantly larger effects were observed both among children with low parental education and with high parental stress. Thus, common biological pathways may underlie the ...
A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the
The study used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the hearts of 3,896 subjects that had no cardiovascular diseases at the beginning of the study. Researchers also determined the levels of nitrous dioxide surrounding each subjects home. Researchers found that there was an association between higher nitrous oxide levels and changes in the right ventricul of the heart.. Dr. Peter Leary, lead author of the study, said in a new release that, Although the link between traffic-related air pollution and left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and cardiovascular death is established, the effects of the traffic-related air pollution on the right ventricle have not been well studied.. The Environmental Protection Agency began investigating pollution resulting from fossil fuels back in the 1970s, and found in 2010 that by decreasing sulfur dioxides, nitrous oxides and other particulate matter, environmental regulations were able to effectively prevent 130,000 heart attacks, 86,000 ...
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San Francisco- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced over $2.2 million in Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) grants to partners along the West Coast and Pacific Island Territories. The 14 grants are administered through the West Coast Collaborative, an EPA Region9 and Region 10 public-private partnership aimed at reducing diesel emissions and leveraging an additional $6 million from public, private and nonprofit partners. The EPA-funded projects will clean up 93 medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines, and reduce over 262 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 16 tons of particulate matter (PM) and 8,317 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the life of the projects. Public-private partnerships like the West Coast Collaborative continue to advance emission reductions, said Jared Blumenfeld, Regional Administrator for EPAs Pacific Southwest Office. By promoting clean diesel technologies, we can save lives locally and play a leadership role on climate change globally. These grants ...
Vehicle emissions are a major public health issue. We already know that the best thing you can do if you want to bring your crime rate down is to switch to unleaded gasoline and then wait for 20 years. Now were learning that if you want to improve the health of babies (and healthy babies become much more productive members of society when they grow up), simply installing an EZ-Pass tollbooth has a large and significant positive effect: the resulting improvements in congestion and emissions more than make up for any excess emissions from cars crawling through the toll plaza itself.. The negative externalities from driving, then, are significantly greater than the ones that the likes of Charles Komanoff calculates - and those are $160 per trip, in Manhattan. If we want to become a happier, healthier, more prosperous nation, then we have to wean ourselves off our car addiction. It wont be fast, and it wont be easy. But its profoundly necessary.. (Via Wessel). Update: The E-Z Pass study can be ...
Disclosed is a system and method which systematically diagnoses emissions test failure by applying the rules of a knowledge base to predict the cause of vehicle emissions failures. Classifiers are used to form predictions. The classifier is the data structure used in the automobile emission testing inspection lane by the lane diagnostic subsystem to provide a diagnosis for a particular vehicle. Its output is the likelihood that a vehicle suffers from a given failure based on the values of characteristics such as its emissions test results and the vehicles description. The classifier predictions are then used to prepare a failure report that is given to the motorist for use by his or her repair technician. In another feature of this invention, the classifiers are continuously updated in a learning process based on new repair records. The learning processes periodically analyzes the data and updates the knowledge base to include new or revised classifiers.
The Department of Motor Traffic was established in 1928 with a view of performing the functions stipulated under the Motor Traffic Act. Main Mission is through team work of motivated staff and modern technology executing the rules and regulations entrusted by the Motor Traffic Act and others in an efficient manner for highest public appreciation. Their Objectives is Provide efficient and effective service as entrusted by the Motor Traffic Act, Execute other vested laws and regulations efficiently and effectively, Optimum use of Human, Physical and financial Resources within the Department.. TIMING: 04 - 09 December 2017 (excluding travel time). VENUE: Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. DONOR: Government of Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS: There are 20 Participants from the Department of Motor Traffic, Government of Sri Lanka who are engaged in the technical professionals engaged in the Vehicle Emission Testing Program, Department of Motor Traffic. Their main purpose is to enhance the technical ...
comparison of link-based and smoke processed motor vehicle emissions over the greater toronto area – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6edad9-ZTFkZ
Liverpool - Helicot Trading Company has begun its distribution of the premium patented, UK-manufactured engine care product, Cataclean in Hong Kong and Macau. With initiatives in place to promote better vehicle maintenance and improve poor air quality, the Hong Kong Government is making real efforts to reduce vehicle emissions, the main source of street-level pollution in the city.. The patented engine and fuel system cleaning technology in Cataclean enables drivers to reduce vehicle emissions and improve fuel efficiency, thereby helping to benefit the environment as well as offering a potential fuel cost saving.. According to research conducted by The University of Hong Kong, the level of pollutants in the city air is substantially higher than levels found in other cities such as London and New York. Diesel vehicles, particularly trucks, buses and light buses, are the main source of street-level pollution in Hong Kong. In Macau, with the strict tightening of emissions regulations, many drivers ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.. METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.. RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimers disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be ...
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution is hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country-specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS: Fifteen population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were analysed. Residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides was modelled with land use regression using a uniform protocol. Traffic exposure was assessed with traffic indicator variables. We analysed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and non-medicated with BP lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using ...
RIN: 2070-AQ86). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated the costs for the vehicle and fuel programs under this final rule. For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of vehicle exhaust emission control costs ranged from $268 million in 2017 to $664 million in 2030. For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of vehicle evaporative emission control costs ranged from $26 million in 2017 to $121 million in 2022. For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of vehicle operating costs ranged from zero in 2017 to negative $19 million in 2030. EPAs estimates the facilities costs to be $21 million for 2016 and $4 million annually for 2017 to 2025 and 2030. For 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of fuel sulfur control costs ranged from $804 million in 2017 to $696 million in 2030. In total, EPA estimated a cost of $21 million in 2016, costs ranging from $1.101 billion in 2017 to $1.51 billion in 2025, and a cost of $1.457 billion in ...
Particulates and nitrogen oxides comprise the main emission components of the Diesel combustion and therefore are subject to exhaust emission legislation in respective applications. Yet, with ever more stringent emission standards and test-procedures, such as in passenger vehicle applications, resul
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carcinogenic effects of diesel emissions and lung cancer. T2 - The epidemiologic evidence is not causal. AU - Muscat, Joshua E.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by Public Health Service Grant CA-3261 7. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1996/8. Y1 - 1996/8. N2 - The effects of diesel engine exhaust in lung carcinogenesis have been evaluated by several scientific organizations and government agencies. This complex issue has required a multidisciplinary approach including atmospheric measurements, toxicology, chemical carcinogenesis, epidemiology, and risk assessment. One important aspect of the epidemiological studies that deserves further attention is the confounding effects of cigarette smoking. Only some epidemiological studies have statistically adjusted for cigarette smoking, usually by years of smoking, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Some studies obtained smoking information from proxy interviews. However, differences in tar ...
Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another. Many of these pollutants contribute to environmental degradation and have negative effects on human health. To prevent unnecessary damage to human health and the environment, environmental regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established policies to minimize air pollution from mobile sources. Similar agencies exist at the state level. Due to the large number of mobile sources of air pollution, and their ability to move from one location to another, mobile sources are regulated differently from stationary sources, such as power plants. Instead of monitoring individual emitters, such as an individual vehicle, mobile sources are often regulated more broadly through design and fuel standards. Examples of this include corporate average fuel economy standards and laws that ban ...
A rotating particulate trap is disclosed, which may find application in diesel engines, air conditioning systems, industrial air-filters and the like. The invention includes a disk or cylinder which is formed from material suitable for filtering particulates which are present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines, gas turbines, industrial air or other particulate laden gases. The disk is mounted transversely in the exhaust duct of a diesel engine and in a fresh air duct which is disposed parallel to the exhaust duct. As the disk rotates within the exhaust duct, it filters particulates from the exhaust gases of the diesel engine. The filtered particulates are expelled from the disk by fresh air blowing in the air duct as the disk rotates within the air duct. The fresh air is blown in the air duct in a direction opposite to the flow of exhaust gases within the exhaust duct by a fan or compressor or compressed air jets. The counterflow arrangement of fresh air and combustion gases enhances the
Air/Fuel Imbalance Monitor Using an Oxygen Sensor - Air/fuel imbalance monitoring systems and methods for monitoring air/fuel ratio imbalance of an internal combustion engine having a plurality of engine cylinders are provided herein. An example of the method may include routing exhaust gas from a first group of cylinders to an exhaust gas oxygen sensor, and during selected operating conditions, indicating that air/fuel of at least one cylinder in the first group is imbalanced based on a response of the exhaust gas oxygen sensor at frequencies at or above firing frequency of the cylinders in the first group. An example of the system may include an exhaust gas oxygen sensor positioned in such a way that exhaust gas from the group of engine cylinders are routed to the exhaust gas oxygen sensor, and a controller configured to during selected operating conditions, indicate that air/fuel of at least one cylinder in the group is imbalanced based on a response of the exhaust gas oxygen sensor at ...
Utah has traditionally focused on reducing emissions from gasoline engines as a key strategy to improve the states air quality. However, diesel vehicles are believed to account for nearly half of the on-road mobile source nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate exhaust (PM2.5) and NH3 emissions in Utah non-attainment areas. National and international studies are revealing that diesel and gasoline vehicles may be contributing more ammonia emissions than previously accepted. As an example, Sun et al. (2016) estimated vehicular NH3 emissions in the US are likely more than twice those given in the US National Emissions Inventory. Very little information, however, exists on the true emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles under Utah-specific conditions. Evaluating emissions, including ammonia emissions, from vehicles under Utah-specific conditions and examining how ammonia emissions are distributed in Utah valleys will help in understanding the true emissions impact from diesel and gasoline ...
0057]In yet another specific embodiment, the invention relates to a method of recycling anode exhaust gas in a fuel cell system that includes a fuel cell stack including at least one fuel cell, the fuel cell including an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte between the anode and cathode, comprising the steps of directing anode exhaust gas containing CO2 and H2 gases from the anode of the fuel cell to a separator that includes, a housing defining an anode exhaust inlet, a recycled gas outlet and an exhaust gas outlet, wherein the anode exhaust inlet and the recycled gas outlet are, independently, in fluid communication with the anode, and a CO2-gas permeable membrane, the housing and the membrane defining at least in part a first chamber and a second chamber, the first chamber being in fluid communication with the anode exhaust inlet and the recycled gas outlet, the second chamber being in fluid communication with the exhaust gas outlet, whereby the anode exhaust gas is transported into the first ...
In large cities across the country, ozone and nitrous oxides from vehicle emissions rise to the top of air quality concerns and take their place with the general particulate matter category. Vehicle exhaust is full of extremely tiny toxic particles. During poor venting days, especially in the summer, you can see this pollution as a dense brown haze. Forty percent of the PM in that haze is from vehicles. In Port Alberni, as in many communities, emissions from trucks and cars are the largest contributor, by far, to toxic nitrous oxide pollution. They are also significant contributors to hazardous air pollutants and carcinogens such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 1,3 butadiene, and diesel particulate matter.. Exhaust is a complex cocktail of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides, nitrous oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To make matter worse, when its warm and sunny, the NOx and VOCs react chemically making ground level ozone, yet another damaging ...
DAY , # OF LIVING , MORPHOLOGICAL , BEHAVIORAL , OTHER , , HYDRA , CHANGES , CHANGES , CHANGES 1 , , , , , 2 , , , , , 3 , , , , , 4 , , , , , Care of the Hydra 1) Feed the hydra artemia (washed to remove salt) during the observation periods. Observe any changes in feeding habits and record them on the data chart. Fresh water crustaceans need not be washed, but the food must be free of dead organisms. 2) Replace the water in the petri dishes with fresh pond water daily. 3) Place the petri dishes containing hydra back into their correct environmental chamber. 4) Refill chamber A with automobile exhaust. Repeat the above experimental strategy Reduce the trial periods to 12 hours over a four day period. This will result in eight readings, one for each 12 hour period. Modify the existing chart to accommodate the additional readings. Record and Summarize Your Observations References ...
The present invention involves an exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same. The invention provides for a cost-effective material which lowers the cold-start emissions from the exhaust of vehicles. The invention is a passive system which accelerates the light-off temperature of catalyst in a cost-effective fashion. The invention includes a method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions including the steps of providing an oxide mixture having praseodymium and cerium, doping about 0-10% weight zirconium and about 0-10% weight yttrium to the oxide mixture, adding about 0-2% weight metal including palladium, platinum, or rhodium to the oxide mixture, mixing gamma aluminum to the oxide mixture for washcoating and washcoating the oxide mixture onto a monolithic substrate.
There are consistent temporal associations between exposure to air pollutants and HF hospitalizations and mortality (10,11). To our knowledge, this trial is the first randomized study to show that a simple filter intervention could reduce endothelial dysfunction and BNP increases associated with short-term exposure to DE in patients with HF. Our findings suggest that PM2.5 is the most important cause of endothelial dysfunction associated with air pollution exposure. Surprisingly, we also found a reduction in arterial stiffness during DE, which was unaffected by the filter.. Our findings on endothelial dysfunction during DE are consistent with experimental HF mouse models (26) and similar to reports in healthy volunteers (27,28) and patients with diabetes (29). Two pathways have been proposed to explain these effects: first, a pulmonary acute phase response could release inflammatory mediators into the circulation and be a causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease (30); ...
Diesel vehicles made in Germany in 2006 achieved high mpg, and competed with gasoline engines with regard to emissions. The much lower emissions of hybrids make them more desirable than diesel vehicles. Also, better driving performance can be engineered into hybrid vehicles than for a comparable-emissions conventional gasoline or diesel vehicle.. There is another form of diesel made from plants: biodiesel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel). It is a mixture of long-chain esters. Biodiesel can be used as fuel for diesel vehicles without any engine alteration or it can be mixed with petroleum-diesel. (The usual mixture is B20: 20% biodiesel.) It is slightly less efficient than diesel, but more efficient than gasoline. It produces much less vehicle emissions than diesel. Most biodiesel is made from plants that are planted and harvested by burning gasoline or diesel in farm tractors and with fertilizer, all made from petroleum; this needs to be changed drastically so that biodiesel production ...
In the present invention, slurry is formed by mixing noble metal-supported powder particles (3) and a binder (4) with each other in a liquid (Step S1), and the noble metal-supported powder particles (3) are dispersed by applying vibrations to the slurry (Step S2), and thereafter, the slurry is spray dried while keeping a state where the noble metal-supported powder particles (3) are dispersed (Step S3), whereby noble metal-supported powder (1) is produced. In the noble metal-supported powder (1) produced by such a method, pores through which exhaust gas flows are formed appropriately, and accordingly, exhaust gas purification performance can be enhanced.
In this study, the performance and exhaust emission values of engine have been investigated according to the results obtained from the experimental study using gasoline and methanol fuels in spark ignition engines. In these experiments a regular automobile engine with 4 cylinders, 4 strokes and 1,3 liter volume was used. Without making any modifications on the engine, the engine performance has been determined for both fuels between the ranges of 1100-4000 rpm, 5-40 Nm torque values. In the experimental study, the rotation number, torque, strength, mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, fuel flow rate, exhaust temperature and exhaust emission values of the engine have been measured. According to the experiment results, if the engine works on gasoline, its minimum brake specific fuel consumption becomes 400 g/kWh, whereas if it works on methanol this value becomes 900 g/kW. The values of CO emission of the engine vary between 2 and 6% for gasoline, whereas the range for ...
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One of the leading risk factors for death in the world is air pollution, which is responsible for roughly seven million deaths every year.. 9 out of every 10 people in the world regularly breathe air that is considered to contain high levels of pollutants.. What are the causes of air pollution, though, and what can we do about it?. Lets take a look.. 1. Vehicle Exhaust Fumes. In city environments, the leading source of air pollution is vehicle exhaust fumes. This is because they release very high amounts of carbon monoxide. The largest pollutant in the U.S. is carbon monoxide.. In the US alone, there are millions of vehicles being operated every day.. While it might not seem like much, you can help by choosing to take other means of transportation when possible. Walking or biking are both great forms of exercise and dont contribute to air pollution. Taking public transportation is making is so much less exhaust fumes are being released into the atmosphere.. It can feel silly to sacrifice your ...
The African Development Bank is focusing more strongly on air pollution. As part of the banks 10-year strategy to facilitate Africas gradual transition to green growth, the bank has awarded Ramboll a contract for transport emission mapping and monitoring as well as capacity building in five cities.. Although indoor air pollution is the greatest problem, vehicle emissions are also steadily climbing, driven by urban sprawl, rapid motorisation and low levels of institutional capacity to manage traffic and its impacts. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that vehicle emissions account for 90% of urban air pollution in developing countries.. The main objective of the African Development Bank project is to advise city authorities and policy-makers on efficient and accurate methods for collecting, storing and analysing data as well as mapping air pollution levels in cities and, to identify options for financing low-emission transport technologies. The project will cover the ...
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Background Exposure to ambient particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Particle characteristics such as size, surface area and chemistry seem to influence the negative effects of particles. In this study, combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke, currently used in biological experiments, were analysed with respect to microstructure and chemistry. Methods Vehicle exhaust particles were collected in a road tunnel during two seasons, with and without use of studded tires, whereas wood smoke was collected from a stove with single-stage combustion. Additionally, a reference diesel sample (SRM 2975) was analysed. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM/HRTEM, EELS and SAED). Furthermore, the elemental and organic carbon fractions were quantified using thermal optical transmission analysis and the content of selected PAHs was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Carbon ...
One of the components of diesel exhaust (DE) is DPM which includes soot particles made up primarily of carbon and other solid particles made up of ash, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates and silicates. Diesel soot particles have a solid core consisting of elemental carbon, and are usually less than 1 micron in size, they have other substances attached to the surface, including organic carbon compounds.. Nearly all DPM is respirable in size and can be deposited deep in the lungs. The adverse health effects from DPM exposure include eye and respiratory irritation up to lung cancer if exposure is to high concentrations over a prolonged period of time.. High DPM concentrations can occur in confined areas or underground mines and may depend on the age of the equipment, the type of diesel engine and/or engine maintenance. The only way to determine the level of exposure experienced by workers is to measure personal exposure.. There is no current Worksafe Australia Occupational exposure standard for ...
Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds and benzene are emitted into the environment by motor vehicles. Air pollutants can contribute to urban air quality problems, such as photochemical smog and adversely affect human health. Further information on the impacts and sources of air pollutants is available from the Department of the Environment and Energy. National Pollutant Inventory data indicates that in Australia motor vehicles remain a major cause of air pollution in urban areas. However, not all vehicles contribute the same amount of air pollution to the atmosphere.. On the GVG, vehicles that meet a higher air pollution standard produce lower levels of harmful pollutants than vehicles of the same fuel type that meet a lower standard. The air pollution standard column reports on the standard to which the particular vehicle has been successfully certified in Australia.. Under Australias emission standards, vehicles fuelled by ...
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The next generation of London taxis will be gas powered plug-in hybrids. Heres why. After the Arab Oil Embargoes in the 70s, all of Europe and the UK went crazy for diesel powered cars, because diesel engines are more fuel efficient than their gas powered cousins. Diesel fuel in that part of the world is taxed at a lower rate than gasoline to encourage motorists to buy diesel powered cars. As a result, almost half of all new cars sold there every year are diesels.. But theres a catch. (Isnt there always?) The one thing European and UK regulators didnt realize 40 years ago is that diesel emissions are considerably higher than those from gas powered engines, especially when it comes to nitrous oxides and particulates. Manufacturers were supposed to be designing systems to deal with those issues, but as we now know from the Volkswagen diesel emissions cheating scandal, diesel emissions in the real world are much higher than they appear to be in testing.. Today in London, every one of its ...
Although traffic flow has attracted a great amount of attention in past decades, few of the studies focused on heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of different types of drivers or vehicles. This paper attempts to investigate the model and stability analysis of the heterogeneous traffic flow, including drivers with different characteristics. The two critical characteristics of drivers, sensitivity and cautiousness, are taken into account, which produce four types of drivers: the sensitive and cautious driver (S-C), the sensitive and incautious driver (S-IC), the insensitive and cautious driver (IS-C), and the insensitive and incautious driver (IS-IC). The homogeneous optimal velocity car-following model is developed into a heterogeneous form to describe the heterogeneous traffic flow, including the four types of drivers. The stability criterion of the heterogeneous traffic flow is derived, which shows that the proportions of the four types of drivers and their stability functions only relating ...
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The projects principal investigator is Luis Velarde, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry. Co-principal investigators are Gang Wu, PhD, assistant professor in Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, and Michel Dupuis, PhD, research professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.. Traffic air pollution, genetic variation and autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been increasing in the last few decades. In 2010, 1 out of 68 children in the United States was diagnosed with ASD. Improved diagnosis may partially explain the recent increase, while the complete understanding of ASD development and the reason for the rapid growing prevalence remains unclear.. Air pollution has been associated with various health effects including child development. In urban areas, traffic-related air pollutants (TRP) are the most important contributor to local air pollution and the principal source of intra-urban variation in air pollution ...
In other news, Sri Lanka Environment and Natural Resources Minister A.H.M. Fowzie has announced a plan that that would completely ban the use of vehicles that do not comply with new emissions standards. The New Vehicle Emissions standards are currently set to take effect on January 1, 2006. The Ministers plan to ban noncompliant vehicles will need to be approved by the full Cabinet before taking effect. The UN has background[PDF] on Sri Lanka vehicle emission policies. The Sri Lanka Daily News has more.... The Maine Board of Environmental Protection (BEP) on Thursday approved a plan that would adopt the California Zero Emission Vehicle program. If passed by the Maine legislature this winter, the program would require, starting in 2009, 6 percent of all vehicles sold in Maine to have the newest available emissions control technology (ie. clean-burning gasoline) and an additional 4 percent to have essentially zero emissions, as found in gas-electric hybid vehicles. Critics of the plan point out ...
Unlike gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas engines, diesel engines do not use high-voltage spark ignition (spark plugs). An engine running on diesel compresses the air inside the cylinder to high pressures and temperatures (compression ratios from 14:1 to 18:1 are common in current diesel engines); the engine generally injects the diesel fuel directly into the cylinder, starting a few degrees before top dead center (TDC) and continuing during the combustion event. The high temperatures inside the cylinder cause the diesel fuel to react with the oxygen in the mix (burn or oxidize), heating and expanding the burning mixture to convert the thermal/pressure difference into mechanical work, i.e., to move the piston. Engines have glow plugs and grid heaters to help start the engine by preheating the cylinders to a minimum operating temperature. Diesel engines are lean burn engines,[30] burning the fuel in more air than is needed for the chemical reaction. They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ...
The researchers supplemented the measurements made in the traffic environments with experiments carried out in the engine laboratory. The findings supported the outcome of the measurements carried out in a traffic environment: nanoclusters form an essential part of particle emissions from engines, but their quantity is also dependent on, for example, the driving situation. According to the researchers, it is also probable that the techniques used in a car, such as the fuel type and the exhaust gas cleaning system, all have an effect in nanocluster emissions. This is also supported by observations made in the roadside: nanoclusters were not present in the exhaust gas of every car that drove past the measuring station.. It is likely that, for example, the high content of sulphuric acid in the exhaust gas advances the formation of nanoclusters, and therefore increases the vehicles nanocluster emission level. According to earlier research, the sulphuric acid content of the exhaust gas depends at ...
Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been employed to examine the factors that increase the risk of such dysfunction. We used aconitine to test whether a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of arrhythmia being triggered in hypertensive rats. We hypothesised that DE exposure increases the risk of arrhythmia due to sensory irritation during and after inhalation. Spontaneously hypertensive rats surgically implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed to 150 μg/m3 of DE or filtered air for 4 h. Arrhythmogenesis was assessed 24 h later in urethane-anaesthetised animals by continuous intravenous infusion of aconitine while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored. Rats exposed to DE had lower HR when compared to air-exposed animals. Exposure to DE resulted in significantly shorter PR intervals, and significantly prolonged corrected QT ...
In the context of travel demand uncertainty, this paper investigates how to determine the robust road speed limits for improving mobility and lowering vehicular emissions in bimodal transportation systems that involve private cars and subway. More specifically, the total demand vector is supposed to vary within a given set. Our target is to find the optimal road speed limits against the worst feasible demand scenario so as to minimize the sum social cost of system travel time and vehicular emissions. In order to estimate traffic emissions more reliably, motor vehicle emission simulator (MOVES) is utilized to simulate the emission factor function with respect to average speed. On these bases, we formulate the robust speed limits design problem as a “min-max” nonlinear model with complementarity constraints and solve it iteratively by a cutting-plane scheme that contains two sub-MPCCs. A numerical example is illustrated at the end.
Optimisation of combustion engines combined with modern catalytic converters has contributed to a significant reduction of pollutant emissions [1,2]. Recently, new catalysts for diesel cars have been introduced to decrease NOx-emissions. Cu-based zeolites are the active component for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx using NH3, which is obtained by decomposition of urea (AdBlue®). There is a debate in the literature on the structure and position of active Cu-sites within the zeolite. A profound understanding of the catalyst operation will support rational catalyst design and the development of control algorithms for exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Characterisation of the material before and after the reaction can provide initial ideas on the catalysts behaviour. However, for comprehensive characterisation, it is essential to study the catalyst under working conditions since many intermediate steps are only observable while the reaction is occurring because the structure of ...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed
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Communities need to efficiently estimate the burden from specific pollutants and identify those most at risk to make timely informed policy decisions. We developed a risk-based model to estimate the burden of black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on coronary heart disease (CHD) across environmental justice (EJ) and non-EJ populations in Allegheny County, PA. Exposure estimates in census tracts were modeled via land use regression and analyzed in relation to US Census data. Tracts were ranked into quartiles of exposure (Q1-Q4). A risk-based model for estimating the CHD burden attributed to BC and NO2 was developed using county health statistics, census tract level exposure estimates, and quantitative effect estimates available in the literature. For both pollutants, the relative occurrence of EJ tracts (| 20% poverty and/or | 30% non-white minority) in Q2 - Q4 compared to Q1 progressively increased and reached a maximum in Q4. EJ tracts were 4 to 25 times more likely to be in the highest quartile