Many studies have been carried out, using several animal species, to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of exposure to whole exhaust and to components of exhaust from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engines. The studies are considered within six subgroupings: (i) whole diesel engine exhaust; (ii) gas-phase diesel engine exhaust (with particles removed); (iii) diesel engine exhaust particles or extracts of diesel engine exhaust particles; (iv) whole gasoline engine exhaust; (v) condensates/extracts of gasoline engine exhaust; and (vi) engine exhausts in combination with known carcinogens. Whole diesel engine exhaust Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by inhalation to a range of concentrations of whole diesel engine exhaust, with observations in some studies extending to the lifespan of the animals. Five studies conducted using two different strains of rats showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant lung tumours that was ...
A Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened in Lyon, France, June 5-12 to scrutinise the available knowledge base on the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes.1 Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and nitroarenes were previously evaluated by IARC in 1989.2 For gasoline engine exhaust the classification remained Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) as well as for seven of the nitroarenes. The newly evaluated nitroarene 3-nitrobenzanthrone was also added to this group. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene were classified as 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene are important exposure markers for diesel exhaust since metabolites of these substances have been found in workers exposed to diesel exhaust.3-5 The most prominent outcome of the IARC evaluation meeting was the upgrade of the classification of diesel exhaust, now in Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans with sufficient ...
Air pollution plays a role in cancer risk, particularly in lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancerrelated mortality worldwide. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a component of diesel exhaust products, is a complex mixture of particle compounds that include a large number of known and suspected human carcinogens. Historically, lung cancer, which is associated with DEPs, has been the focus of attention as a health risk in human and animal studies. However, the mechanism by which DEPs cause lung cancer remains unclear. The present study reports that DEPs increased miR21 expression and then activated the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, which may serve as an important carcinogenic mechanism. However, the data revealed that shortterm exposure to a high DEP concentration did not cause evident cell carcinogenesis in HBE cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. AU - Lan, Qing. AU - Vermeulen, Roel. AU - Dai, Yufei. AU - Ren, Dianzhi. AU - Hu, Wei. AU - Duan, Huawei. AU - Niu, Yong. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Fu, Wei. AU - Meliefste, Kees. AU - Zhou, Baosen. AU - Yang, Jufang. AU - Ye, Meng. AU - Jia, Xiaowei. AU - Meng, Tao. AU - Bin, Ping. AU - Kim, Christopher. AU - Bassig, Bryan A.. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Silverman, Debra. AU - Zheng, Yuxin. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in a diesel engine truck testing ...
Studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) suppresses pulmonary host defense against bacterial infection. The present study was carried out to characterize whether DEP exposure exerts a sustained effect in which inhaled DEP increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection occurring at a later time. Brown Norway rats were exposed to filtered air or DEP by inhal
Background: Urban air pollution can trigger asthma exacerbations, but the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, or onset of airway disease and allergic sensitization in children is less clear. Methods: All 2107 children aged 9-14 from 40 schools in Rome in 2000-2001 were included in a cross-sectional survey. Respiratory symptoms were assessed on 1760 children by parental questionnaires (response rate=83.5%). Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests and lung function was measured by spirometry on 1359 children (77.2%). Three indicators of traffic-related air pollution exposure were assessed, i.e. self-reported traffic outside the childs home, the measured distance between the childs home and busy roads, and the residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels estimated by a land-use regression model (R2=0.69). Results: We found a strong association between estimated NO2 exposure per 10 μg/m3 and lung function, especially expiratory flows, in ...
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are major constituents of ambient air pollution and their adverse health effect is an area of intensive investigations. With respect to the immune system, DEP have attracted significant research attention as a factor that could influence allergic diseases interfering with cytokine production and chemokine expression. With this exception, scant data are available on the impact of DEP on lymphocyte homeostasis. Here, the effects of nanoparticles from Euro 4 (E4) and Euro 5 (E5) light duty diesel engines on the phenotype and function of T lymphocytes from healthy donors were evaluated. T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood obtained from healthy volunteers and subsequently stimulated with different concentration (from 0.15 to 60 μg/ml) and at different time points (from 24 h to 9 days) of either E4 or E5 particles. Immunological parameters, including apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation levels, mitochondrial function, expression of activation markers and cytokine
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
German researchers report more evidence of another risk factor for developing type II diabetes: traffic related air pollution. After following a group of middle-aged women for 16 years, the authors find that exposure to high levels of air pollution is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes in later years.... The study is one of the first to follow participants over many years in order to look at whether traffic-related air pollution might be linked to the risk of developing diabetes later in life. It agrees with a handful of prior human and animal studies that have suggested a link between the two. As the world becomes increasingly urban and megacities emerge, traffic-related air pollution is an increasingly serious problem. It poses environmental, ecological and human health risks, including well-documented respiratory illnesses such as asthma and lung cancer ...
Get this from a library! Automobile exhaust emission testing : measurement of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components, exhaust emission tests. [Horst Klingenberg]
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This paper deals with a research project concerning an effective utilization of exhaust gas heat. Exhaust gas from a exhaust gas-separate type two-stroke cycle engine containing a high concentration of unburned gas was temporarily stored in a floating-bell type tank as an form of heat energy conservation, while in the previous report [1]* exhaust heat was recovered with continuous operation. A Stirling engine with a hot-water supply system was then used to oxidize or burn again the exhaust gas in a catalyzer and an after-burner unit in order to recover the unspent heat energy from the exhaust gas. A three-way catalyzer was employed to remove pollutants both from the combustion gas in this process and the high-concentration burned gas from the two-stroke cycle engine.The results of the research in the present paper are intended as a follow-up of the previous report [1] to clarify a method for the more effective use of exhaust gas heat. Similarly to the results presented in the previous paper the ...
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attent
Human β-defensin (hBD)-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated A549 cells. IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional
Elemental carbon was collected with the possibility of using elemental carbon as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter. The terms elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC) and soot are often used by atmospheric researchers to designate products of incomplete combustion that contain randomly oriented graphitic structures interspersed with other compounds. Elemental carbon has been considered a good surrogate for diesel particulate matter because of the relatively high fraction of elemental carbon in diesel particle matter and the relatively high particulate matter emissions from diesel-powered vehicles, compared to gasoline-powered vehicles. Some studies imply a correspondence between elemental carbon measurements and diesel PM related to large truck traffic. But as diesel technologies improved and the diesel fleet became cleaner, it became more difficult to use elemental carbon alone as the marker for diesel particulate matter. Since other sources of elemental carbon became more significant ...
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) represent a key component of particulate matter pollution and a serious cardiopulmonary health risk, as these particles have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality following exposure. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of DEP on helper T cells by measuring changes in activation, cytokine production, and viability. The expression of CD40L, a key regulatory protein, was increased by DEP in the absence of physiologic stimuli without parallel increases in the expression of CD25 and CD69 activation markers. Additional studies utilizing a variety of T cell stimuli, including T cell receptor signaling and CD28 construction, showed consistent and reproducible increases in the expression of CD40L with negligible effects on other activation markers. Further studies demonstrated that the ability of DEP to augment CD40L production was restricted to the induction of the membrane-bound form of this protein, as soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was
The combined effects of turbocharging, high fuel injection pressure, and reduced oil consumption on diesel exhaust emissions were investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. The influence of these exhaust emission control concepts on particulate composition was determined using a new particulate analysis method. In addition, the dependence of particulate composition on engine load and air utilization was examined using the microfumigation technique. Simultaneous application of these emissions control concepts reduced exhaust particulates by 70 percent. High injection pressure reduced the insoluble component of particulates, while reducing oil consumption and turbocharging the engine lowered both soluble and insoluble particulates. Reductions in oil-derived particulates with increasing engine load were partially attributed to increases in volumetric air utilization. Ninety percent of the lube oil found in exhaust particulates was unburned; however, similar concentrations of unburned and ...
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
Protective Effect of Curcumin on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects Induced by Repeated Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This topic contains 6 study abstracts on Diesel Exhaust Particle Toxicity indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Catechin, Rosemary, and Onion
Li, J., Patterson, M., Chew, W. L., Cho, S-H., Gilmour, I., Oliver, T., ... Liedtke, W. (2011). TRPV4-Mediated calcium-influx into human bronchial epithelia upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 784 - 793. ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
The heat from the exhaust gas of diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power using a separate Rankine Cycle (RC) or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Water is the best working fluid for this type of applications in terms of efficiency of the RC system, availability and environmental friendliness. However, for small engines and also at part load operations, the exhaust gas temperature is not sufficient enough to heat the steam to be in superheated zone, which after expansion in the turbine needs to be in superheated zone. Ammonia was found to be an alternate working fluid for these types of applications which can run at low exhaust temperatures. Computer simulation was carried out with an optimized heat exchanger to estimate additional power with water and ammonia as the working fluids. ANSYS 14.0 CFX software was used for the simulation. It was found that at full load 23.7% and 10.9% additional power were achieved by using water and ammonia as the working fluids ...
A radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehiclesproduce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors. Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths ...
A radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehiclesproduce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors. Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths ...
Combustion-derived pure carbon nanoparticulate, or whats found in diesel fuel exhaust, was found to have adverse effects on the blood vessel system.
Children whose parents perceived their lives as unpredictable, uncontrollable, or overwhelming had increased risk of new onset asthma associated with TRP and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Furthermore, susceptibility to TRP attributable to parental education was markedly attenuated after accounting for the susceptibility attributable to parental stress. While parental stress may influence the development of asthma in a child due to biological and behavioral pathways other than psychological stress in children (26), the observed pattern of susceptibility to air pollution based on stress was not explained by potentially relevant history of illness and a range of behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental risk factors for asthma. Although there were relatively few children with a history of in utero tobacco smoke exposure, significantly larger effects were observed both among children with low parental education and with high parental stress. Thus, common biological pathways may underlie the ...
A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the
The study used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the hearts of 3,896 subjects that had no cardiovascular diseases at the beginning of the study. Researchers also determined the levels of nitrous dioxide surrounding each subjects home. Researchers found that there was an association between higher nitrous oxide levels and changes in the right ventricul of the heart.. Dr. Peter Leary, lead author of the study, said in a new release that, "Although the link between traffic-related air pollution and left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and cardiovascular death is established, the effects of the traffic-related air pollution on the right ventricle have not been well studied.". The Environmental Protection Agency began investigating pollution resulting from fossil fuels back in the 1970s, and found in 2010 that by decreasing sulfur dioxides, nitrous oxides and other particulate matter, environmental regulations were able to effectively prevent 130,000 heart attacks, 86,000 ...
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San Francisco- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced over $2.2 million in Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) grants to partners along the West Coast and Pacific Island Territories. The 14 grants are administered through the West Coast Collaborative, an EPA Region9 and Region 10 public-private partnership aimed at reducing diesel emissions and leveraging an additional $6 million from public, private and nonprofit partners. The EPA-funded projects will clean up 93 medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines, and reduce over 262 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 16 tons of particulate matter (PM) and 8,317 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the life of the projects. "Public-private partnerships like the West Coast Collaborative continue to advance emission reductions," said Jared Blumenfeld, Regional Administrator for EPAs Pacific Southwest Office. "By promoting clean diesel technologies, we can save lives locally and play a leadership role on climate change globally." "These grants ...
Vehicle emissions are a major public health issue. We already know that the best thing you can do if you want to bring your crime rate down is to switch to unleaded gasoline and then wait for 20 years. Now were learning that if you want to improve the health of babies (and healthy babies become much more productive members of society when they grow up), simply installing an EZ-Pass tollbooth has a large and significant positive effect: the resulting improvements in congestion and emissions more than make up for any excess emissions from cars crawling through the toll plaza itself.. The negative externalities from driving, then, are significantly greater than the ones that the likes of Charles Komanoff calculates - and those are $160 per trip, in Manhattan. If we want to become a happier, healthier, more prosperous nation, then we have to wean ourselves off our car addiction. It wont be fast, and it wont be easy. But its profoundly necessary.. (Via Wessel). Update: The E-Z Pass study can be ...
Disclosed is a system and method which systematically diagnoses emissions test failure by applying the rules of a knowledge base to predict the cause of vehicle emissions failures. Classifiers are used to form predictions. The classifier is the data structure used in the automobile emission testing inspection lane by the lane diagnostic subsystem to provide a diagnosis for a particular vehicle. Its output is the likelihood that a vehicle suffers from a given failure based on the values of characteristics such as its emissions test results and the vehicles description. The classifier predictions are then used to prepare a failure report that is given to the motorist for use by his or her repair technician. In another feature of this invention, the classifiers are continuously updated in a learning process based on new repair records. The learning processes periodically analyzes the data and updates the knowledge base to include new or revised classifiers.
The Department of Motor Traffic was established in 1928 with a view of performing the functions stipulated under the Motor Traffic Act. Main Mission is through team work of motivated staff and modern technology executing the rules and regulations entrusted by the Motor Traffic Act and others in an efficient manner for highest public appreciation. Their Objectives is Provide efficient and effective service as entrusted by the Motor Traffic Act, Execute other vested laws and regulations efficiently and effectively, Optimum use of Human, Physical and financial Resources within the Department.. TIMING: 04 - 09 December 2017 (excluding travel time). VENUE: Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. DONOR: Government of Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS: There are 20 Participants from the Department of Motor Traffic, Government of Sri Lanka who are engaged in the technical professionals engaged in the Vehicle Emission Testing Program, Department of Motor Traffic. Their main purpose is to enhance the technical ...
Real-Time testing and analysis of vehicle emissions. SIFT-MS provides real-time, humidity- independent analysis of diverse combustion products over wide linearity and dynamic ranges, making it eminently suitable for direct analysis of motor vehicle tailpipe emissions.
In the recent years, environmental concerns and depletion in petroleum resources have forced researchers to concentrate on finding renewable alternatives to conventional petroleum fuels. Therefore, alcohols as renewable and alternative energy sources for the diesel engines gain importance. For this reason, in this study, the performance, exhaust emissions, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated under different injection timings when methanol-blended diesel fuel was used from 0 to 15%, with an increment of 5%. The tests were conducted at three different injection timings (15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. All tests were conducted at four different loads (5, 10, 15, and 20 Nm) at constant engine speed of 2200 rpm. The experimental test results showed that BSFC, BSEC, combustion efficiency, and NOx and CO2 emissions increased as BTE, rate of heat release, peak cylinder pressure, ...
A device for treatment of exhaust gases includes a housing, a fragile structure resiliently mounted within the housing, and a non-intumescent mounting mat disposed in a gap between the housing and the fragile structure. The mounting mat includes a plurality of inorganic fibers that have undergone a surface treatment to increase the holding force performance of the mounting mat. Also disclosed are methods of making a mounting mat for an exhaust gas treatment device and for making an exhaust gas treatment device incorporating the mounting mat.
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Background Previous studies found effect modification of associations between traffic-related air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes by polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis gene (HFE). As...
Diesel engines emit lower concentrations of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide than petrol engines, but they can generate over 100 times more particles per distance travelled than similar sized petrol engines, and are major contributors to particulate pollution in the atmosphere. Previous studies have shown that in urban environments, almost 90 per cent of traffic-generated particulate matter is from diesel exhausts. Professor Fan Chung, from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London and one of the authors of the study, said: "Our study illustrates the need to reduce pollution in order to protect peoples health. For the first time we are able to measure exactly whats happening inside the lungs of people with asthma when they spend only a couple of hours strolling in a real-life polluted area. By observing the effect of pollutant diesel particles on the lung surfaces, we can confirm that such an exposure causes inflammation in the lungs of asthmatic people. "Our study ...
Markus Bainschab, a researcher at TU Grazs Institute of Electronic Sensor Systems who is also in charge of the development of the new measuring system explains why such small particles were not able to be measured:. "At the sub-23 nm scale, there are many liquid particles in the exhaust gas. These volatile droplets are not as dangerous to health as the solid particles. For an exact test result, we have to ensure that liquid particles are not detected by mistake during measurement. Using current measuring methods it is qualitatively not possible to remove the liquid particles without losing a large part of the solid particles. But we have succeeded in doing this through an optimized dilution system and the oxidation of hydrocarbons with the aid of a catalyst.". Better understanding of the effects of exhaust gases on air pollution. The heart of the process is a mobile emission measuring device that is attached to the vehicle exhaust pipe and measures both new and old ultrafine particles. The ...
Motor vehicle emissions are the most significant source of particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. This study was undertaken to observe the evolution of aerosols downwind from a busy road, concentrating specifically on the aerosol total number maximum and number size distribution. A Grimm Aerosol Technik (5.400) CPC and DMA 5.5-900 classifier were used to measure ultra-fine particles from 9.8 nm to 1.1 μm at varying distances up to 100 m from the road side. Contrary to current accepted aerosol theory particle number concentration was seen to rise with increasing horizontal distance from the road side up to a maximum distance of about 100m. As this occurred the number of fine particle was seen to increase as numbers of larger particles declined. These findings are discussed in light of existing aerosol literature on aerosol formation and dispersion.. ...
SAN FRANCISCO) - In a move that stands to create jobs, boost local economies, reduce diesel emissions and protect human health and the environment for the people of Arizona, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $829,697 to the city of Phoenix to reduce diesel emissions by retrofitting and replacing city-owned equipment. This clean diesel project will create jobs while protecting air quality in the Phoenix area. ...
While exacerbations of asthma clearly correlate with air quality, geographical comparisons of the prevalence of asthma or allergies do not follow differences in urban background levels of pollutants, such as PM2.5 or PM10. Novel approaches now integrate local measurements of traffic-related pollutants, geographic information systems, information about land use and spatial modelling techniques to characterise the local distribution of traffic-related pollutants within communities. People living alongside busy roads experience several-fold higher exposures to traffic-related primary pollutants than people living some 50-100 m further away. Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of childhood asthma as a function of proximity to traffic strongly suggest that living close to a busy road increases the risk of developing asthma in childhood, even with confounding factors taken into account. Despite rather different urban structures, traffic patterns and car fleets, this finding has now ...
An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein draws atmospheric air into the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for each of the control valves and they are operated by vacuum pressure controlled by a regulating valve, which regulating valve is responsive to differential pressure between vacuum intensity in the intake passage upstream from said throttle valve and modified atmospheric pressure. The modified atmospheric pressure is obtained downstream of a fixed or variable restriction in the air conduit.
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Article The effect of aircraft engine exhaust gases on the environment. The sources of air pollution are classified as point, line and surface sources. Motor vehicle pollution is modelled as a line source. Hitherto, studies of air pollution have emph...
Background: Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that exposure to traffic-derived pollution worsens respiratory symptoms in asthmatics, but controlled human exposure studies have failed to provide a mechanism for this effect. Here we investigated whether diesel exhaust (DE) would induce apoptosis or proliferation in the bronchial epithelium in vivo and thus contribute to respiratory symptoms.. Methods: Moderate (n = 16) and mild (n = 16) asthmatics, atopic non-asthmatic controls (rhinitics) (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 21) were exposed to filtered air or DE (100 μg/m 3 ) for 2 h, on two separate occasions. Bronchial biopsies were taken 18 h post-exposure and immunohistochemically analysed for pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bak, p85 PARP, Fas, Bcl-2) and a marker of proliferation (Ki67). Positive staining was assessed within the epithelium using computerized image analysis.. Results: No evidence of epithelial apoptosis or proliferation was observed in healthy, allergic or ...
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