Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Effect of acetylcholine, bradykinin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on the canine airways and pulmonary vascular bed (authors transl)]. by Yuichi Sugiyama et al.
VIP and PACAP are potent immunosuppressive agents that affect both innate and adaptive immunity (14, 15, 16). Until now, the mechanisms described for their immunosuppressive activity included macrophage/dendritic cell/microglia deactivation, and support for Th2 effector differentiation and survival. In this study, we report on the induction of Treg through the VIP/PACAP generation of tolerogenic DCs.. We reported previously that VIP/PACAP have different effects on immature and LPS-matured DCs (17). The VIP/PACAP treatment of immature DCs led to the up-regulation of CD86, and increased capacity to stimulate CD4 T cells and promote Th2-type responses. In contrast, the VIP/PACAP treatment of LPS-matured DCs prevented the expression of CD80 and CD86, reduced the stimulatory activity for CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production, and differentially affecting Th1- and Th-2 chemoattractants (23, 24). These results support the previously reported effect of VIP/PACAP on the immune response, i.e., ...
In vitro pharmacological studies demonstrated that exogenously applied vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) relaxes the smooth muscle cells of cat cerebral arteries, whereas substance P constricts them. Ultrastructural-immunocytochemical techniques show that a VIP-like substance is present in the large granular vesicles of nonsympathetic nerve axons and terminals in the cerebral arterial walls. These results provide strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that a VIP-like substance is the transmitter for vasodilation in cerebral blood vessels. ...
The thinking of the older toddler is definitely more advanced than that of the infant or adolescent toddler, who views the set as a series of objects. Such interactions can reflect the adeptness of a toxicant to aid a metabolic pathway that is involved in the bioacti- vation of the co-administered toxicant, thereby resulting in greater cubicle mistreatment before the toxic metabolite. Am Rev Respir Orcus 1987;135:86974 van de Garde EM, Hak E, Souverein PC, et al viagra 75mg free shipping impotence etymology. In vivo punch of chronic management of vasoactive intestinal peptide on gut-associated lymphoid tissues in rats. In the future, to perceive deleterious effects on gamete forming, test chemicals are repeatedly administered to mans and female animals with a view between 2 and 6 weeks in duration last to mating. alone the reference outgo of medically treating low is galactic discount penegra 100 mg visa androgen hormone 3 ep. They may occurrence more infections during the premier 1 to 2 years ...
To identify the molecular components of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the liver, 125I-labelled VIP was covalently linked to liver membranes by using the cleavable cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate). Purified rat liver plasma membranes were incubated with 125I-VIP, washed and treated with 1 mM-cross-linker. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by autoradiography revealed a major 125I-VIP-protein complex of Mr 51 000. A minor Mr 89 000 complex was also observed. An identical pattern of protein labelling was obtained using crude membranes from rat liver. Labelling of the Mr 51 000 and 89 000 species was specific in that it could be abolished by native VIP, but was unaffected by 1 microM-glucagon and cholecystokinin octapeptide. Densitometric scanning of autoradiographs indicated that the labelling of the two species was abolished by similar low VIP concentrations (0.1-100 nM). It was also reduced by two VIP agonists, peptide ...
Purpose: : Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) directly converts the normally susceptible C57/BL/6 (B6) mouse to resistant after P. aeruginosa induced keratitis. Previously we have shown that VIP regulates cytokine/chemokine production, host inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules expression. This study tested the hypothesis that VIP also regulates Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-related molecules, modulating the inflammatory response and promoting corneal healing and resistance. Methods: : B6 mice were injected i.p. with recombinant (r) VIP daily from -1 through 7 days p.i. Control mice were similarly injected with PBS. In vitro stimulation assays also were performed using A6(1) cells to test the effects of VIP on corneal epithelial cells specifically. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess rVIP treatment in the regulation of TLR and TLR-related molecule expression both in vivo and in vitro. Results: : ...
Purpose : Numerous studies have demonstrated the essential roles of the peripheral nervous system as the neuroendocrine system, mediating the secretion of neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters to suppress the excessive inflammatory reactions in autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease. We recently reported that loss of corneal nerve leads to corneal inflammation and the loss of neurogenic immune privilege. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on innate immunity in denervated cornea. Methods : Trigeminal axotomy (TA) or sham procedure were performed in 6-8 week-old male BALB/c mice. Corneal opacity grading, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and corneal cytokine levels were determined 24 hours after 20μg of LPS instillation onto the cornea with or without TA and topical VIP treatment (more than N=3). Corneal opacity grading was as follows; grade 0: clear, grade 1: mild opacity, grade 2: moderate opacity, grade 3: severely dense ...
Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drugs ...
Signaling pathways that activate CREB may inhibit the potency of T cell responses following stimulation. One of the major mechanisms by which this occurs is the sequestration of CBP, which is also an NF-κB binding partner. One of the major molecules that signals through this pathway is vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP is a 28 amino acid peptide that is secreted throughout the body by a variety of cell types including immune cells. VIP has shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory molecule with pleiotropic effects on T cells including cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cytokine secretion. The VIP signaling pathway represents a therapeutic target in disease settings in which a more robust T cell response would be beneficial. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that has been explored as a candidate for a variety of T cell-based immunotherapies due to weak CD8 responses to AML blasts. We demonstrate here that administration of a hybrid peptide antagonist that blocks VIP ...
Published in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 527, num. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Related Peptides, p. 110-129 ...
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vasoactive intestinal peptide (Science: gastroenterology, protein) peptide of 28 amino acids, originally isolated from porcine intestine, but later found in the central nervous system where it acts as a neuropeptide and is released by specific interneurons. May also affect behaviour of cells of the immune system. ...
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with potent circulatory effects in the adult animal and human. Little is known about its effects or mechanism of action in the immature animal. These series of experiments evaluated the effects and possible mechanism of action of VIP on the developing canine cardiovascular system. In all three series, measurements of mean heart rate and blood pressure were taken in the control state, after parasympathetic denervation with bilateral cervical vagotomies, and after autonomic blockade with propranolol (1 mg/kg) and phentolamine (0.5 mg i.v.). In series 1, we characterized the role of alpha-adrenergic receptors in early newborn puppies by investigating the hemodynamic effects of phentolamine alone in five early newborn puppies. In series 2, the hemodynamic effects of intravenous VIP infusion (0.2 microgram/kg/min) were recorded and compared in six early newborn puppies and in 10 late newborn puppies. In series 3, the hemodynamic effects of ...
VPAC1 is a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase.[1] VIP acts in an autocrine fashion via VPAC11 to inhibit megakaryocyte proliferation and induce proplatelet formation.[5][6] ...
The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. At a cellular level, the SCN expresses different electrical activity in circadian time. Higher activity is observed during the day, while during night there is lower activity. This rhythm is thought to be important feature of SCN to synchronize with each other and control rhythmicity in other regions.[18]. VIP acts as a major synchronizing agent among SCN neurons and plays a role in synchronizing the SCN with light cues. The high concentration of VIP and VIP receptor containing neurons are primarily found in the ventrolateral aspect of the SCN, which is also located above the optic chiasm. The neurons in this area receive retinal information from the retinohypothalamic tract and then relay the environmental information to the SCN.[11] Further, VIP is also involved in synchronizing the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. ...
Sympathetic ganglia are composed of noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons. The differentiation of cholinergic sympathetic neurons is characterized by the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), induced in vitro by a subfamily of cytokines, including LIF, CNTF, GPA, OSM and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). To interfere with the function of these neuropoietic cytokines in vivo, antisense RNA for gp130, the common signal-transducing receptor subunit for neuropoietic cytokines, was expressed in chick sympathetic neurons, using retroviral vectors. A strong reduction in the number of VIP-expressing cells, but not of cells expressing ChAT or the adrenergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was observed. These results reveal a physiological role of neuropoietic cytokines for the control of VIP expression during the development of cholinergic sympathetic neurons.. ...
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [T W Moody, F Zia, M Draoui, D E Brenneman, M Fridkin, A Davidson, I Gozes].
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Compliance Statement D: For laboratory tests using a manufactured RUO kit. This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by ARUP Laboratories. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved or cleared this test; however, FDA clearance or approval is not currently required for clinical use. The results are not intended to be used as the sole means for clinical diagnosis or patient management decisions ...
Autoimmune dysfunction of certain vasoactive neuropeptides (e.g., vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) m
VIP - VIP (untagged)-Human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Neocortical neurones can be classified according to several independent criteria: morphological, physiological, and molecular expression (neuropeptides (NPs) and/or calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)). While it has been suggested that particular NPs and CaBPs characterize certain anatomical subtypes of neurones, there is also considerable overlap in their expression, and little is known about simultaneous expression of multiple NPs and CaBPs in morphologically characterized neocortical neurones. Here we determined the gene expression profiles of calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in 268 morphologically identified neurones located in layers 2-6 in the juvenile rat somatosensory neocortex. We used patch-clamp electrodes to label neurones with biocytin and harvest the cytoplasm to perform single-cell RT-multiplex PCR. Quality threshold clustering, an unsupervised algorithm that clustered
This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. Although this protein was earlier thought to be a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), it is now considered to be an orphan receptor, in that its endogenous ligand has not been identified. The protein is also a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Translocations involving this gene and HMGA2 on chromosome 12 have been observed in lipomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Scientists are eyeing a rare genetic glitch for clues to improved treatments for some people with schizophrenia - even though they found the mutation in only one third of 1 percent of patients.. In the study, funded in part by the National Institutes of Health, schizophrenia patients were 14 times more likely than controls to harbor multiple copies of a gene on Chromosome 7. The mutations were in the gene for VIPR2, the receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) - a chemical messenger known to play a role in brain development. An examination of patients blood confirmed that they had overactive VIP activity.. Discovery of the same genetic abnormality in even a small group of patients buoys hopes for progress in a field humbled by daunting complexity in recent years. The researchers previous studies had suggested that the brain disorder that affects about 1 percent of adults might, in many cases, be rooted in different genetic causes in each affected individual, complicating prospects for ...
The researchers evaluated three different pathways involved in cell signaling, the complex system of communication that governs cell actions. It had previously been shown that three pathways (activated by vasoactive intestinal peptide, epidermal growth factor or phosphoinositide 3-kinase) are known to be involved in cell survival. The goal of the researchers was to learn how these pathways are involved in the cancer cells resisting death. They found that all three signaling pathways work by inactivating a protein known as BAD that causes cell death.. Kulik said it appears that each of the three molecules is separately capable of inactivating BAD, which means that prostate cancer cells have three redundant survival mechanisms.. "Our findings suggest that BAD is an important switch in the development and growth of prostate cancer," said Kulik.. Next, the researchers hope to conduct animal studies to test their findings.. "If our finding is confirmed in animals and in human tumors, there are ...
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1969年8月9日出生,安徽省怀宁县人。肿瘤学博士,主任医师,博士生导师,中山大学肿瘤防治中心综合科科室副主任。主要从事肿瘤综合治疗;肠癌、肺癌、乳腺癌等常见肿瘤的内科治疗(尤其是靶向治疗);VIP病人保健和管理。至今发表科研论文105篇,其中第一作者/通讯作者54篇(包括14篇SCI论文),主持12项科研基金,包括3项国家自然科学基金。 另外,承担...
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The Expression of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptor 1 Is Negatively Modulated by MicroRNA 525-5p. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The localization of the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding vasocative intestinal peptide/peptide histidine isoleucine (VIP/PHI) in the rat eye was studied by in situ hybridization histochemistry using a...
This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action of the essential oil of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, nitric oxide, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds in the gastroprotective effect was determined in male Wistar rats. The minimum inhibitory concentration against H. pylori was determined in vitro. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Dunnett test, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference. C. cajucara decreased ethanol-induced ulcer area in 100% of ulcers and decreased the histologic lesions. In the C. cajucara group, the area marked by heat-shock protein-70 was significantly higher than the area in the control group; this finding was not seen for vasoactive intestinal peptide. C. cajucara could not ...
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Parasite growth inside the erythrocyte causes dramatic alterations of host cell which similarly facilitates nutritional vitamins acquisition from extracellular environment and in other hand plays a part in the symptoms of serious malaria. for the bloodstream food and injects the sporozoites in to the dermis. Sporozoites after that migrate towards the liver organ infect hepatocytes and stay in a medically silent stage. Between 5 to 16 times later with regards to the types sporozoite undergoes an activity of asexual replication launching a large number of merozoites per contaminated hepatocytes in to the bloodstream. Some sporozoites are predestined to build up into non-dividing hepatocytic forms (hypnozoites) that may stay latent in the liver organ for a few months to years until they activate and trigger relapse attacks. Once in the blood stream each merozoite after that invades an erythrocyte and resides within a self-created membrane-bound vacuole and goes through recurring rounds of ...
The aim of this study was to construct a plasmid expressing glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) and D-dimer single-chain bispecific antibody for the targeted therapy of thrombosis. of drug with high avidity […]. ...
Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 also known as VPAC2, is a G-protein coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the VIPR2 gene. VIPR2 is expressed in the uterus, prostate, smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles and skin, blood vessels and thymus. VIPR2 is also expressed in the cerebellum. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are homologous peptides that function as neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. While the receptors for VIP (VIRP 1 and 2) and PACAP (ADCYAP1R1) share homology, they differ in their substrate specificities and expression patterns. VIPR2 transduction results in upregulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Furthermore, VIPR2 mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of VIP. Research using VPAC2 knockout mice implicate it in the function of the circadian clock, growth, basal energy expenditure and male reproduction. VIPR2 and/or PAC1 receptor activation is involved in cutaneous ...
In the goldfish pituitary, nerve fibers containing pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are located in close proximity to somatolactin (SL)-producing cells, and PACAP enhances SL release from cultured pituitary cells. However, there is little information about the mechanism of PACAP-induced SL release. In order to elucidate this issue, we used the cell immunoblot method. Treatment with PACAP at 10−8 and 10−7 M, but not with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) at the same concentrations, increased the immunoblot area for SL-like immunoreactivity from dispersed pituitary cells, and PACAP-induced SL release was blocked by treatment with the PACAP selective receptor (PAC1R) antagonist, PACAP(6-38), at 10−6 M, but not with the PACAP/VIP receptor antagonist, VIP(6-28). PACAP-induced SL release was also attenuated by treatment with the calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium at 10−6 M. This led us to explore the signal transduction mechanism up to SL release, and we ...
ABSTRACT: Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of rats in a unique pattern in response to uterine cervical stimulation (CS) during mating. Surges of PRL secretion occur in response to relief from hypothalamic dopaminergic inhibition and stimulation by hypothalamic releasing neurohormones. In this study, we characterized the role of oxytocin (OT) in this system and the involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in controlling OT and PRL secretion of CS rats. The effect of OT on PRL secretion was demonstrated in cultured lactotrophs showing simultaneous enhanced secretion rate and increased intracellular Ca(2+). Neurosecretory OT cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that express VIP receptors were identified by using immunocytochemical techniques in combination with the retrogradely transported neuronal tracer Fluoro-Gold (iv injected). OT measurements of serial blood samples obtained from ...
VIPR1 - VIPR1 (untagged)-Human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VIPR1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus are involved in mediating bacterial toxin-induced hypersecretion leading to diarrhoea. VIP neurons become hyperexcitable after the mucosa is exposed to cholera toxin, which suggests that the manipulation of the excitability of these neurons may be therapeutic. This study used standard intracellular recording methods to systematically characterize slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked in submucosal VIP neurons by different stimulus regimes (1, 3 and 15 pulse 30 Hz stimulation), together with their associated input resistances and pharmacology. All slow EPSPs were associated with a significant increase in input resistance compared to baseline values. Slow EPSPs evoked by a single stimulus were confirmed to be purinergic, however, slow EPSPs evoked by 15 pulse trains were non-purinergic and those evoked by 3 pulse trains were mixed. NK1 or NK3 receptor antagonists did not affect slow EPSPs. The
This study was initiated to characterize PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine amide)-27-like peptides (PLPs) in rat and porcine brain in comparison with other members of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) family and to investigate their distribution by radioimmunoassay. The peptidic nature of the rat brain PLP was indicated by its trypsin sensitivity. On Sephadex chromatography rat brain PLP has the same molecular weight as synthetic (porcine intestinal) PHI-27. High pressure liquid chromatographic separations revealed that PLP in rat and porcine brain extracts elutes as a single peak distinct from VIP or secretin. Porcine brain PLP elutes in the same position as synthetic PHI-27, whereas rat brain PLP immunoreactivity consistently separates from synthetic PHI-27. This suggests that porcine brain PLP is identical to synthetic PHI-27, in agreement with the reported sequence of Tatemoto et al. (Tatemoto, K., M. Carlquist, T. McDonald, and V. Mutt (1983) FEBS Lett. 153: 248-252), whereas PLP ...