A cyclic depsipeptide antibiotic, valinomycin, was found to produce increased selective permeability of the plasma membranes of HK and LK sheep red blood cells to potassium but not to sodium ions. The compound had relatively little effect on the active extrusion of sodium from HK sheep red blood cells or on the Na + K-stimulated ATPase activity of membranes derived from these cells. It is proposed that the selective cation permeability produced by this compound depends primarily on steric factors, particularly the relationship between the diameter of the ring and the effective diameter of the ion. The significance of these results for the problem of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in natural membranes is discussed.. ...
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A molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers. There are two classes: carriers and channels. Carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer.…
1. The properties of membrane vesicles from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus were investigated. 2. Vesicles prepared by exposure of spheroplasts to ultrasound contained cytochromes a, b and c, and at 50°C they rapidly oxidized NADH and ascorbate in the presence of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Succinate and l-malate were oxidized more slowly, and dl-lactate, l-alanine and glycerol 1-phosphate were not oxidized. 3. In the absence of proton-conducting uncouplers the oxidation of NADH was accompanied by a net translocation of H+ into the vesicles. Hydrolysis of ATP by a dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase was accompanied by a similarly directed net translocation of H+. 4. Uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin plus NH4+) prevented net H+ translocation but stimulated ATP hydrolysis, NADH oxidation and ascorbate oxidation. The last result suggested an energy-conserving site in the respiratory chain between cytochrome c ...
a) Spectrum obtained from the Hybrid Plate. (b) Spectrum obtained from plate by contact plate pressing. Figure 27 Spectra Obtained for 4.5 pmol of Valinomycin from the Hybrid Plate and by Contact Pressing Transfer. After separation, the plate (now acting as a transport system) was transferred to the laser desorption mass spectrometer source and spectra taken in the usual manner. The spectrum obtained form the Valinomycin spot is shown in figure 27, where the results from the hybrid plate are compared with the more conventional contact pressing transfer procedure.. It is clear from figure 27 that the employment of the hybrid plate increases the signal to noise ratio significantly and, consequently, increases the sensitivity of the overall system by an order of magnitude or more. For quantitative work it is clear that an external standard will be necessary and the precision of quantitative assays is not reported. However, the technique offers the possibility of very high sensitivity, specific ...
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Solid State Proton Conductors von Philippe Knauth, Maria Luisa Di Vona und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
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Cell line-dependent increase in cellular quercetin accumulation upon stress induced by valinomycin and lipopolysaccharide, but not by TNF-α (2019) Hanne Vissenaekens (UGent), Charlotte Grootaert (UGent), Andreja Rajkovic (UGent), Kristof De Schutter (UGent), Katleen Raes (UGent), Guy Smagghe (UGent), Tom Van de Wiele (UGent), John Van Camp (UGent ...
Many are directed against functional se- creted molecules of the immune system or their receptors, rather than against buy Snovitra groups of cells. 233.
The Institute of Diabetes Research of the Helmholtz Zentrum München has now registered 100,000 participants in the Bavarian study Fr1da on the early detection of type 1 diabetes. The study will be continued with an additional age group under the name Fr1da-plus: in addition to 2 to 5-year-olds, 9 and 10-year-old children can now also participate in the study.
Read "Influence of electrochemical proton gradient on electron flow in photosystem I of pea leaves, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Uptake of SO42− into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kindey cortex by a Ca2+-precipitation method was investigated by using a rapid-filtration technique. Uptake of SO42− by the vesicles was osmotically sensitive and represented transport into an intra-vesicular space. Transport of SO42− by brush-border membranes was stimulated in the presence of Na+, compared with the presence of K+ or other univalent cations. A typical overshoot phenomenon was observed in the presence of an NaCl gradient (100mm-Na+ outside/zero mm-Na+ inside). Radioactive-SO42− exchange was faster in the presence of Na+ than in the presence of K+. Addition of gramicidin-D, an ionophore for univalent cations, decreased the Na+-gradient-driven SO42− uptake. SO42− uptake was only saturable in the presence of Na+. Counter-transport of Na+-dependent SO42− transport was shown with MoO42− and S2O32−, but not with PO42−. Changing the electrical potential difference across the vesicle membrane by ...
The protonmotive force, ∆mFH+, is known as Δp in Peter Mitchells chemiosmotic theory [1], which establishes the link between electric and chemical components of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the pmF ranks among the most fundamental theories in biology. As such, it provides the framework for developing a consistent theory and nomenclature for mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. The protonmotive force is not a vector force as defined in physics. This conflict is resolved by the generalized formulation of isomorphic, compartmental forces, ∆trF, in energy (exergy) transformations [2]. Protonmotive means that there is a potential for the movement of protons, and force is a measure of the potential for motion. The pmF is generated in oxidative phosphorylation by oxidation of reduced fuel substrates and reduction of O2 to H2O, driving the coupled proton translocation from the mt-matrix space across the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
An uncoupler is a protonophore (CCCP, FCCP, DNP) which cycles across the inner mt-membrane with transport of protons and dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient. Mild uncoupling may be induced at low uncoupler concentrations, the noncoupled state of ET capacity is obtained at optimum uncoupler concentration for maximum flux, whereas at higher concentrations an uncoupler-induced inhibition is observed. Abbreviation: U Reference: Noncoupled respiration ...
E Coli ArsAB ATPase: ArsA and ArsB they form the As(III)-translocating ArsAB ATPase, which is independent of the electrochemical proton gradient
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The effects of pH gradients on the uptake and distribution of C14-procaine and lidocaine in intact and desheathed sciatic nerve trunks.:
The plasmoelectric effect: optically induced electrochemical potentials in resonant metallic structures Matthew T. Sheldon and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California
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The effects of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and GTP-gamma-S, known activators of GTP binding proteins, on proton transport were investigated in endosome-enriched vesicles (endosomes). Endosomes were prepared from rabbit renal cortex following the intravenous injection of FITC-dextran. The rate of intravesicular acidification was determined by measuring changes in fluorescence of FITC-dextran. Both GTP and GTP-gamma-S stimulated significantly the initial rate of proton transport. In contrast, GDP-beta-S, which does not activate GTP binding proteins, inhibited proton transport. The rank order of stimulation was GTP-gamma-S greater than GTP greater than control greater than GDP-beta-S. GTP-gamma-S stimulation of proton transport was also observed under conditions in which chloride entry was eliminated, i.e., 0 mM external chloride concentration in the presence of potassium/valinomycin voltage clamping. GTP-gamma-S did not affect proton leak in endosomes as determined by collapse of H+ ...
Principal Investigator:YAMANAKA Shinsuke, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Nuclear fusion studies
In pyroptosis experiments, nigericin can be used as a positive control to generate a robust caspase-1 activation response in a variety of cell lines.
Looking for online definition of Proton-motive force in the Medical Dictionary? Proton-motive force explanation free. What is Proton-motive force? Meaning of Proton-motive force medical term. What does Proton-motive force mean?
The Section for Proton Conductors focuses on materials science and electrochemical systems and components based on proton conducting cells in a broad sense, at low to intermediate temperature (below 400 °C). The electrolytes include direct proton conductors as well as indirect proton conductors like aqueous hydroxide. Research also encompasses electrocatalysis and development of complete cells around proton conducting electrolytes.. We synthesize polymers and manufacture and characterize proton conducting membranes. Special attention is devoted to high temperature membranes (polybenzimidazole, PBI) with chemical stability in acid as well as in base. Such polymers have been successfully applied in high-temperature PEM fuel cells, a research field in which we are pioneers. Lately, similar membranes have been successfully applied in alkaline electrolysis cells. Solid or liquid inorganic proton conductors are also studied for electrolysis above 200 °C. Within electrocatalysis our research focus is ...
The strategy applied in the structure refinement of accurate single-crystal neutron diffraction data for pseudo-centrosymmetric proton conducting systems can often be decisive. The application of a combination of judicious symmetry constraints and symmet. ...
In all cross-shore gradient-dependent mortality models the mortality function M was determined either by the cross-shore location of the particle (ADG), or by the cross-shore location of the particle and scaled solar insolation (ADGI). The cross-shore dependence of M was similar to the horizontal diffusion function used in all models (Eq. (1)): equation(8) ADG model:M=m1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscale equation(9) ADGI model:M=I(t)Imaxm1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscalewhere. m0 is surfzone mortality, m1 is offshore mortality, y0 is the offshore edge of the surfzone, and yscale determines the cross-shore scale of the surfzone/offshore transition. Values for y0 and yscale BGJ398 mouse were 50 m and 5 m, respectively, the same values used to parameterize diffusivity (Eq. (1)). Note that in the ADG and ADGI models, mortality is not an intrinsic property of a given particle (as in the ADS and ADSI models). Instead, particles move through stationary cross-shore mortality gradients and take on different mortality rates ...
Proposes the law of motive force as a fundamental law of nature and establishes its relation to other laws and principles in thermodynamics With the aid
BAM15, ST056388, mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane IDNUMBER ST056388 Other identifiers: SBB001916, ST4027337, T4021910, TBB011486, T3149443, ST236891 Formula: C16H10F2N6O MW: 340. 29 NAME: (2-fluorophenyl)amine SMILES: c12c(nc(c(n1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)non2 InChI=1S/C16H10F2N6O/c17-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)19-13-14(20-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)18)22-16-15(21-13)23-25-24-16/h1-8H,(H,19,21,23)(H,20,22,24) InChIKey=OEGJBRZAJRPPHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N MDL: MFCD00373912 Contact us to order....