Vaccinia Immune Globulin, Human (vax-IN-ee-a i-MUNE GLOB-ue-lin, HUE-man) Treats conditions caused by vaccinia virus, which can affect the skin, eyes, and mouth.
Advice and warnings for the use of Vaccinia immune globulin during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category C - Risk cannot be ruled out
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Vaccinia virus free virus antibody [8114] for ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC. Anti-Vaccinia virus free virus mAb (GTX36668) is tested in Vaccinia virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Vaccinia Virus antibody (Biotin) (ab21039). Please download our general protocols booklet
These data suggest that the substantial increase in total peritoneal cavity NK cells is a result of NK cell proliferation as well as NK cells migrated from other places such as spleen.. In this study, we showed that MDSCs rapidly accumulated at the site of infection with VV. Removal of MDSCs in vivo led to enhanced NK cell proliferation, activation, and function in response to VV infection as well as an increase in mortality and IFN-γ production. We further demonstrated that CD244 expression characterized the G-MDSC subset responsible for the suppression on NK cells and that this suppression was mediated by ROS.. NK cells are critical for the control of viral infections. Thus, in the setting of VV infection, multiple pathways have evolved to ensure effective activation of NK cells and the subsequent control of VV infection in vivo. Previous studies have shown that efficient NK cell activation depends on both TLR2-dependent and -independent pathways (7, 9), as well as the NKG2D pathway (10). ...
TRIF−/− mice are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than WT.TRIF−/− and WT BL/6 mice were infected with 1×104 pfu Vac-FL. (A) Weight loss, expresse
A recent vaccinia infection in a US Air Force trainee was facilitated by shaving and caused serious facial lesions that required a long hospital stay. ...
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Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) is made from the pooled blood of individuals who have been inoculated with the smallpox vaccine. The antibodies these individuals developed in response to the smallpox vaccine are removed and purified. This results in VIG. It can be administered intravenously. It is used to treat individuals who have developed progressive vaccinia after smallpox vaccination. It was also used along with cidofovirinfor the 2003 Midwest monkeypox outbreak as concomitant therapy to reduce the serious side effects of smallpox vaccine. For a small percentage of the population, the smallpox vaccine either doesnt "take" or it produces adverse events. These include postvaccinial central nervous system disease, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, accidental implantations, "generalized vaccinia," and the common erythematous and/or urticarial rashes. In the late 1940s, Dr. Henry Kempe suggested that the solution to the complications of the smallpox vaccine was to provide antibodies in ...
Buy anti-Vaccinia Virus A27L Protein antibody, Vaccinia Virus A27L Protein Monoclonal Antibody (Clone B1496M) (MBS313199) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ELISA (EIA), Immunofluorescence (IF)
Buy anti-Vaccinia Virus, A27L antibody, Mouse Vaccinia Virus, A27L Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 12K239) (MBS644440) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ELISA (EL/EIA),Immunofluorescence (IF)
The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1−/−) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. The phenotype of infected IL-1R1−/− mice was similar to eczema vaccinatum, a severe side effect of VACV vaccination that may develop in humans with atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the impaired cutaneous response of IL-1R1−/− mice did not reflect a systemic immune deficiency, because immunized IL-1R1−/− mice survived subsequent lethal VACV intranasal challenge, or defects of T cell activation or T cell homing to the site of inoculation. Histologic evaluation revealed that VACV infection and replication after scarification were limited to the epidermal layer of wild-type mice, ...
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax exposures in the following weeks, concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. Public health departments and the U.S. military have begun the process of vaccinating soldiers and civilian first-responders. Smallpox vaccination carries some serious risks: approximately one in 1 million primary vaccinees and one in 4 million revaccinees will die from adverse vaccine reactions. The most serious side effects of smallpox vaccine include progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial central nervous system disease, and eczema vaccinatum. Some of these reactions can be treated with vaccinia immune globulin or cidofovir. Proper patient screening and site care are essential. Family physicians must learn to screen potential vaccinees for contraindications (e.g., immunodeficiency, immunosuppression, certain skin and eye diseases, pregnancy, lactation, allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness)
The threat of bioterrorism with smallpox and the broad use of vaccinia vectors for other vaccines have led to the resurgence in the study of vaccinia immunological memory. The importance of the role of CD4+ T cells in the control of vaccinia infection is well known. However, more CD8+ than CD4+ T cell epitopes recognized by human subjects immunized with vaccinia virus have been reported. This could be, in part, due to the fact that most of the studies that have identified human CD4+ specific protein-derived fragments or peptides have used IFN-γ production to evaluate vaccinia specific T cell responses. Based on these findings, we reasoned that analyzing a large panel of cytokines would permit us to generate a more complete analysis of the CD4 T cell responses. The results presented provide clear evidence that TNF-α is an excellent readout of vaccinia specificity and that other cytokines such as GM-CSF can be used to evaluate the reactivity of CD4+ T cells in response to vaccinia antigens. Furthermore,
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Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Using a reverse genetic approach, we have demonstrated that the product of the B5R open reading frame (ORF), which has homology with members of the family of complement control proteins, is a membrane glycoprotein present in the extracellular enveloped (EEV) form of vaccinia virus but absent from the intracellular naked (INV) form. An antibody (C-B5R) raised to a 15-amino-acid peptide from the translated B5R ORF reacted with a 42-kDa protein (gp42) found in vaccinia virus-infected cells and cesium chloride-banded EEV but not INV. Under nonreducing conditions, an 85-kDa component, possibly representing a hetero- or homodimeric form of gp42, was detected by both immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblot analysis. Metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine and [3H]palmitate revealed that the B5R product is glycosylated and acylated. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of the protein was identified by constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus that overexpressed a truncated, secreted form of the B5R ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al., J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993). In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. Examination of thin sections of Epon-embedded, VV-infected cells by use of a high-angular-tilt series of single sections, serial-section analysis, and high-resolution digital-image analysis detected only a single,
The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human cell lines. It further describes recombinant viruses derived from this virus and the use of the virus, or its recombinants, as a medicament or vaccine. A method is provided for inducing an immune response in individuals who may be immune-compromised, receiving antiviral therapy, or have a pre-existing immunity to the vaccine virus. In addition, a method is provided for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the virus, or its recombinants, in a vaccinia virus prime/vaccinia virus boost innoculation regimen.
Vaccinia virus infected cell. Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. The nucleus of the host cell is blue. Areas of virus assembly within the cell are pink. Actin protein filaments, which make up part of the cytoskeleton, are green. The cytoskeleton maintains the cells shape, allows some cellular mobility and is involved in intracellular transport. Vaccinia causes cowpox, a disease of cattle and humans, which produces skin lesions. - Stock Image C002/5930
Activation of T cells requires at least two signals: an antigen-specific signal delivered through the T-cell receptor and a costimulatory signal mediated through molecules designated B7-1 and B7-2. Previous studies have shown that introduction of B7-1 and B7-2 into tumors using retroviral vectors has led to enhanced antitumor effects. A limiting factor for potential clinical applications using this approach is the low efficiency of infection of retroviral vectors and consequent manipulations of infected cells. Vaccinia virus thus represents an alternative vector for B7 gene expression in tumor cells. In this report we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the murine B7-1 and B7-2 genes (designated rV-B7-1 and rV-B7-2). Infection of BSC-1 cells with these constructs results in rapid and efficient cell surface expression of both B7-1 and B7-2 (,97% of cells at 4 h). Infection of murine carcinoma cells with low multiplicity of infection of ...
Our group is considering using a vaccinia virus for expression of cDNAs in tissue culture cells. 1. Is such a system commercially available? 2. Is there anyone out there who is familiar with this system who can comment on its ease of use and success? 3. Are there safety issue involved with using vaccinia virus (Level 2 biosafety?). Thanks, Karen Kedzie Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Irvine CA 92715 ...
vaccinia virus nicking-joining enzyme: virus-specific, DNA-dependent & does not require ATP; possesses both endonuclease & ligase activities
Vaccinia Virus G1 Protein, a Predicted Metalloprotease, Is Essential for Morphogenesis of Infectious Virions but Not for Cleavage of Major Core Proteins: Genes
Here you can find the definitions list for the word Vaccinia virus. Also you can find some other opposite words using the online search on our website.
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MultiVir is developing vaccinia virus-interleukin 12 (VV-IL12) gene therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. VV-IL12 is at the preclinical stage of
The external envelope from the extracellular type of vaccinia virus contains five virus-encoded proteins, F13, A33, A34, A56, and B5, that, apart from A56, are implicated in trojan infectivity or egress. A34. A lot of the extracellular domains of B5, which includes four brief consensus repeats homologous to check control proteins, was enough for A34 connections, indicating that both proteins interact through their ectodomains. Immunofluorescence tests on cells contaminated with A34-lacking trojan indicated that A34 is necessary for efficient concentrating on of B5, A36, and A33 into covered virions. In keeping with this observation, the envelope of A34-lacking trojan contained normal levels of F13 but reduced levels of A33 and B5 with regards to the parental WR trojan. These results indicate A34 as a significant determinant in the proteins composition from the vaccinia disease envelope. Vaccinia disease, the most-studied poxvirus, assembles and replicates in the cytoplasm from the infected cell. ...
The final genetically modified organism (GMO) is TG4010 and consists of a poorly replicative, recombinant vaccinia vector consisting of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) genome containing inserted transgenes that encode two proteins: the human mucine 1 (MUC1) and the human interleukin-2 (IL2). ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Caroline Gubser, Daniele Bergamaschi, Michael Hollinshead, Xin Lu, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Geoffrey L Smith].
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Designing Cellulose for the Future III" - tapahtuma on sarjassaan kolmas design- ja materiaalitutkimukseen keskittyvä seminaari, joka esittelee uusiutuvan suomalaisen biomateriaalin, selluloosan, tulevaisuuden käyttökohteita. Olet lämpimästi tervetullut tutustumaan laajaan valikoimaan täysin uudenlaisia selluloosapohjaisia materiaaleja sekä teknologioita ...
Engineered viruses can be successfully infused into a cancer patients body to selectively infect and shrink cancer cells, researchers show. Twenty-three advanced-cancer patients who had failed to respond to available treatments were infused with an engineered strain of vaccinia virus.
Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin. The availability of the VACV-DUKE genome sequence permits a first time genomic comparison of a VACV isolate associated with a smallpox vaccine complication with the sequence of culture-derived clonal isolates of the Dryvax vaccine. This study showed that VACV-DUKE is most similar to VACV-ACAM2000 and CLONE3, two VACV clones isolated from the Dryvax® vaccine stock confirming VACV-DUKE as an isolate from Dryvax®. However, VACV-DUKE is unique because it is, to date, the only Dryvax® clone isolated from a patient experiencing a vaccine-associated complication. The 199,960 bp VACV-DUKE genome encodes 225 open reading frames, including 178 intact genes and 47 gene fragments. Between VACV-DUKE and the other Dryvax® isolates, the major genomic differences are in fragmentation of
If we mapped out the family tree of poxviruses, then vaccinia virus (the causative agent of cowpox) and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) would probably be sisters. Or at the very least, cousins. This close heritage allows the relatively benign vaccinia virus to confer variola virus-protective immune responses in vaccinated individuals. A safely…
Envelope protein which probably plays a role in virus entry into the host cell. Is probably involved in the virus attachment to the host cell surface and associates with the entry/fusion complex (EFC). Needed for fusion and penetration of the virus core into host cell.
An inducible, mutant virus, designated vvtetO:I7L/G1L, was used to study the morphogenic proteolysis step of the vaccinia virus life cycle. The vvtetO:I7L/G1L controlled the expression of two genes, I7L, a cysteine proteinase, and G1L, a putative metalloproteinase. These proteins are involved in the maturation of viral core proteins, p4a, p4b, and p25K, to form infectious virions. DNA extraction and genomic sequencing verified the correct insertion of the tetracycline operators. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was optimized, and a MOI of 0.5 was best, with a 99.25% reduction in viral plaque formation compared to the wild type vaccinia virus. A growth curve over 12 hours was done and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the "on" state closely followed the growth kinetics of the wild type vaccinia virus and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the "off" state had significantly lower viral titers throughout the last 6 hours of the cycle. Viral core protein processing in the "on" and "off" states, and in rescue experiments ...
Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and ...
The mechanism by which cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits vaccinia virus (VV) replication is still unclear. The present study addresses the question of whether CsA-binding proteins named cyclophilins (Cyps) are involved in the anti-VV activity of CsA. Six CsA analogues were analysed, and their affinity for Cyps in VV-infected BSC-40 cells and their potency as inhibitors of VV replication were evaluated. It was demonstrated that analogues with strong Cyp-binding activity, such as CsC, CsG and [MeAla6]CsA, also exhibit a strong antiviral effect. In contrast, drugs with low ([MeBm2t1]CsA and CsH) or no ([MeLeu11]CsA) affinity for Cyps show poor or no antiviral activity. The data obtained suggest a correlation between the ability of CsA to block VV replication and Cyp binding activity, and indicate the involvement of Cyps in the VV replicative cycle. They also suggest that the anti-VV action of CsA may occur by a pathway distinct from that involved in the immunosuppressive effect of the drug.
How these "resident" memory T cells are generated was unknown, and their importance with regard to how our immune system remembers infection and how it prevents against re-infection is being studied intensively. Now, a study by a Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) research team led by Xiaodong Jiang, PhD, research scientist and Thomas S. Kupper, MD, Chair of the BWH Department of Dermatology, and the Thomas B. Fitzpatrick Professor of Dermatology at Harvard, has used a model involving a vaccinia virus infection of the skin to answer important questions about how these newly discovered cells protect us. The study will be electronically published on February 29, 2012 in Nature.. Jiang and Kupper used skin infection with vaccinia virus to study the relative roles of central memory T cells (T cells that circulate in the bloodstream) and resident memory T cells in protective immunity. What they found was that after infection, disease-specific T cells were rapidly recruited not only to the infected ...
Vaccinia virus is the live poxvirus that was used as the. The development of this vaccine was an important step in the successful eradication of smallpox, an infection characterized by fever, rash and constitutional symptoms, with a high rate of morb
Two chimpanzees were vaccinated intramuscularly against malaria using plasmid DNA expressing the pre-erythrocytic antigens thrombospondin related adhesion protein (PfTRAP) and liver stage specific antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum together with GM-CSF protein. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing PfTRAP was injected intramuscularly 6 weeks later to boost the immune response. This sequence of antigen delivery induced a specific and long-lasting T cell and antibody response to PfTRAP as detected by ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Antibody responses were detected after four DNA injections, and were boosted by injection of recombinant MVA expressing PfTRAP. Interferon-gamma secreting antigen-specific T cells were detected in both animals, but only after boosting with recombinant MVA. By screening a panel of PfTRAP-derived peptides, an epitope was identified that was recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in one of the chimpanzees studied. T cells specific for this epitope were
VTT is executing and coordinating several projects in the field of cellulosic materials. Our facilities allow wet and dry grinding, hygienic fibrillation and high-pressure homogenisation using a microfluidizer. Also, preliminary cutting, grinding, kneading, dispersing and mixing using high shear dissolvers can be performed. VTT has served several industries such as the forest industry, packaging, food, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals in addition to universities and other research institutes. We have created a number of contacts with raw material and other CNF suppliers. Through these contacts, VTT can provide independent benchmark studies with desired raw materials and CNF grades. VTT also has extensive characterisation service for cellulose nanomaterials. Cellulose nanofibrils can be applied to several products and end-uses. These include reinforcing paper and board, films, membranes, biocomposites, paints, and structural fibre foams. Cellulose nanofibrils can be utilised as an industrial ...
Participants in Cohort 1 are vaccinia vaccine naive and had received ACAM2000® vaccine as part of their Service Member readiness.. Participants in Cohort 2 did not receive ACAM2000® vaccine as part of their Service Member readiness process because they are still protected by previous vaccinia vaccination or are ineligible for current ACAM2000 vaccination either because of recency of prior vaccinia vaccination or for reasons solely attributable to conditions or characteristics of their contacts (such as a healthy soldier who is married to someone with a contraindicated condition). ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
Athymic nude mice recover from an infection with recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) encoding murine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but treatment with a mAb to IL-2 accentuated infection. Administration of a mAb against interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to mice infected with the IL-2-encoding virus completely prevented the IL-2-induced mechanisms of recovery. Both asialo-GM1+ (NK) and asialo-GM1- (non-NK) cells were participants in the IFN-gamma-mediated recovery of nude mice from infection with the IL-2-encoding VV recombinant. Depletion of asialo-GM1+ cells exacerbated infection, though not as much as anti-IFN-gamma mAb. In vitro, both asialo-GM1+ and asialo-GM1- nude mouse splenocytes produced IFN-gamma in response to IL-2. ...