Tunicates are the unique chordates to possess species reproducing sexually and asexually. Among them, the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri is a reference model for the study of similarities and differences in these two developmental pathways. We here illustrate the characterization and expression pattern during both pathways of a transcript for a gene orthologous to Dazap1. Dazap1 genes encode for RNA-binding proteins and fall into the Musashi-like (Msi-like) group. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that these are related to other RNA-binding proteins (Tardbp and several heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins types) that share the same modular domain structure of conserved tandem RNA Recognition Motifs (RRMs). We also classify the whole group as derived from a single ancient duplication of the RRM. Our results also show that Dazap1 is expressed with discrete spatiotemporal pattern during embryogenesis and blastogenesis of B. schlosseri. It is never expressed in wholly differentiated tissues, but
The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes is a fundamentally conserved property of the eukaryotic nucleus which is evident in the conservation of histone sequences. Nevertheless, it is now clear that histone sequence variants have diversified in many species to assume crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression, DNA repair, chromosome segregation and other processes. While considerable data exist on coding sequences of histones and some selected histone variants in a wide variety of organisms, the information available on total histone gene complements is much more limited. Oikopleura dioica (Od) is a dioecious marine urochordate that occupies a key phylogenetic position near the invertebrate-vertebrate transition with the smallest genome ever found in a chordate (70 Mb). Its short life cycle is characterized by a developmental switch between mitotic and endocycling cells, making O. dioica an attractive model to study the spatial and temporal use of histone variants and posttranslational ...
Characterization and Transcriptional Activity of a Vitamin D Receptor Ortholog in the Ascidian Halocynthia roretzi - cDNA;Tunicate;Vitamin D receptor;Vitamin D responsive reporter gene;Halocynthia roretzi;
In this paper we provide evidence supporting Busss hypothesis (1) that invertebrate allorecognition systems may have evolved to prevent cell lineage competition resulting from the introduction of somatic and gametic progenitors that can accompany colony fusion. First we confirmed the results of Sabbadin and Zaniolo (13) and Pancer et al. (14) that G/SCP can occur within laboratory produced chimeras of B. schlosseri. We then extended these results to the field by demonstrating that G/SCP also occurs within chimeras of B. schlosseri, which have been growing naturally in the wild. The laboratory experiments also suggest that (i) the temporal and spatial pattern of genetic admixture covaries with whether colony resorption takes place and (ii) GCP and SCP occur as a result of the migration and subsequent establishment of foreign circulating germ-line cells and totipotent somatic stem cells. The importance of G/SCP as a selective factor may be quite dramatic in some populations. The rate of chimerism ...
Appendicularians are pelagic tunicates that remain free-swimming throughout life, in contrast sessile tunicates, witch are only free-swimming as larvae. Urochordates in general are receiving increasing focus in the context of vertebrate brain evolution, since they derive from the base of the chordate linage tree. In this project, "the mapping of the nervous system of Oikopleura dioica", the development of the neurons in the major components of the nervous system is addressed. The development of the caudal nerve cord of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica was assessed using differential interference contrast and confocal microscopy, phalloidin staining of actin, and in situ hybridization for the neuronal markers α-tubulin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The caudal nerve cord first appears as a stream of α-tubulin mRNA-positive neurons that can be seen extending into the tail from the caudal ganglion as early as 4 hours after fertilization. Already at this stage a few actin-rich nerve ...
Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera Aplidium and Synoicum to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species A. falklandicum, A. fuegiense, A. meridianum, A. millari and S. adareanum were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish Odontaster validus, and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A-G,
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Materials for Environmental Protection and Energy Application: Bioconcentration and Elimination Kinetics of Copper with Different Tissues of the Ascidian |i|Styela Clava|/i|
Some embryos of Ciona intestinalis which were permanently cleavage-arrested with cytochalasin B at the 1-cell, 4-cell, or 8-cell stages produced, after 12 or 16 h of development time (18 °C), a level of muscle acetylcholinesterase activity equal to that found in normal early and later larval stage embryos of the same age. Enzyme activity was measured quantitatively in single whole embryos by a colorimetric procedure using microdensitometry. Quantitative regulation of a differentiation end product indicated that the usual transcriptional and translational control mechanisms for that histospecific protein continued to operate normally in the cleavage-arrested embryos. Acetylcholinesterase expression was apparently regulated independently of the usual cell cytoplasmic volume in the muscle lineage cells and possibly also independently of the normal nuclear number in the lineage. There is an egg cytoplasmic determinant that is segregated into the muscle lineage cells during cleavage and which ...
The ascidean tunicate Styela clava is a fast-growing, subtidal fouling species ("fouling" in this context is a somewhat anthropocentric term used to describe marine organisms that settle and develop on submerged structures, including structures on which humans would rather they didnt settle, such as ship hulls and underwater pipes and shellfish being grown in aquaculture). It is a prolific breeder and a highly efficient suspension feeder. It is native to the northwest Pacific from the Sea of Okhotsk through southern Siberia, Japan, Korea, and northern China south to Shanghai. However, it was discovered in western North America, on the coast of California, in 1932 and is now found from Baja California (Mexico) north to Washington State (U.S.A.) and into southern British Columbia (Canada). It was found in the Atlantic, off southern England, in 1953. In the northeast Atlantic, it is now found from northern Denmark to Portugal. It is present in the northeastern United States and on both the ...
Definition of ascidian tadpole. What does ascidian tadpole mean? Meaning of ascidian tadpole. ascidian tadpole synonyms, pronunciation, spelling and more from Free Dictionary.
Sanamyan, K. (2007). Lissoclinum nebulosum Monniot F. & Monniot C., 1996. In: Shenkar, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Lambert, G.; Rius, M.; Moreira Da Rocha, R.; Swalla, B.J.; Turon, X. (2017). Ascidiacea World Database. Accessed at http://marinespecies.org/ascidiacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=250795 on 2017-12- ...
Clavelina dellavalleiis a colonial ascidian. Each zooid is up to 3 cm high. The test is transparent and covered by small white spots. Through the test, the pharynx with its 13 to 17 stigmata is clearly visible, as well as the white or bluish vertical line of the endostyle. Siphons are close and prominent. The atrial siphon may be underlined by a blue-purple margin. In the lower part of the zooid, the purple stomach and intestine are also visible. Blue ascidians arise from a short stalk erected from a basal stolon through which zooids are connected one another. Colonies are attached to rocks, sea-fans or seaweeds. ...
Extracellular matrices play important, but poorly investigated, roles in morphogenesis. Extracellular cellulose is central to regulation of pattern formation in plants, but among metazoans only tunicates are capable of cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose synthase (CesA gene products are present in filter-feeding structures of all tunicates and also regulate metamorphosis in the ascidian Ciona. Ciona CesA is proposed to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. We identified two CesA genes in the sister-class larvacean Oikopleura dioica. Each has a mosaic structure of a glycoslyltransferase 2 domain upstream of a glycosyl hydrolase family 6 cellulase-like domain, a signature thus far unique to tunicates. Spatial-temporal expression analysis revealed that Od-CesA1 produces long cellulose fibrils along the larval tail, whereas Od-CesA2 is responsible for the cellulose scaffold of the post-metamorphic filter-feeding house. Knockdown of Od-CesA1 inhibited cellulose production in ...
Halocynthia roretzi Hgv2 protein: amino acid sequence given in first source; sequence given for protein from H. roretzi; a putative histone-binding protein; homologous to Xenopus N1 protein; GenBank D13541
ABSTRACT: Individual fitness and the structure of marine communities are strongly affected by spatial competition. Among the most common space holders are the colonial ascidians, which have the ability to monopolize large areas of hard substrate, overgrowing most other competitors. The effects of competition on colony growth and on gonad production of the ascidian Didemnum perlucidum were studied in southeastern Brazil by experimentally removing surrounding competitors. Colonies of D. perlucidum competing for space exhibited a growth rate 9 times less than that of colonies that were competitor free. Among the colonies subject to competition, growth rates were unrelated to the percentage of colony border that was free of competitors. However, the identity of the competitor was important in the outcome of border contacts. At the beginning of the experiment, most border encounters of D. perlucidum were with solitary organisms, which in most cases were overgrown. These were progressively replaced by ...
An endostyle is a pair of longitudinal ciliated groove on the pharynx of lower vertebrate which produces mucus to gather and transport food particles. In vertebrates the endostyle is modified into thyroid glad. ...
A test cell (12) provides boundary scan testing in an integrated circuit (10). The test cell (12) comprises two memories, a flip-flop (24) and a latch (26), for storing test data. A first multiplexer (22) selectively connects one of a plurality of inputs to the flip-flop (24). The input of the latch (26) is connected to output of the flip-flop (24). The output of the latch (26) is connected to one input of a multiplexer (28), the second input to the multiplexer (28) being a data input (DIN) signal. A control bus (17) is provided for controlling the multiplexers (22, 28), flip-flop (24) and latch (26). The test cell allows input data to be observed and output data to be controlled simultaneously.
A test cell (12) provides boundary scan testing in an integrated circuit (10). The test cell (12) comprises two memories, a flip-flop (24) and a latch (26), for storing test data. A first multiplexer (22) selectively connects one of a plurality of inputs to the flip-flop (24). The input of the latch (26) is connected to output of the flip-flop (24). The output of the latch (26) is connected to one input of a multiplexer (28), the second input to the multiplexer (28) being a data input (DIN) signal. A control bus (17) is provided for controlling the multiplexers (22, 28), flip-flop (24) and latch (26). The test cell allows input data to be observed and output data to be controlled simultaneously.
Development. 2012 Apr;139(8):1467-75. Epub 2012 Mar 7. Nishide K, Mugitani M, Kumano G, Nishida H. Source Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan. ([email protected]) Abstract Tadpole larvae of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi show morphological left-right asymmetry. The tail invariably bends towards the left side within the vitelline membrane. The structure of the larval brain is remarkably asymmetric. nodal, a conserved gene that shows left-sided expression, is also expressed on the left side in H. roretzi but in the epidermis unlike in vertebrates. We show that nodal signaling at the late neurula stage is required for stereotypic morphological left-right asymmetry at later stages. We uncover a novel mechanism to break embryonic symmetry, in which rotation of whole embryos provides the initial cue for left-sided expression of nodal. Two hours prior to the onset of nodal expression, the neurula ...
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Introduction. Question 1.7.5 Disneys takeover of Pixar a) There are quite a few benefits for Disney by acquiring Pixar. One of the main benefits Disney would acquire would be synergy. Synergy is a main benefit because of the fact, that many of the animated films created by Pixar became hits for Disney like Finding Nemo. This means that taking over Pixar would allow Disney to take advantage of the animating expertise at Pixar and create even more hits. The second main benefit for Disney by acquiring Pixar would be an increase in profits. Since acquiring Pixar would allow Disney to make even more animated films and with Pixars rate of success that could lead to a high profit. ...read more. Middle. Another potential problem businesses may face during a takeover would be just plain conflict between the businesses. Conflicts are issues because they again prevent or slow down a takeover from completely taking place. Conflicts can happen because takeovers are always hostile and there might be ...
The Takeover Code is designed to ensure that shareholders are treated fairly, are not denied an opportunity to decide on the merits of a takeover and are afforded equivalent treatment by an offeror. It provides an orderly framework within which takeovers are conducted ...
The Takeover Code is designed to ensure that shareholders are treated fairly, are not denied an opportunity to decide on the merits of a takeover and are afforded equivalent treatment by an offeror. It provides an orderly framework within which takeovers are conducted ...
Abbott, D.P.; Newberry, A.T.; Morris, K.M. (1997). Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. 6B: Ascidians (Urochordata). Ed. Bishop Mus. Press, Honolulu. 64 p ...
This video shows a fusion event in progress between compatible individuals of the sea squirt, Botryllus schlosseri. At the beginning, terminal parts of vasculature, called ampullae, which surround the colony, have come into contact (one colony is on the top right, the other on the bottom left, out of the field of view). The ampullae push into each other repeatedly, and finally the cell layers between two ampullae fuse, and results in both individuals sharing a common circulation. ...
tunicate: Any member of the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata) of the phylum Chordata. Small marine animals, they are found in great numbers throughout the seas of the world. Adult members...
These type of test cells combine the benefits of the both the Manual & Automatic docking system and are the most preferred option by OEMs .
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The appendicularian body shape resembles that of the tadpole-like larvae of most tunicates. Like a common tunicate larva, the adult appendicularian form has a discrete trunk and tail. Evolution by retaining juvenile traits as an adult is known as neoteny. Like most tunicates, appendicularians feed by drawing particulate food matter into their pharyngobranchial region, where food particles are trapped on a mucus mesh produced by the pharynx and drawn into the digestive tract. The mucus mesh lies over two clefts in the pharynx, one on either side, rather than the much larger number of clefts found in most other tunicates. Furthermore, the clefts, and the anus open directly to the outside, so the animal lacks the atrium and atrial siphon found in related classes. Appendicularians have greatly improved the efficiency of food intake by producing a test (a kind of skeleton) known as a "house" of protein and cellulose that, in most cases, surrounds the animal like a bubble, and which contains a ...
Takeover Target Hits Mark in $250,000 Longines Dixie (G2) - - BALTIMORE – Klaravich Stables and William Lawrence’s homebred Takeover Target rallied from last to first with a determined stretch run to reel in Ring Weekend and win the 115th running of the $250,000 Longines Dixie (G2) by a neck Saturday at Pimlico Race Course.  
By far the largest class of tunicates is the Ascidiacea. The body of an ascidiacean is surrounded by a test or tunic, from which the subphylum derives its name. This varies in thickness between species but may be tough, resembling cartilage, thin and delicate, or transparent and gelatinous. The tunic is composed of proteins and complex carbohydrates, and includes tunicin, a variety of cellulose. The tunic is unique among invertebrate exoskeletons in that it can grow as the animal enlarges and does not need to be periodically shed. Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two openings are found in the body wall: the buccal siphon at the top through which water flows into the interior, and the atrial siphon on the ventral side through which it is expelled. A large pharynx occupies most of the interior of the body. It is a muscular tube linking the buccal opening with the rest of the gut. It has a ciliated groove known as ...
Four new iodobenzene-containing dipeptides (1-4), a related bromotryptophan-containing dipeptide (5), and an iodophenethylamine (6) were isolated from the ascidian Aplidium sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. The structures of these novel compounds, designated as apliamides A-E (1-5) and apliamine A (6) were determined via combined spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residue in 1 was determined by advanced Marfeys analysis. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity and significant inhibition against Na+/K+-ATPase (4).
The picture actually shows test cell A-1 at Pratt and Whitneys West Palm Beach facility. I had the pleasure of working this test cell in the mid 1980s. This test cell was actually an altitude simulation cell used for testing purposes. (We had a additional cell used for sea level runs for motors which were overhauled onsite also.) It used a non-afterburning J-79 as a slave motor. The exhaust of the slave was introduced to the inlet of the J-58 through a series of valves thereby simulating the speed, temperature, and density of the air at the inlet normally seen during flight. In this particular picture the motor is running at sea level as indicated by the inlet screen. I spent many hot and humid nights servicing, mounting, and running this particular cell. I was one of a crew of five. Some of the greatest co-workers I have ever had the privilege to of worked with. Sadly, the cell is no more. It didnt go without a fight though. The contractor had to repeatedly repair his demolition equipment ...
But these monsters have a lot to tell us about the power of stem cells. Tapeworms actually have a remarkable regenerative ability where they can prolifically reproduce. While other organisms possess similar stem-cell induced regenerative behavior, tapeworms are true masters of whole body regeneration - they can grow to enormous lengths making segments that repeatedly regenerate over their life.. "They are so good at regenerating because they maintain a population of stem cells that can receive all the signals that they need in order to actually repattern an animal," says Rozario. "They are essentially immortal.". Immortality is a key theme for the axolotl, a water amphibian native to wetlands and canals surrounding Mexico City. With lidless eyes, short legs, and finger-like gills crowning its head, the axolotl makes up for good looks with its regeneration powers. They can grow entire limbs, tail, and even parts of their eyes, hearts, and central nervous systems.. "Among vertebrate ...
The terms mantle and branchial sac, often used in speaking of the body walls and pharynx respectively, are better discarded, as it is a well-established fact that there is ho relationship between ...
While RWJF provided the lions share of the funding, Soross Project on Death in America funded the leadership. The list of Open Society Institute/Project on Death in America grant recipients reads like a whos who of palliative care. In fact, many of the key project designers were Soros scholars, e.g., Diane Meier, Joanne Lynn, Christine Cassel, Charles von Gunten, Joseph Fins, and Frank Ferris. (A Timeline of the Adversarys Takeover of Palliative Care. I urge the readers of this site to take the time to review the facts on this timeline as anyone who does so will never be able to say that he has not been warned about the simple truth that todays medical industry is committed to provide "palliative care" as a means to kill innocent human beings.). Significantly, all of this was fully funded in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and it will remain fully funded under the so-called American Health Care Act as passed by the United States House of Representatives by a vote of 217-213 ...
Rumours that private equity-owned Quorn Foods could have piqued the interest of the USs WhiteWave Foods caused a stir this week. Neither company was prepared to comment and it may be Quorns owner Exponent Private Equity has yet to kick off an auction process but, nonetheless, the speculation highlights the potential the meat-free sector could afford branded food manufacturers. Katy Askew examines Quorns appeal and who could be tempted by this tasty takeover target. related to Free-from, Mergers & acquisitions, Hain Celestial, Nestle, Pinnacle Foods, WhiteWave Foods, Quorn Foods, Gardein,
The £32bn takeover of Shire faces collapse after AbbVie admits it is reconsidering deal due to the US Treasury’s new tax inversion rules
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A new year, re-heated M&A speculation. Takeover talk is again centred on US-based infant formula group Mead Johnson, often seen as a target since it was spun off by pharma group Bristol-Myers Squibb in 2009. In the past, the chatter has focused on whether Danone would buy the Enfamil maker. Now, Nestle is in the spotlight. However, as Dean Best reports, such a deal looks unlikely - and, at present, the prospect of other suitors coming in appears just as slim. related to Baby food, Mergers & acquisitions, Mead Johnson, Nestle,
Swiss drugmaker Novartis is betting on heart drug prospect inclisiran in a $9.7 billion takeover of The Medicines Co as it challenges cardiovascular medicines from Amgen Inc , Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals .
The Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) has said the takeover of 9mobile will not take place on January 16 contrary to media reports.
The Web site for the Canadian government s ruling Conservative party carried a bold headline Defending Canada s National Interest. For the first time in 23 years since a previous Conservative government enacted a law governing foreign takeovers of Canadian companies, the administration of Prime Mi...
First, great site. Thank you. yesterday, your ad provide let through a couple of takeover ads. Meaning, modal dialog covering the screen and content. ...
The Conservatives and NDP asked the Commons Speaker to rule that Innovation, Science and Economic Development Minister Navdeep Bains was not telling the truth when he said a national-security review had taken place on the takeover of Norsat International
Republicans Thursday slammed the FCC for approving new net neutrality rules that they said amounted to overregulation of the industry and marked the first step toward a government takeover of the Internet.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India is likely to announce the draft takeover norms with several far-reaching recommendations...
Canadian medical isotope supplier Nordion Inc said it would delay the shareholders meeting that had been scheduled for Tuesday by a week to give it time to try to get more support for a $758 million takeover offer by U.S.-based Sterigenics International.