QINGXIN, Liu et al. Apigenin inhibits cell migration through MAPK pathways in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Biocell [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.3, pp.71-79. ISSN 0327-9545.. Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been shown to possess free radical scavenging activities, anticarcinogenic properties, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, apigenin was reported to cause gastric relaxation in murine. To assess possible effects of apigenin on migration of bladder smooth muscle (SM) cell, we isolated SM cells from peri-cancer tissue of human bladder and established a cell model that was capable to overexpress transiently MEKK1 (MEK kinase 1). Results showed that overexpression of active human MEKK1 by adenoviruses infection induced migration of human bladder smooth muscle (hBSM) cells and phosphorylation of MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38, which are the downstream molecules of MEKK1. Then, hBSM cell overexpressing MEKK1 were exposed to apigenin (50 μM). Our data indicated that apigenin ...
The uroepithelium lines the urinary bladder, urethra and the lower renal pelvis. It provides a tight blood-urine barrier that prevents the unregulated movement of solutes, ions and metabolites present in the urine. Apart from forming a robust barrier, a growing body of evidence supports the role of the uroepithelium as a sensory transducer that is sensitive to extracellular biochemical and mechanical stimuli. One of the mediators that is released from the uroepithelium and impacts bladder activity is adenosine. Adenosine is a well-known stress relieving hormone in other organ systems and the bladder lumen is a region of constant stress due to cyclical filling and voiding of urine, therefore I hypothesized that adenosine has an impact on urinary bladder function under stress. First I assessed the mechanism of adenosine turnover and how luminal adenosine affects bladder function. I report that adenosine is released from the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the uroepithelium when the tissue is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Normal reference values for bladder wall thickness on CT in a healthy population. AU - Fananapazir, Ghaneh. AU - Kitich, Aleksandar. AU - Lamba, Ramit. AU - Stewart, Susan L. AU - Corwin, Michael T. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine normal bladder wall thickness on CT in patients without bladder disease. Materials and methods: Four hundred and nineteen patients presenting for trauma with normal CTs of the abdomen and pelvis were included in our retrospective study. Bladder wall thickness was assessed, and bladder volume was measured using both the ellipsoid formula and an automated technique. Patient age, gender, and body mass index were recorded. Linear regression models were created to account for bladder volume, age, gender, and body mass index, and the multiple correlation coefficient with bladder wall thickness was computed. Bladder volume and bladder wall thickness were log-transformed to achieve approximate normality and homogeneity of variance. ...
Increased phasic activity in the bladder smooth muscle of animal models and patients with detrusor overactivity has been suggested to underlie the pathophysiology of overactive bladder. Potassium (K+) channels are key regulators of bladder smooth muscle tone and thus may play a role in this altered phasic activity. In this study the effects of K+ channel modulators on the phasic activity of bladder strips from the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of bladder dysfunction were investigated. Bladder strips from rats 1 week following streptozotocin administration and age-matched controls were mounted in tissue baths at 37 °C and the effects of K+ channel modulators on resting basal tension or phasic activity induced by a low concentration of carbachol (0.5 μM) were investigated. Activation of BKCa channels by NS1619 had a minor inhibitory effect on carbachol-induced phasic activity of bladder strips from control and diabetic rats, and significantly inhibited amplitude only at 30 μM. Activation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous contractions of the pig urinary bladder. T2 - The effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and the role of the mucosa. AU - Akino, Hironobu. AU - Chapple, Christopher R.. AU - McKay, Neil G.. AU - Cross, Rebecca L.. AU - Murakami, Shigetaka. AU - Yokoyama, Osamu. AU - Chess-Williams, Russell. AU - Sellers, Donna J.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the mucosa on the inhibitory effects of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) opener, cromakalim, on the spontaneous contractions of pig bladder strips from the bladder dome and trigone. Little is known about the influence of the mucosa on spontaneous contractions and whether the nature of these contractions differs between the bladder dome and trigone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paired longitudinal strips of female pig bladders were isolated from the dome and trigone. The mucosa was removed from one strip per pair and tissues were set up in organ baths. Spontaneous ...
C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Bladder Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from C57BL/6-GFP-Tg(CAG-EGFP)1Osb/J mouse bladder tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Bladder Epithelial Cells are grown in a T25 tissue culture flask pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium for 3-5 days. Cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml and is delivered frozen. Cells can be expanded for 3-7 passages at a split ratio of 1:2 under the cell culture conditions specified by Creative Bioarray. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended ...
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. The urinary bladder is a triangular, hollow and distensible (or elastic) organ that is located in the lower abdominal region. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Bladders occur throughout much of the animal kingdom, but they are very diverse in form and in some cases are not homologous with the urinary bladder in humans. The human urinary bladder is derived in embryo from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. In females, the bladder sits inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina; thus, its maximum capacity is lower than in males. It is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. In infants and young children, the urinary bladder ...
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. The urinary bladder is a triangular, hollow and distensible (or elastic) organ that is located in the lower abdominal region. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Bladders occur throughout much of the animal kingdom, but they are very diverse in form and in some cases are not homologous with the urinary bladder in humans. The human urinary bladder is derived in embryo from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. In females, the bladder sits inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina; thus, its maximum capacity is lower than in males. It is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. In infants and young children, the urinary bladder ...
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Synonyms for atonic urinary bladder in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for atonic urinary bladder. 13 words related to urinary bladder: apparatus urogenitalis, genitourinary apparatus, genitourinary system, systema urogenitale, urinary apparatus.... What are synonyms for atonic urinary bladder?
Desperate full bladder stories - Waterfall D-Mannose | Reviews & Customer Stories. Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
Study Objective: To determine the validity of bladder scan BV13000 in detection of bladder volume in immediate postpartum women. Methodology: A prospective cross sectional study conducted in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang from 1st September to 30 November 2010, A total of 193 women who had undergone Caesarean section were recruited on postpartum day 1. Prior to removal of Foleys catheter, their bladder volumes were first estimated by bladder scan BV13000. Immediately the bladder was then catheterized for the true bladder volume followed by 2D ultrasound bladder scanning to ensure that it was completely emptied. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 18(SPSS Inc. Chigaco, Illinois). P value of less than 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Resul : There were a total of 193 women recruited with the mean age of 28.84 years (SD 5.516) with mean BMI of 29.69( SD 5.69) kg/m2 and fundal height of 16cm (SD 2.382 ). The mean for time interval between bladder scan and ...
Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) has been used in treatment of patients with urinary bladder dysfunctions for more than four decades. While some investigators have reported excellent results others have observed less convincing effects or outright failures. The discrepancies may reflect differences in patient selection or stimulation procedure. A better theoretical understanding of the IVES working mechanism might help to improve the success rate of the treatment. The aims of the present study were to provide such information.. Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. IVES was delivered by a catheter electrode in the bladder. At proper intensity and frequency, IVES evoked reflex detrusor contractions that were abolished by bilateral rhizotomy of sacral dorsal roots. Stimulation parameters and response characteristics revealed that bladder mechanoreceptor A/delta/ afferents were activated by the IVES, the same afferents that drive the ...
Zhou, Y.,Tan, C.K.,Ling, E.A. (1997). Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the intramural ganglia of guinea pig urinary bladder. Journal of Anatomy 190 (1) : 135-145. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021878296001549 ...
Looking for irritable urinary bladder? Find out information about irritable urinary bladder. a distensible membranous sac in which the urine excreted from the kidneys is stored the organ in which urine accumulates before being excreted from the body... Explanation of irritable urinary bladder
The amount of urine left in the urinary bladder after voiding, depends on the age and gender of the patient, Some medications and medical problems such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis may affect how well the bladder empties. To some extent, the amount of urine present in the bladder prior to urination also affects how much is left at the end of urination.. Normal bladder capacity is around 500 ml but varies. If someone has 150 ml left in the bladder, that means that 30% of the bladder is filled already right after they have urinated. As a result, the time they have to fill the bladder (the time until they get the urge to pee again) is shorter by 30%. If bladder capacity is also small, for example only 300 ml, and post-void residual is 150 ml, then the bladder empties only half-way, and this may be one of the reasons people with incomplete bladder emptying have a frequent urge to urinate.. Younger patients should not have any urine left in the bladder after urination or a minimal amount. In ...
Sphincter muscle of urinary bladder definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Purpose Detrusor overactivity contributes to bothersome constellation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men and women as they age. However, the underlying mechanisms of non-obstructive detrusor overactivity and LUTS remain largely unknown. Growing evidence suggests that ischemia may be an independent factor in the development of non-obstructive bladder dysfunction. Our goal was to determine the effects of ischemia on detrusor function and voiding behavior and define redox-mediated cellular stress and cell survival signaling in the ischemic bladder. Materials and methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into treatment (n=8) and control (n=8) groups. In the treatment group, iliac artery atherosclerosis and chronic bladder ischemia were induced. At 8 weeks after bladder ischemia, voiding patterns were examined in metabolic cages, cystometrograms were recorded in conscious animals, and then bladder blood flow was measured under general anesthesia. Bladder tissues were processed ...
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AIMS: The functional integration of the smooth muscle of enterocystoplasties into the detrusor muscle was investigated in an awake-rat cystometry model and in vitro.. METHODS: The upper fourth of the bladder was removed, and a detubularized appendiceal segment (7 x 7 mm), with preserved vasculature, was incorporated into the bladder. After 1 or 3 months, a catheter was fixed to the top of the bladders. After a 3-day recovery, cystometries were performed. In separate experiments, agonist and nerve-induced responses were evaluated on isolated bladder strips.. RESULTS: Cystometries revealed reduced basal pressure and micturition pressure in enterocystoplasty (ECP) bladders. Bladder capacity and micturition volume were increased. Threshold pressure (pressure immediately before micturition) was significantly lower at 1 month, but not at 3 months. Bladder compliance was significantly higher in the operated at 1 month but not at 3 months. Threshold tension did not differ between control and ...
BALB/c Mouse Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from bladder tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. BALB/c Mouse Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder occurs after metaplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium from transitional cell to squamous cell. It can occurs in settings of schistosomaisis, chronic irritation by stones, and chronic infection.
Bladder overdistension has been found to cause transitional morphological changes in innervation which correlate with changes in micturition and bladder contractility. We investigated the influence of overdistension on bladder wall morphology using histological and enzyme histochemical methods. Overdistension was induced in female rats for 3 h by forced diuresis and balloon obstruction of the bladder neck. Oedema was seen beneath the mucosa at 12 h, with hyperemia and haemorrhages. The urothelium was mostly intact, although enzymes leaked out of the epithelial cells. The changes were increased at 24 h. The urothelium also showed some disruptions and degenerative vacuolization. The oedema reached its maximum at 48 h, and large numbers of inflammatory cells were also seen. The urothelium was disruptured in many places and vacuolated, but the subendothelial capillaries remained normal. Damage to some muscle cells was seen. After 7 days the oedema had disappeared and the urothelium was continuous. Enlarged
The complex model of the lower part of the urinary consists of the detrusor smooth muscle cell model and the detailed 1D model of the urethra flow. In future this model will allow to simulate the influence of different drugs and mechanical obstructions in the bladder neck and urethra. A general muscle model involving the calcium dynamics in the smooth muscle cell and the growth and remodelling theory will be shortly introduced. The main part is devoted to the development of a simple bladder model and the detrusor contraction during voiding together with the detailed model of the urethra flow ...
According to prevailing assumptions, UPEC strains are strictly extracellular pathogens. In this study, however, we provide evidence that host cell invasion enhances the ability of UPEC to successfully infect the bladder epithelium. Upon making contact with superficial epithelial cells in the bladder lumen, type 1-piliated UPEC induces a cascade of signaling events leading to bacterial internalization (27, 29). Following internalization UPEC is able to replicate, resulting in the formation of large collections of intracellular bacteria, which due to their appearance we have termed bacterial factories. UPEC strains were also shown to have the capacity to flux out of bladder epithelial cells, a process that may allow bacteria to escape from host superficial cells that are induced to exfoliate in response to infection. Bacteria exiting dying host cells are often filamentous, enabling them to maintain contact with the bladder epithelium as they leave one host cell and interact with neighboring and ...
Eviprostat is a popular phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). At present, the signaling mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are still poorly understood. Given that cAMP has been reported to suppress cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in various pathological situations, we asked whether the effect of Eviprostat could be ascribed to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. In the study, exposure of cAMP response element (CRE)-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) (CRE-SEAP)-reporter cells to Eviprostat elevated SEAP secretion, which was associated with an increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), as well as enhanced expression of CRE-regulated protein connexin43, indicating an activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. Consistent with these observations, Eviprostat-induced expression of Cx43 was abolished in the presence of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 or PKA
Do you suffer from inflammation of the urinary bladder? Magnetic therapy can help you. Find out why physicians recommend magnetic therapy for inflammation of the urinary bladder.
functional abnormality (such as a very abnormal heart beat or mental. although there is still scientific and economic controversy about our conclusion, we would argue that, at a minimum, there is an ethical obligation to present the option of an 18-22-week routine obstetric ultrasound examination in clinical centers in which quality ultrasound is available. try to date the pregnancy, exclude twins and detect any fetal. important large scale studies emerged to address the issue: the radius study (routine antenatal diagnostic imaging with ultrasound) with a cohort of 15,000 low-risk pregnancies in the united states in 1993 and the eurofetus study in europe in 1997 in which 200,000 low-risk pregnant women in 60 hospitals had obstetric ultrasound examinations performed in centers proficient in prenatal diagnosis. there were definitely no boy parts down there, and she started. sonogram and told that nothing is wrong other than the. the sonographer will put some gel on your tummy and move a small ...
Cystometry is a diagnostic procedure used to identify problems with the filling and emptying of the urinary bladder. This test measures the amount of volume or urine in the bladder compared with the bladder pressure and the persons perception of bladder fullness. Cystometry provides information about the muscle function, mechanics, and nerve response of the bladder and urinary tract.. A normally functioning bladder sends messages to the brain via nerve pathways when it needs emptying. The spinal cord then transmits a message to the bladder to contract and begin the reflex of urinating. A person can override this reflex voluntarily by holding his or her urine.. Some medical conditions may interfere with the muscular function or nerve pathways between the bladder and the brain. These conditions may lead to urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) or urinary obstruction. Cystometry may be indicated to determine the source of such problems. It is often done together with Uroflowmetry, which ...
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Nowadays, a role of the whole range of factors of hyperactive bladder development is being discussed.. They are as follows:. - Sex and Age Hyperactive bladder risk increases with the age. The critical age is above 60 - elderly people have maximal probability to get affected by hyperactive bladder. For men, this risk is explained by prostatic hyperplasia the symptoms of which are present in almost all men above 60. Nevertheless, absence of hyperplasia doesnt exclude occurrence of age-related changes of bladder which are nearly identical in both, men and women.. Hyperactive bladder development in elderly people is usually an accompanying disease with neurogenic and vascular component, such as diabetes, cerebrovascular pathology, atherosclerosis of huge vessels, etc.. - Genetic Factor. It is difficult to detect this factor in hyperactive bladder syndrome. For unbiased estimate of heredity role, it is essential to examine affined individuals under conditions of similar environment and lifestyle. ...
Bladder regeneration based on minced bladder mucosa in vivo expansion is an alternative to in vitro culturing of urothelial cells. Here, we present the design of a hybrid, electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - plastically compressed (PC) collagen scaffold that could allow in vivo bladder mucosa expansion. Optimisation of electrospinning was performed in order to obtain increased pore sizes and porosity to consolidate the construct and to support neovascularisation and tissue ingrowth. Tensile tests showed an increase in average tensile strength from 0.6 MPa for PC collagen to 3.57 MPa for the hybrid construct. The optimised PLGA support scaffold was placed between two collagen gels, and the minced tissue was distributed either on top or both on top and inside the construct prior to PC; this was then cultured for up to four weeks. Morphology, histology and SEM demonstrated that the construct maintained its integrity throughout cell culture. Cells from minced tissue migrated, expanded and ...
Intravesical Adriamycin treatment was given to 22 patients with carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. The treatment schedule consisted of monthly Adriamycin instillations in a dose related to bladder capacity. Endoscopic inspection with multiple bladder biopsies and cytoanalysis of urine was performed after every third instillation. In two patients there was lasting disappearance of the carcinoma in situ. Another 10 patients possibly had a beneficial effect of the treatment. The remaining 10 patients showed persistent malignancy and in 6 of these, progression of carcinoma in situ during Adriamycin treatment necessitated cystectomy or radiotherapy. The histologic and cytologic findings showed distinct variability in most patients, with atypia or even absence of malignant cells often followed by recurrence. Adriamycin was discontinued in four cases because of severe cystitis, and in one case because of an anaphylactoid reaction following instillation of the drug.
Looking for bladder cell? Find out information about bladder cell. Any of the large vacuolated cells in the outer layers of the tunic in some tunicates Explanation of bladder cell
Regions of tissue having reduced electrical propagation are created in a bladder to affect its electrical or mechanical properties. To create these tissue regions, a tubular device is advanced through the urethra leading to the interior of the bladder, a distal expandable structure of the device is expanded to contact the inner wall of the bladder, and electrodes or other active energy delivery elements of the device are activated to deliver ablation energy. The electrodes or other active energy delivery elements are disposed over the expandable structure which is shaped to conform to the interior of the bladder. The inner wall of the organ is ablated in a predetermined pattern. The same or other electrodes disposed over the expandable structure can used to electrically map the bladder. This map of electrical activity can be used to create the predetermined pattern.
... _Bladder Wall Thickening: Causes, Treatment tandurust 825032Health FAQ 4Bladder Wall Thickening Causes The urinary bladder is a pouch that collects urine from the kidneys As a result of certai
Urinary bladder examination. Coloured retrograde and urinary urethrocystography image (bladder and urethra X-ray) using a contrast medium to examine the bladder and urinary tract of a 24-year-old woman who has recurring urinary tract infections. This is a frontal view of the pelvic region with the patient lying down. The assessment is attempting to detect whether vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), the backward flow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys, is present. - Stock Image C033/7257
Detrusor instability is the commonest type of urinary incontinence in the elderly and is present in up to 50% of patients attending continence clinics. Treatment of this condition, aimed at reducing uncontrollable detrusor contractions, is at present unsatisfactory. For example, calcium antagonists are cliniclly disappointing and studies were carried out to investigate why they are ineffective. Rats were treated with nimodipine for 8 days or with a single dose. Treatment for 8 days had no effect on isolated detrasor contraction but a single dose reduced detrasor contractile response. It is propossed that chronic treatment with nimodipine caused an up-regulation of calcium channels as a compensatory mechanism. Oestrogens have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on detrusor muscle contraction after in vitro and in vivo treatment. In post-menopausal women with a uterus unopposed oestrogens should not be given, but progesterone has anti-oestrogenic actions. When rats were treated with oestrogen ...
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Herniation of urinary bladder occurs when the urinary bladder or ureter herniates into the inguinal canal, scrotal sac or femoral canal.
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen. Its simply a storage place for urine, the liquid waste thats produced by the kidneys. Urine flows from each kidney through a tube called a ureter. The ureter empties urine into the bladder. The urine stays in the bladder until you urinate.. An outer layer of muscle surrounds the inner lining of the bladder. When the bladder is full, the muscles in the bladder wall tighten to allow urination. Urine leaves the bladder through another tube, the urethra. After you urinate, the bladder shrinks in size.. The bladder consists of several layers:. ...
For bladder cancer, another key indicator for likelihood to spread is the depth of penetration into the bladder wall. The bladder wall is composed of an inner lining called the urothelium (made up of transitional cells) which rests on a membrane layer called the basement membrane, below which is the connective tissue layer (support tissues) called the lamina propria. Within the lamina propria lies a small amount of muscle called the muscularis mucosa. Deep to the lamina propria is the deep muscle of the bladder arranged in three layers. This layer is called the muscularis propria. Tumors located in the inside, superficial layers of the bladder wall are unlikely to spread. Tumors that grow into the deeper layers (down into the muscle of the bladder wall) are much more likely to spread. Furthermore, there is a definite link between the grade of the tumor and its likelihood of invasion. Low grade tumors are almost always noninvasive, while high grade tumors are usually invasive. In general, ...
... Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Jul 27;:ajprenal.00387.2016 Authors: Durnin L, Hayoz S, Corrigan R, Yanez A, Koh SD, Mutafova-Yambolieva VN Abstract During urinary bladder filling the bladder urothelium releases chemical mediators which in turn transmit information to the nervous and muscular systems to...
Bladder cancer. Light micrograph showing cancerous cells (across centre, nuclei stained dark) that have infiltrated tissues of the urinary bladder. The cells show chaotic and disorganised growth typical of cancers. This is a carcinoma, a cancer arising from the bladder lining. Symptoms may include passing blood in the urine and a feeling of increased bladder pressure. Depending on the site and invasiveness of the cancer it may be removed surgically or destroyed with heat. If the cancer is widespread, radiotherapy or even removal of the bladder (cystectomy) may be necessary. The prognosis for patients with bladder tumours that are found early is good. - Stock Image M132/0827
A test called a cystometrogram measures how much urine your bladder can hold. It also measures the amount of pressure in the bladder as it fills with urine. A catheter is used to fill the bladder with saline and measure pressure. This test will show how full your bladder is when you feel the urge to urinate and can detect involuntary contractions. And finally, after your bladder is full, you will empty it, and the catheter will measure the pressure needed for you to urinate. This is called a pressure-flow study and can identify the presence of an obstruction.. ...
Puri nergic P2X receptors associated with the parasympathetic nerves supplyi ng huma n bladder smooth muscle (detrusor) are implicated i n co ntrol of detrusor co ntractility. The relative abu nda nce
Once produced, the urine (the filtered waste product) is stored in the central part of the kidney called the renal pelvis. At regular intervals, the renal pelvis contracts and propels the urine through the ureters. These narrow, thin-walled tubes extend from inside the renal pelvis to the bladder.The bladder is a thick-walled structure, consisting of a relatively thin inner layer with a thick muscle covering. This inner layer or epithelium is made of several layers of cells. The epithelial layer is also called the transitional cell layer. The main function of the bladder is to store urine. For most people, the bladder can hold as much as 1 pint (16 ounces) of urine at a time. It contracts or expands depending on how much fluid is in it. When the bladder contracts following a series of neurological "messages" to the brain and spinal cord, the urine moves through the urethra outside the body.. ...