Choi, S.-h.; Mansoorabadi, S. O.; Liu, Y.-n.; Chien, T.-C.; Liu, H.-w. "Analysis of UDP-D-Apiose/UDP-D-Xylose Synthase Catalzyed Conversion of UDP-D-Apiose Phosphonate to UDP-D-Xylose Phosphonate: Implications for a Retroaldol-Aldol Mechanism." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13946-13949 ...
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Encodes a protein with xylosyltransferase activity, which is specific for UDP-xylose as donor substrate and for oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ,4. Although the enzyme utilizes either cellopentaose or cellohexaose, its activity is four-fold higher with cellohexaose as an acceptor compared to cellopentaose. The enzyme is able to add several xylosyl residues to the acceptor forming mono-, di- and trixylosylated polysaccharides ...
What is manganese most beneficial for when it comes to disease prevention? Manganese-deficient is one of the major free radical damage-fighting enzymes in the body. In factits "master antioxidant" since its especially powerful at reducing inflammation, pain and bodily stress that can lead to numerous chronic diseases. (4) Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the only enzymes capable of consuming superoxide radicals, making them valuable for slowing the aging process and prolonging health. ...
GXM is composed of mannose, xylose, glucuronic acid, and O-acetyl residues. In our previous studies, we isolated two genes (CAS1 and UXS1) necessary for O-acetylation and xylosylation of the capsule, respectively (25, 30). Here, we constructed a strain lacking the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Although a salvage pathway exists in plants which are able to synthesize UDP-glucuronic acid via the oxidation of inositol to glucuronic acid and subsequent activation to the nucleotide sugar (35), phenotypic analysis of the udg1Δ strain suggests strongly that most if not all of the UDP-glucuronic acid is synthesized through the conversion of UDP-glucose. If a major salvage pathway existed in C. neoformans, one can predict that the residual UDP-glucuronic acid would compensate at least partly for the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. UGD1 appeared completely required for expression of two of the three major attributes necessary for virulence in C. neoformans, i.e., the presence of a capsule and the ability to grow ...
Complete information for XYLT1 gene (Protein Coding), Xylosyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Strains and cell growth: C. neoformans was grown with continuous shaking at 30° in YPD medium [1% (w/v) Bacto yeast extract; 2% (w/v) peptone, 2% dextrose] or minimal medium lacking uracil (Ausubelet al. 2001). Low adenine plates contained yeast nitrogen base supplemented with (per liter) 20 g glucose; 24 mg uracil; 40 mg each arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and tryrosine; 60 mg phenylalanine and tryptophan; 120 mg homoserine; 180 mg valine; and 10 mg adenine. For experiments using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), plates contained the same medium with adenine raised to 40 mg/liter and the addition of 1 g/liter 5-FOA. Wild-type serotype D strain B4500 and cap59 strain TYCC33 (Chang and Kwon-Chung 1994) were from Dr. June Kwon-Chung (National Institutes of Health), and ura5 strain JEC43 (Wickeset al. 1997) was from Dr. Joseph Heitman (Duke University Medical Center). JEC43 cells transformed with a control plasmid alone (CIP-GUST.Cla.Kpn; see below) are designated ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Dr. Doerings interest is in the fundamental biology and host interactions of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Her labs goal is to elucidate unique aspects of cryptococcal biology that are of biological interest and may suggest targets for badly needed antifungal chemotherapy. Areas of focus in the Doering lab include how this fungal pathogen interacts with host cells during infection and how its polysaccharide capsule is built, with the aim of understanding and potentially influencing these critical events. These studies increase our basic science knowledge, deepen our understanding of fungal pathogenesis, and enhance the potential for development of new therapeutic agents.. ...
Dr. Doerings interest is in the fundamental biology and host interactions of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Her labs goal is to elucidate unique aspects of cryptococcal biology that are of biological interest and may suggest targets for badly needed antifungal chemotherapy. Areas of focus in the Doering lab include how this fungal pathogen interacts with host cells during infection and how its polysaccharide capsule is built, with the aim of understanding and potentially influencing these critical events. These studies increase our basic science knowledge, deepen our understanding of fungal pathogenesis, and enhance the potential for development of new therapeutic agents.. ...
Requires Mn2+. Unlike EC 3.6.1.13, ADP-ribose diphosphatase, it cannot utilize Mg2+. ADP-D-ribose, CDP-choline, CDP-ethanolamine and ADP are substrates for this enzyme but ADP-D-glucose, UDP-D-glucose, CDP-D-glucose, CDP, CMP and AMP are not hydrolysed [2]. In rat, the enzyme is found predominantly in thymus and spleen ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - O-Acetylation of glucuronoxylan in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and its change in xylan biosynthesis mutants. AU - Chong, S L. AU - Virkki, L. AU - Maaheimo, Hannu. AU - Juvonen, M. AU - Derba-Maceluch, M. AU - Koutaniemi, S. AU - Roach, M. AU - Sundberg, B. AU - Tuomainen, P. AU - Mellerowicz, E J. AU - Tenkanen, M. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - O-Acetylglucuronoxylans (AcGX) in Arabidopsis thaliana carry acetyl residues on the 2-O and/or 3-O positions of the xylopyranosyl (Xylp) units, but the distribution of different O-acetylated Xylp units is partly unclear. We studied a possible correlation of xylan acetylation and the activities of different glycosyltransferases involved in xylan biosynthesis by analyzing the distribution of O-acetyl substituents on AcGX from Arabidopsis wild-type and mutants irx7, irx9-1, irx10, irx14 and gux1gux2. The relative contents of the Xylp structural units were determined with quantitative two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence ...
β-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.102); N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.150); protein O-β-xylosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.26); UDP-GlcA:arabinogalactan β-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
For the production of biofuels and chemicals from plant biomass, a complete utilisation of the cellulose and hemicellulose present is desired. The degradation of these polymers is commonly approached via a physical and/or thermo-assisted chemical pretreatment, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. In grass-type feedstocks, glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) is the major hemicellulose. It is constituted of a β-(1 → 4) linked xylopyranosyl backbone, substituted by side groups, such as O-acetyl groups, arabinofuranosyl residues and 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl uronic acids. The occurrence of substituents in the xylan backbone is highly dependent on the feedstock used. In addition, the abundance and distribution of substituents can be affected by the type and severity of the pretreatment performed [1]. For example, O-acetyl groups and arabinosyl residues are released during hydrothermal pretreatments catalysed by alkali or acids [2-4]. However, glucuronic acid (UA) and its 4-O-methyl etherified derivative ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are found mainly in connective tissue as constituents of proteoglycans, covalently linked to the core protein. They participate in and regulate several cellular events and physiological processes. The sequence of [Delta]-disaccharides in GAGs is crucial for their proper function. The human xylosyltransferases XT-I and XT-II catalyse the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of GAGs by the transfer of xylose to selected serine residues in the core protein of proteoglycans (PGs). For the analysis of GAGs, a HPLC method facilitating the separation of 16 [Delta]-disaccharide standards derivatized with the fluorophore 2-aminoacridone was developed. This novel method allows the quantitative analysis of the [Delta]-disaccharide composition of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (H). The method represents the first HPLC application ever to accomplish baseline separation of either seven ...
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase is a cytosolic enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGDH gene. The protein encoded by this gene converts UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronate and thereby participates in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate. These glycosylated compounds are common components of the extracellular matrix and likely play roles in signal transduction, cell migration, and cancer growth and metastasis. The expression of this gene is up-regulated by transforming growth factor beta and down-regulated by hypoxia. This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: pentose and glucuronate interconversions, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and nucleotide sugars metabolism. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase. Other names in ...
The primary structure of bovine liver UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), a hexameric, NAD(+)-linked enzyme, has been determined at the protein level. The 52-kDa subunits are composed of 468 amino acid residues, with a free N-terminus and a Ser/Asn microhetergeneity at one position. The sequence sha …
6-Thiopurine (6TP) is an actively prescribed drug in the treatment of various diseases ranging from Crohns disease and other inflammatory diseases to acute lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkins leukemia. While 6TP has beneficial therapeutic uses, severe toxicities are also reported with its use, such as jaundice and liver toxicity. While numerous investigations into the mode in which toxicity originates has been undertaken. None have investigated the effects of inhibition towards UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), an oxidative enzyme responsible for UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) formation or UDP-Glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1), which is responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin with UDPGA for excretion ...
Glucuronoxylan (GX), an important component of hemicellulose in the cell wall, appears to affect aluminium (Al) sensitivity in plants. To investigate the role of GX in cell‐wall‐localized xylan, we examined the Arabidopsis thaliana parvus mutant in detail. This mutant lacks α‐D‐glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains in GX and has greater resistance to Al stress than wild‐type (WT) plants. The parvus m ...
UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose formyltransferase / UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating) [EC:2.1.2.13 1.1.1.305 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase 1/B3GAT1 Antibody (HCD57). Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Polysaccharides are found in all forms of life and serve diverse purposes. They are enzymatically synthesised from activated monosaccharide precursors, nucleotide sugars. One such nucleotide sugar is UDP-glucuronic acid, which is formed from UDP-glucose by the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) enzyme. UGDH has been proposed to have a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to investigate the role of UGDH in the polysaccharide biosynthesis in three different systems: human cell culture, bacterial cultures and growing plants. The effects of UGDH-overexpression on polysaccharide biosyntheses and, when achievable, on UDP-sugar levels, were investigated.. A mammalian UGDH was cloned from a kidney cDNA library. Transient expression of the cloned enzyme in mammalian cells led to an increased UGDH-activity. Northern blotting analyses revealed a single transcript of 2.6 kb in adult mouse tissues whereas human tissues expressed a ...
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13); sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14); α-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.52); lipopolysaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.56); phosphatidylinositol α-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.57); GDP-Man: Man1GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.132); GDP-Man: Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol/Man4GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.131); digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase (EC 2.4.1.141); 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.157); diglucosyl diacylglycerol synthase (EC 2.4.1.208); trehalose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.231); NDP-Glc: α-glucose α-glucosyltransferase / α,α-trehalose synthase (EC 2.4.1.245); GDP-Man: Man2GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.257); UDP-GlcNAc: 2-deoxystreptamine α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.283); UDP-GlcNAc: ribostamycin α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.285); UDP-Gal α-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); UDP-Xyl α-xylosyltransferase ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1S2N0 (UBID_SHEAM), 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase. Shewanella amazonensis (strain ATCC BAA-1098 / SB2B)
The following thesis is a composite of two separate research projects which were undertaken by the author for the award of an MRes in Molecular and Cellular Biology within the School of Biosciences at the University of Birmingham. Part one of this thesis will detail the first research project which sought to characterise the contribution of the enzyme phospholipase B to the intercellular lifecycle employed by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans which has the ability to survive within the phagolysosome of immune cell macrophages. This project used cell culture and microscopy techniques as well as whole cell lipidomic analysis and found that many aspects of Cryptococcus neoformans parasitism of macrophages are modified by phospholipase B activity. Part two of this details the second project which examined the predatory bacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorous. This bacterium has a unique lifecycle which involves predation of other gram negative bacteria resulting in prey cell invasion and an ...
1CEN: The crystal structure of a family 5 endoglucanase mutant in complexed and uncomplexed forms reveals an induced fit activation mechanism.
Definition of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. What does uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid mean? Information and translations of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
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Disruption of a key enzyme in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans -- a common cause of infection of the central nervous system in patients such as organ transplant recipients who lack a functioning immune system -- led to a significant loss of fungal virulence in mice, the team found. That loss of virulence stemmed from the fungus s inability to launch a counterattack against components of the innate immune system, the body s first line of defense against infection, the study showed ...
A gene encoding glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.9) was isolated from Streptococcus mutans. A cell extract of Escherichia coli expressing the cloned gene exhibited glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity. The enzyme catalyses the conversion of D-glucose 1-phosphate and UTP into UDP-D-glucose. Rabbit antiserum against the serotype-c-specific antigen did not react with autoclaved extracts from mutant cells in which the cloned gene was insertionally inactivated. The glucose content of the cell-wall preparation purified from the mutant was very much lowered, whereas there was no observable decrease in the content of rhamnose. When the mutant strain was grown in an acidic environment, its cell viability was much lower than that of the wild-type. These results suggest that UDP-D-glucose functions not only as an immediate precursor of the serotype-c-specific antigen of S. mutans (as a glucose donor for side-chain formation), but is also important for the organism's viability in
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) and the addition of a formyl group to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N) to form UDP-L-4-formamido-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4FN). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides ...
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) and the addition of a formyl group to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N) to form UDP-L-4-formamido-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4FN). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides ...
1CEN: The crystal structure of a family 5 endoglucanase mutant in complexed and uncomplexed forms reveals an induced fit activation mechanism.