It is found in very small amounts in nature in the form of minerals, but may be processed into a silver-colored metal. Rocks, soil, surface and groundwater, air, and plants and animals all contain varying amounts of uranium. If the amount is great enough, the uranium may be present in commercial concentrations, called ore, and can be mined. Uranium is almost as hard as steel and much denser than lead. Natural uranium is used to make enriched uranium; depleted uranium is the leftover product. Enriched uranium is used to make fuel for nuclear power plants. Depleted uranium is used as a counterbalance on helicopter rotors and airplane control surfaces, as a shield to protect against ionizing radiation, as a component to munitions to help them penetrate enemy armored vehicles, and as armor in some parts of military vehicles.. Natural uranium is a mixture of three isotopes: 234U, 235U, and 238U. The most common isotope is 238U; it makes up about 99% of natural uranium by mass. All three isotopes ...
The uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge was constructed in 1981 for the purpose of demonstrating on refining and conversion process from yellow cake (or uranium trioxide) to uranium hexafluoride by way of uranium tetrafluoride. For 20 years, 385 tons of natural uranium hexafluoride and 336 tons of reprocessed uranium hexafluoride (approximately) was produced. There are two different type of refining processes in the URCP. One is the wet process by convertig the natural uranium and the other is the dry conversion process for the reprocessed uranium. The dismantling of the dry process facilities began in March, 2008. It was found the large amount of uranium residuals such as wet slurry and powder uranium inside the vessels and pipes. Therefore, we have to take care of the spread of the contamination during dismantling works. The basic strategy concerning plant dismantling were the optimization of the total labor costs and the minimization of the radioactive wastes ...
Intragranitic veins form in the late phase of magmatic activity when hot fluids derived from the magma precipitate uranium on cracks within the newly formed granite. Such mineralisation contributed much to the uranium production of France. Veins hosted by metasedimentary units in the exocontact of granites are the most important sources of uranium mineralisation in central Europe including the world class deposits Schneeberg-Schlema-Alberoda in Germany (96,000 t uranium content) as well as Pribram (50,000 t uranium content) and Jachymov (~10,000 t uranium content) in the Czech Republic. Also they are closely related to the granites, the mineralization is much younger with a time gap between granite formation and mineralisation of 20 million years. The initial uranium mineralisation consists of quartz, carbonate, fluorite and pitchblende. Remobilsation of uranium occurred at later stages producing polymetal veins containing silver, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and other elements. Large deposits of ...
The ability to predict the success of the microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) to highly insoluble U(IV) as an in situ bioremediation strategy is complicated by the wide range of geochemical conditions at contaminated sites and the strong influence of aqueous uranyl speciation on the bioavailability and toxicity of U(VI) to metal-reducing bacteria. In order to determine the effects of aqueous uranyl speciation on uranium bioreduction kinetics, incubations and viability assays with Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 were conducted over a range of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Ca 2+, and Mg 2+ concentrations. A speciation-dependent kinetic model was developed to reproduce the observed time series of total dissolved uranium concentration over the range of geochemical conditions tested. The kinetic model yielded the highest rate constant for the reduction of uranyl non-carbonate species (i.e., the free hydrated uranyl ion, uranyl hydroxides, and other minor uranyl complexes), indicating ...
C1287-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Impurities in Nuclear Grade Uranium Compounds by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry impurities~ uranyl nitrate hexahydrate~
The Czech Republic is the birthplace of industrial scale uranium mining. Uranium mining at Jáchymov (at that time named Joachimsthal and belonging to Austria-Hungary) started in the 1890s on an industrial scale, after the silver and cobalt production of the deposit declined. Uranium was first utilised to produce mainly yellow colours for glass and porcelain manufacture. After the Curies in France discovered the polonium and radium in tailings from Jáchymov, the town became the first place in the world for commercial radium production from uranium ore. Radioactive water from the mines was also used to set up a health resort still existing today for radon-treatments. Pre-Cold War production is estimated to be around 1,000 t of uranium. From 1947 on the Czech Republic started producing uranium for the Soviet Union. Early mining sites such as Jáchymov, Horní Slavkov and Příbram became known as parts of the "Czech Gulag".[46] In the whole, the Czech Republic produced 110.000 t of uranium to ...
Uranium adalah suatu unsur kimia dalam tabel periodik yang memiliki lambang U dan nomor atom 92. Ia merupakan logam putih keperakan yang termasuk dalam deret aktinida di dalam tabel periodik. Uranium memiliki 92 proton dan 92 elektron, dengan elektron valensi 6. Inti uranium mengikat sebanyak 141 sampai dengan 146 neutron, sehingganya terdapat 6 isotop uranium. Isotop yang paling umum adalah uranium-238 (146 neutron) dan uranium-235 (143 neutron). Semua isotop uranium tidak stabil dan bersifat radioaktif lemah. Uranium memiliki bobot atom terberat kedua (setelah plutonium) di antara semua unsur-unsur kimia yang dapat ditemukan secara alami.[2] Massa jenis uranium kira-kira 70% lebih besar daripada timbal, namun tidaklah sepadat emas ataupun tungsten. Uranium dapat ditemukan secara alami dalam konsentrasi rendah (beberapa bagian per juta (ppm)) dalam tanah, bebatuan, dan air. Uranium yang dapat dijumpai secara alami adalah uranium-238 (99,2739-99,2752%), uranium-235 (0,7198-0,7202%), dan ...
With increasing demands for nuclear power supplies, more efficient means of evaluation and extraction of sedimentary uranium ore deposits, which form 96% of the U.S. reserves, are required. The fluvial, deltaic, and near-shore marine sands and associated lignites of the Texas coastal plain uranium deposits can assist in the need for increased nuclear power supplies. Tetravalent uranium is essentially immobile, while hexavalent uranium is easily complexed and very mobile in sedimentary aqueous systems. Fixation of uranium in the sediments seemed to be controlled by sorption and/or reduction by organic matter, H(,2)S, clays, zeolites, and carbonates. Texas uranium ore typically occurs in roll-front type deposits and these are discussed in conjunction with fixation and mobilization mechanisms. The basic strategies of the carbonate and acid leach systems are discussed. By monitoring effluent uranium and Rn-222 and cumulative uranium and Rn-222 extracted, it is shown that predictions can be made ...
Microbiological reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) has been proposed as a remediation strategy for uranium-contaminated groundwater. Nitrate is a common co-contaminant with uranium. Nitrate inhibited U(VI) reduction in acetate-amended aquifer sediments collected from a uranium-contaminated site in New Mexico. Once nitrate was depleted, both U(VI) and Fe(III) were reduced concurrently. When nitrate was added to sediments in which U(VI) had been reduced, U(VI) reappeared in solution. Parallel studies with the dissimilatory Fe(III)-, U(VI)- and nitrate-reducing microorganism, Geobacter metallireducens, demonstrated that nitrate inhibited reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) in cell suspensions of cells that had been grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor, but not in Fe(III)-grown cells. Suspensions of nitrate-grown G. metallireducens oxidized Fe(II) and U(IV) with nitrate as the electron acceptor. U(IV) oxidation was accelerated when Fe(II) was also added, presumably due to the Fe(III) ...
More than 120 people converged on the doorstep of the Global Uranium Conference, throwing dyed yellow sand - representing yellow cake or uranium concentrate - and demanding BHPs proposed $17 million Yeelirrie mine be scrapped.. Ban Uranium Mining Permanently campaigner Kate Vallentine said the protesters want to make it clear that uranium is too dangerous, too dirty and too risky.. "The WA public has been left out in the cold while government and industry have taken it upon themselves to bulldoze over public opinion at the largest uranium conference in Australia," Ms Vallentine said. "They are making decisions that put our health and environment in jeopardy with future generations footing the bill for the radioactive waste left behind.". Among the protesters was shadow environment minister Sally Talbot, Noongar elders, conservation groups, union members, families and the clown army.. Alongside those who are against uranium mining altogether, the Conservation Council of WA are demanding a ...
Some aspects of Uranium series are discussed in most isotope geochemistry There are two main reasons for dating geological and archaeological materials: of samples with different amounts of detrital component, define a mixing line. dating.asia home single evenementen Uranium series dating techniques rely on the fact that radioactive uranium and thorium isotopes decay into a series of unstable, radioactive daughter isotopes; said about the U-series dating method of chemical or biogenic minerals and compounds. This is .. of the element in units defined by those used for N and t. d dating profile names Uranium-Series dating is a radiometric dating method based on the decay of various uranium isotopes, which decay through a series of stages to a stable lead opening line dating website reviews The Ux U3O8 Price® indicator is one of only two weekly uranium price is the longest-running weekly uranium price series, dating back two decades. UxC not only covers the spot uranium market, but also the ...
Uranium bio-transformations are the many and varying types of interactions that microbes can have with uranium encountered in their environment. In this review, bio-transformations, including reduction, oxidation, respiration, sorption, mineralization, accumulation, precipitation, biomarkers, and sensors are defined and discussed. Consensus and divergences are noted in bioavailability, mechanism of uranium reduction, environment, metabolism and the type of organism. The breadth of organisms with characterized bio-trans formations is also cataloged and discussed. We further debate if uranium biotransformations provide bio-protection or bio-benefit to the microbe and highlight the need for more work in the field to understand if microbes use uranium reduction for energy gain and growth, as having the ability is separate from exercising it. The presentation centers on the fundamental drivers for these processes with an additional exposition of the essential contribution of inorganic chemistry techniques to
... Information:. Uranium found in nature contains two isotopes; U238 @ 99.3% and U235 @ 0.7%. It is U235 that is radioactive and fissionable. This is extracted from the isolated metal for use in reactors and nuclear weapons production. The waste from this extraction process is U238 with traces of the radioactive isotope. Uranium though has properties that make it attractive for other uses. It is very dense (18.95 gms per cm3 that is twice as dense as lead). Its density makes it very armour penetrating. It also happens to burn. The high heat generated on impact and penetration sets the uranium alight. After impact it then burns producing Uranium oxides and uranium dust. This is both poisonous and slightly radioactive because of the residual radioactive isotope component. U235 is an alpha emitter.. When DU (depleted uranium) is used in shells, on impact the shell penetrates the steel plating, and then fragments into a burning cloud the products of which settle as dust in ...
Uranium has been mined for many years and used for fuel for nuclear reactors and materials for atomic weapons, ammunition, and armor. While the radioactivity associated with uranium mining has been linked to the development of lung and kidney cancers, and leukemia, little is known about the direct chemical genotoxicity of uranium. The overall hypothesis of the current research is that uranium can produce DNA damage by chemical genotoxicity mechanisms. Three specific aims were tested. In Aim 1, specific DNA lesions caused by direct interaction of uranium and DNA were investigated. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO) with mutations in various DNA repair pathways were exposed to 0 - 300 μM of soluble depleted uranium (DU) as uranyl acetate (UA) for 0 - 48 hr. Results indicate that UA readily enters CHO cells, with the highest concentration localizing in the nucleus. Clonogenics assay shows that UA is cytotoxic in each cell line with the greatest cytotoxicity in the base excision repair deficient EM9 ...
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium. In natural uranium and in uranium ore, 234U occurs as an indirect decay product of uranium-238, but it makes up only 0.0055% (55 parts per million) of the raw uranium because its half-life of just 245,500 years is only about 1/18,000 as long as that of 238U. The path of production of 234U via nuclear decay is as follows: 238U nuclei emit an alpha particle to become thorium-234. Next, with a short half-life, a 234Th nucleus emits a beta particle to become protactinium-234. Finally, 234Pa nuclei each emit another beta particle to become 234U nuclei.[17][18]. 234U nuclei usually last for hundreds of thousands of years, but then they decay by alpha emission to thorium-230, except for the small percentage of nuclei that undergo spontaneous fission. Extraction of rather small amounts of 234U from natural uranium would be feasible using isotope separation, similar to that used for regular uranium-enrichment. However, there is no real demand in chemistry, physics, ...
The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a long-term green fuel supply for nuclear energy. However, extraction of uranium, and other trace minerals, is challenging due to the high ionic strength and low mineral concentrations in seawater. Herein we evaluate the use of nanostructured metal oxide sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Chemical affinity, chemical adsorption capacity and kinetics of preferred sorbent materials were evaluated. High surface area manganese and iron oxide nanomaterials showed excellent performance for uranium collection from seawater. Inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions were demonstrated to be an effective and environmental benign method of stripping the uranium from the metal oxide sorbents. Various formats for the utilization of the nanostructured metals oxide sorbent materials are discussed including traditional and nontraditional methods such as magnetic separation. Keywords: Uranium, nano, manganese, ...
Yet, far from banning DU, America and Britain stepped up their denials of the harm from this radioactive dust as more and more troops from the first Gulf war and from action and peacekeeping in the Balkans and Afghanistan have become seriously ill. This is no coincidence. In 1997, while citing experiments, by others, in which 84 percent of dogs exposed to inhaled uranium died of cancer of the lungs, Dr. Asaf Durakovic, then Professor of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine at Georgetown University in Washington was quoted as saying, The [US governments] Veterans Administration asked me to lie about the risks of incorporating depleted uranium in the human body. He concluded, uranium does cause cancer, uranium does cause mutation, and uranium does kill. If we continue with the irresponsible contamination of the biosphere, and denial of the fact that human life is endangered by the deadly isotope uranium, then we are doing disservice to ourselves, disservice to the truth, disservice to God and to all ...
Writing for the Portland Independent Media Centre on 3 July 2005, he declares: "Health physicists are deeply concerned with the public health and welfare, and as experts in radiation and its effects on people and the environment, are quite aware that something other than exposure to uranium is the cause of the illnesses suffered by those who have had contact with depleted uranium from munitions. A truly enormous body of scientific data shows that it is virtually impossible for uranium to be the cause of their illnesses. Despite this body of scientific data to the contrary, misguided or unknowing people continue to allege that the depleted uranium, and specifically the radioactivity associated with the depleted uranium is the cause of these illness. This is indeed unfortunate, for health physicists and other scientists and physicians already know that depleted uranium is not the cause of these illnesses and thus any investigations into the cause of these illnesses should focus on other possible ...
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Link: https://www.activistpost.com/2017/10/boom-clintons-us-uranium-putin-fbi.html. April 23, 2015, NY Times: Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal.. Canadian company Uranium One controlled a great deal of uranium production in US. It was sold to Russia now controls 20% of US uranium production.. "Since uranium is considered a strategic asset, with implications for national security, the deal [to sell Uranium One to Putin] had to be approved by a committee composed of representatives from a number of United States government agencies. Among the agencies that eventually signed off was the State Department, then headed by Mr. Clintons wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton." ...
Cattleman George Glasier sees the next nuclear era amid the blood-orange mesas of Paradox Valley, the same Western range lands that hold a darker legacy from the last rush to pull uranium from the ground. The land is not far from the toxic uranium mines, now mostly abandoned, that serve as a reminder of an industry born of the Cold War. Industry officials say new technology such as enclosed radioactive waste containers has made processing safer than in the past. Uranium miners have suffered from lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis and pneumoconiosis, a lung disease from inhaling dust. The same fight is brewing across the country as residents and environmental groups try to block new mines and processing facilities for the nuclear industry. The first application since 1988 for a uranium processing facility was filed in October with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. [...] the NRC has received 27 applications for facilities in Wyoming, Nebraska, South Dakota, Arizona and New Mexico. In the other form
The Santhal Aadivasis of the Jadugoda region are dying a slow death from Uranium radiation, but all Government Agencies reject this reality Translation of Uranium ke vikiran se jadugoda elake ke santhal aadivasi dheemi maut mar rahe hain, lekin sabhi sarkari tantra is sachchai se mukarate hain. By Dayamani Barla. (Translation by Vidya Jonnalagadda). The soil of Jadugoda in the Jharkhand region has provided uranium to run the Atomic Energy program in the country and develop Nuclear capabilities, but the Santhal aadivasis of this region are dying a slow death by uranium radiation. It is a living death that compels people to suffer till their last breath. It is a death the reality of which is being denied by all Government agencies. In the region of the uranium mines, in villages such as Chatikocha, Dumardeeh, Telaitaand, Echada, Bhatin, and Lipighututu, 45 of every hundred women are suffering from spontaneous abortions. The children are dying. Most of the children are becoming physically and ...
The nations 104 commercial nuclear power reactors consume around 55 million pounds of uranium per year, but only 4 million pounds is domestically produced, Energy Fuels says. Russia supplies half of U.S. demand by shipping down-blended uranium from decommissioned nuclear weapons under a "Megatons to Megawatts" treaty that expires in 2013. Pinon Ridge would produce 850,000 pounds of uranium, in addition to steel-strengthening vanadium, per year. Energy Fuels owns the nations only operating conventional uranium mill in Blanding, Utah, processing 1.5 million pounds a year. U.S. production is boosted by a handful of uranium in-situ-leach plants. Serguey Novikov, a spokesman for Rosatom, Russias nuclear energy agency, said the U.S. Commerce Department will allow Russia to send 12 million pounds - 20 percent of U.S. demand - after the treaty expires. In Colorado, Energy Fuels promises 85 jobs at Pinon Ridge that would pay from $40,000 to $75,000 a year. It insists the mill will support 200 existing ...
The nations 104 commercial nuclear power reactors consume around 55 million pounds of uranium per year, but only 4 million pounds is domestically produced, Energy Fuels says. Russia supplies half of U.S. demand by shipping down-blended uranium from decommissioned nuclear weapons under a "Megatons to Megawatts" treaty that expires in 2013. Pinon Ridge would produce 850,000 pounds of uranium, in addition to steel-strengthening vanadium, per year. Energy Fuels owns the nations only operating conventional uranium mill in Blanding, Utah, processing 1.5 million pounds a year. U.S. production is boosted by a handful of uranium in-situ-leach plants. Serguey Novikov, a spokesman for Rosatom, Russias nuclear energy agency, said the U.S. Commerce Department will allow Russia to send 12 million pounds - 20 percent of U.S. demand - after the treaty expires. In Colorado, Energy Fuels promises 85 jobs at Pinon Ridge that would pay from $40,000 to $75,000 a year. It insists the mill will support 200 existing ...
Highly enriched uranium (HEU) has a 20% or higher concentration of 235U. The fissile uranium in nuclear weapon primaries usually contains 85% or more of 235U known as weapons-grade, though theoretically for an implosion design, a minimum of 20% could be sufficient (called weapon(s)-usable) although it would require hundreds of kilograms of material and "would not be practical to design";[4][5] even lower enrichment is hypothetically possible, but as the enrichment percentage decreases the critical mass for unmoderated fast neutrons rapidly increases, with for example, an infinite mass of 5.4% 235U being required.[4] For criticality experiments, enrichment of uranium to over 97% has been accomplished.[6]. The very first uranium bomb, Little Boy, dropped by the United States on Hiroshima in 1945, used 64 kilograms of 80% enriched uranium. Wrapping the weapons fissile core in a neutron reflector (which is standard on all nuclear explosives) can dramatically reduce the critical mass. Because the ...
Yet, far from banning DU, America and Britain stepped up their denials of the harm from this radioactive dust as more and more troops from the first Gulf war and from action and peacekeeping in the Balkans and Afghanistan have become seriously ill. This is no coincidence. In 1997, while citing experiments, by others, in which 84 percent of dogs exposed to inhaled uranium died of cancer of the lungs, Dr. Asaf Durakovic, then Professor of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine at Georgetown University in Washington was quoted as saying, The [US governments] Veterans Administration asked me to lie about the risks of incorporating depleted uranium in the human body. He concluded, uranium does cause cancer, uranium does cause mutation, and uranium does kill. If we continue with the irresponsible contamination of the biosphere, and denial of the fact that human life is endangered by the deadly isotope uranium, then we are doing disservice to ourselves, disservice to the truth, disservice to God and to all ...
Hydrogen generation mitigation for K Basin sludge was examined by encapsulation of uranium metal in BoroBond®, pre-oxidation of uranium metal with Fentons reagent and grinding of Densalloy SD170, an irradiated uranium metal surrogate. Encapsulation in BoroBond® resulted in pressure increase rates at 60 °C ranging from 0.116 torr/h to 0.186 torr/h compared to 0.240 torr/h for a uranium metal in water standard. Samples cast with higher water content led to increased rates. A Fentons reagent system consisting of a simple reagent mix of FeSO4 ·7H2 O, H2 O2 and HCl effectively oxidized 1/4″ cubes of uranium metal in under four days at room temperature. Increased peroxide addition rate, increased FeSO4 ·7H2 O concentration and low pH all increase the corrosion rate. Densalloy SD170 with an average particle size of 581 μm with 7.63% of particles less than 90 μm was milled so that over 90% of the Densalloy mass measured less than 90 μm in 6 hours of milling. Acceptable wear rates were seen ...
The nuclear weapon used by the United States on August 6, 1945, to destroy the Japanese city of Hiroshima contained about 60 kilograms of enriched uranium. It was simple: One piece of uranium metal was fired at another to make a supercritical mass and generate the nuclear explosion. Starting in the 1970s, but especially since the attacks on the United States in September 2001, there has been concern that terrorists could acquire enriched uranium and make such a simple weapon. To do so, they would need to gain access to several tens of kilograms of material enriched to more than 20 percent uranium 235, i.e., highly enriched uranium (HEU). As of the end of 2014, the global stockpile of HEU was estimated to be about 1,370 tons, sufficient for more than 20,000 Hiroshima type weapons. A new report from the International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM) proposes that it is necessary and feasible for all production of HEU for military and civilian purposes to be banned.. The Nuclear Security Summits ...
Factors that can modify the lung cancer risk of Colorado plateau uranium (7440611) miners were examined. The cohort was an established group of 3,347 white males employed in uranium mines on the Colorado plateau who had been followed previously for mortality from 1950 through the end of 1982. The mean year of birth of the cohort was 1920 and the average age of the miners at first hire was 32 years
UF6 is used in both of the main uranium enrichment methods - gaseous diffusion and the gas centrifuge method - because its triple point is at temperature 64.05 °C (147 °F, 337 K) and only slightly higher than normal atmospheric pressure. Fluorine has only a single naturally occurring stable isotope, so isotopologues of UF6 differ in their molecular weight based solely on the uranium isotope present.[11] All the other uranium fluorides are nonvolatile solids that are coordination polymers. Gaseous diffusion requires about 60 times as much energy as the gas centrifuge process: gaseous diffusion-produced nuclear fuel produces 25 times more energy than is used in the diffusion process, while centrifuge-produced fuel produces 1,500 times more energy than is used in the centrifuge process. In addition to its use in enrichment, uranium hexafluoride has been used in an advanced reprocessing method (fluoride volatility), which was developed in the Czech Republic. In this process, used oxide nuclear ...
Email the Governor: http://www.governor.virginia.gov Mailing Address: Office of the Governor, Patrick Henry Building, 3rd Floor , 1111 East Broad Street , Richmond, Virginia 23219 Phone Numbers: Office: (804) 786-2211, Fax: (804) 371-6351 TTY/TDD (For the deaf or hard-of-hearing): 1-800-828-1120, or 711 : http://www.governor.virginia.gov/CommunityRelations/ SB1138/HB1790 - Nuclear Energy Consortium bills headed to VA Governor Bob McDonnell - We do not want more Nuclear Power in VA, nuke power is not green or clean, starts with uranium mining to nuke rods which last 4ever! The General wording allows for a lack of transparency and public accountability, and that that may have been deliberately written into the bill to give VNECA unchecked powers, including the authority and power to promote and expand cradle to grave nuclear industries using taxpayers monies for grants. SB 1138 Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority; Introduced by: Jeffrey L. McWaters ...
The biological reduction of uranium from soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) has shown potential to prevent uranium migration in groundwater. To gain insight into the extent of uranium reduction that can occur during biostimulation and to what degree U(IV) reoxidation will occur under field relevant co.... Full description. ...
Report of the mortality experience of the limited number of uranium mill workers who were examined between 1950 and 1953 as part of a study of uranium workers originally conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service. Death certificates were obtained for men who died between 1950 and December 31, 1967. The only specific cause of death which demonstrated a significant excess was malignant disease of t
Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRBs) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long
Uranium single particle analysis has been performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the performances are compared with that provided by scanning electron microsopy and single particle counting. The transient signal induced by the flash of ions due to the ionisation of all titanium Colloidal particle in the plasma torch can be detected and measured for selected uranium ion masses (U-238(+), U-235(+) or 254[(UO)-U-238-O-16](+)) by the mass spectrometer. The signals recorded via time scanning are analysed as a function of particle size or fraction of the studied element or isotope in the colloid phase. The frequency of the flashes is directly proportional to the concentration of particles in the colloidal suspension. The feasibility tests were performed on uranium dioxide particles. The study also describes the experimental conditions and the choice of mass to detect uranium colloids in a single particle analysis mode.. ...
Health and safety protections for uranium workers were, for many years, spotty at best and negligent at worst. The Department of the Interiors Bureau of Mines (BOM), established in 1910 to reduce accidents, had little regulatory authority and was also tasked with "mineral resource development." State laws were piecemeal: In 1958, for example, New Mexico instituted a policy to "clear all areas" of mines that exceeded safe levels of radon, but "there was limited enforcement," according to a 2002 National Institutes of Health paper by Doug Brugge and Rob Goble.. Federal responsibility for mine safety was reshuffled twice in the 1970s. The Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration(MESA) took over for the BOM in 1973 due to concerns about conflicts of interest. In 1978, the Department of Labors Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) replaced MESA as part of the sweeping reforms of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act. MSHA also assumed responsibility for uranium mills.. MSHAs motto is ...
In Situ Recovery(ISR) ISR is injected-solution mining that reverses the natural process that deposited the uranium in the sandstones. On-site ground water is being fortified with gaseous oxygen and introduced to the uranium ore body through a pattern of injection wells. The solution dissolves the uranium from the sandstone host. The uranium-bearing solution is brought back to surface through production wells where the uranium is concentrated on resin beads for trucking to a processing plant to be concentrated further and dried into yellowcake for market. This pattern of injection and recovery wells, plus surrounding monitor wells that serve as a safeguard, is called a wellfield. Return to top ...
1987 photo of Mark 149 Mod 2 20mm depleted uranium ammunition for the Phalanx CIWS aboard USS Missouri (BB-63).. Staballoys, along with lower raw material costs, have the advantage of being easy to melt and cast into shape; a difficult and expensive process for tungsten. Note also that according to recent research,[10] at least some of the most promising tungsten alloys which have been considered as replacement for depleted uranium in penetrator ammunitions, such as tungsten-cobalt or tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloys, possess extreme carcinogenic properties, which by far exceed those (confirmed or suspected) of depleted uranium itself: 100% of rats implanted with a pellet of such alloys developed lethal rhabdomyosarcoma within a few weeks. On more properly military grounds, depleted uranium is favored for the penetrator because it is self-sharpening and pyrophoric. On impact with a hard target, such as an armored vehicle, the nose of the rod fractures in such a way that it remains sharp. The impact ...
However, when depleted uranium explodes upon impact, and burns with high temperature, it becomes micro-particles of oxidized uranium (ceramic form aerosol of diametrical-micron; a micron is equivalent to 1/1000mm), discharged heavily, and are packed in tanks. Also, the particles diffused in the atmosphere and whirled up in the sky, pollute vast range of the atmosphere, and also, the particles that fall on the ground pollute the environment such as the soil and water, etc.. 4. Dreadful Negative Effects of Depleted Uranium Weapons on the Human Body. Once the uranium particles are inhaled into the body, the particles attach first to the trachea and the respiratory system. As the particles are practically insoluble, they are difficult to dissolve in the blood, and stay there for a long period of time. Eventually these clinging particles continue to expose the neighboring organs to radiation. By that, they cause the cell and the gene to go into some transformation, and cause cancers, leukemia, ...
Ion exchange performed by contacting a solution containing ions to be absorbed with a hydrous oxide of uranium in a suitable form. The hydrous oxide may be uranium dioxide or uranium hydroxide, and may be prepared by reducing a uranium species, precipitating the reduced species, and drying the precipitate to give the required hydrous oxide.
In May 1972 a worker at a nuclear fuel processing plant in France noticed something suspicious. He had been conducting a routine analysis of uranium derived from a seemingly ordinary source of ore. As is the case with all natural uranium, the material under study contained three isotopes that is to say, three forms with differing atomic masses: uranium 238, the most abundant variety; uranium 234, the rarest; and uranium 235, the isotope that is coveted because it can sustain a nuclear chain reaction. Elsewhere in the earth s crust, on the moon and even in meteorites, uranium 235 atoms make up 0.720 percent of the total. But in these samples, which came from the Oklo deposit in Gabon (a former French colony in west equatorial Africa), uranium 235 constituted just 0.717 percent. That tiny discrepancy was enough to alert French scientists that something strange had happened. Further analyses showed that ore from at least one part of the mine was far short on uranium 235: some 200 kilograms appeared ...
China is about to push the button on a £650m bid for London uranium miner Kalahari Minerals as the country gathers up uranium assets to boost atomic generation.
A serious outbreak of disease. Just off the Trans-Canada Highway skirting Lake Hurons north shore, a buried vein of ore snakes north through the Algoma Basin in the shape of an upside-down S. It curves for ninety miles beneath the pineclad granite knolls, a mother lode that is spawning eleven giant uranium mines in the greatest eruption of growth since gold gave birth to Dawson City.. The hub of these mines is a chaotic city-to-be called Elliot Lake. Twenty-two months ago it was just a stand of timber dividing two lakes, so wild that a bulldozer leveling brush ran over a large black bear. Today its a prime example of a boom town, familiar symbol of dynamic growth - and trouble.. For a couple of months this spring Elliot Lake made headlines that had nothing to do with uranium. An outbreak of jaundice packed ninety victims into nearby Blind Rivers 59-bed hospital. About three hundred cases were reported before the disease began to wane early last month. Provincial health officials insisted that ...
GPTC (Frankfurt Stock Exchange:GPU) is extremely pleased to announce that it has been informed by the operator that the drill contractor for the planned 25-hole drill program has been secured and advanced monies have been forwarded. Golden Patriot has recently received Government and State approval of the Plan of Operations for a multi-hole drill program on the past producing Lucky Boy Uranium Mine in Gila County, Arizona. Golden Patriot has also received confirmation that a NYSE-listed gold company will initiate a sampling program on one of Golden Patriots gold prospects. [...] there is no guarantee that either an option or joint venture agreement will be entered into. Golden Patriots shares are currently trading more than 60% below the recent highs set, despite now having a major looking at one of our gold properties and that we are about to start a major drill program on our past producing uranium mine.
So the Forsmark Plant produces 93 times more energy than it consumes. Or put another way, the non-nuclear energy investment required to generate electricity for 40 years is repaid in 5 months. Normalized to 1 GigaWatt electrical capacity, the energy required to construct and decommission the plant, which amounts to 4 Peta-Joules (PJ), which is repaid in 1.5 months. The energy required to dispose of the waste is also 4 PJ and repaid in 1.5 months. In total this is less than 0.8% of the all the electrical energy produced by the plant. The calculations of the operating energy costs include the energy required to mine and mill the Uranium. In the case of the Forsmark power plant some of the Uranium is sourced from the Olympic Dam mine in South Australia. This mine has a rather low Uranium concentration (0.05% by weight). A detailed and audited environmental description of the Olympic Dam mine is available here. A succinct description of the energy inputs of the mine is here. These data show that the ...
Even as tens of thousands of veterans became sick after the Gulf War, the Department of Defense stubbornly denied that DU was responsible. Many vets were told they were suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. The Pentagon took the position that because DU is only 60% as radioactive as natural uranium, it is harmless. After 1999, military spokespersons also frequently cited a study completed that year by the RAND Corporation, which found no evidence of harmful DU exposure during Desert Storm. The RAND team conducted no research of its own. It merely reviewed the peer-reviewed scientific literature on uranium toxicity. As RAND conceded, there were few published DU studies, as most of the early research was driven by the need to establish standards for the uranium milling/mining industry; for which reason most of the literature deals with exposure to natural or enriched uranium. While all uranium is hazardous inside the human body, dust particles of natural unprocessed uranium tend to be ...
We report U isotope data for marine black shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Velkerri Formation (Roper Group) and late Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation (Tawallah Group) from the McArthur Basin, Northern Australia. An average authigenic δ238U of 0.13±0.04‰ (1SD; relative to standard CRM145) was obtained for six U- and Mo-rich shales from a ∼1m interval that was deposited at 1361±21Ma (based on previous Re-Os geochronology). After correcting for a local U isotope fractionation of ∼0.60-0.85‰ associated with U removal to anoxic sediments, we infer that global seawater at 1.36Ga had a δ238U of ∼−0.47‰ to −0.72‰, which is ∼0.1−0.3‰ lighter than modern seawater (−0.39±0.01‰). Uranium isotope mass-balance modelling suggests that ,25% of the seafloor was anoxic at 1.36Ga. This interpretation is consistent with high U and Mo enrichments in these samples compared with other Velkerri Formation and mid-Proterozoic black shales, which suggests a sizable dissolved ...
Their findings have far-reaching implications for people living near abandoned mine tailings in the Four Corners area of the Southwest and for war-torn countries and the military, which uses depleted uranium for anti-tank weapons, tank armor and ammunition rounds. Depleted uranium is what is left over when most of the highly radioactive isotopes of uranium are removed. "The health effects of uranium really havent been studied since the Manhattan Project (the development of the atomic bomb in the early 1940s). But now there is more interest in the health effects of depleted uranium. People are asking questions now," Stearns said. The questions include whether there is a connection between exposure to depleted uranium and Gulf War Syndrome or to increased cancers and birth defects in the Middle East. Stearns said it is estimated that more than 300 tons of depleted uranium were used during the first Gulf War. Military uses of depleted uranium in weapons continue today. Closer to home, questions ...
Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Corporate Options for DU Disposal Risk Long-Term Violation of Health and Environmental Standards, New Analysis Indicates. TAKOMA PARK, MD, FEB. 23, 2005 - A new report about a uranium enrichment plant proposed to be built in New Mexico concludes that it would cost between $3 billion and $4 billion to properly manage and dispose of the depleted uranium (DU) waste that the plant would generate. Such high costs could not be recovered from the customers for enrichment services.. The report also discusses recent research on the health effects of DU, much of it performed at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland after the 1991 Gulf War, that has implications far wider than the New Mexico plant. The research indicates that depleted uranium may be mutagenic, tumorigenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic, including in a manner analogous to exposure to lead. [1] It may also cross the placenta and harm the embryo/fetus. There is also ...
An International Appeal to Ban the Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons. Depleted-uranium weapons are an unacceptable threat to life, a violation of international law and an assault on human dignity. To safeguard the future of humanity, we call for an unconditional international ban forbidding research, manufacture, testing, transportation, possession and use of DU for military purposes. In addition, we call for the immediate isolation and containment of all DU weapons and waste, the reclassification of DU as a radioactive and hazardous substance, the cleanup of existing DU-contaminated areas, comprehensive efforts to prevent human exposure and medical care for those who have been exposed. During the Gulf War, munitions and armor made with depleted uranium were used for the first time in a military action. Iraq and northern Kuwait were a virtual testing range for depleted-uranium weapons. Over 940,000 30-millimeter uranium tipped bullets and more than 14,000 large caliber DU rounds were consumed ...