Photoperiods have an important impact on macroalgae living in the intertidal zone. Ocean acidification also influences the physiology of macroalgae. However, little is known about the interaction between ocean acidification and photoperiod on macroalgae. In this study, a green alga Ulva linza was cultured under three different photoperiods (L: D = 8:16, 12:12, 16:8) and two different CO2 levels (LC, 400 ppm; HC, 1,000 ppm) to investigate their responses. The results showed that relative growth rate of U. linza increased with extended light periods under LC but decreased at HC when exposed to the longest light period of 16 h compared to 12 h. Higher CO2 levels enhanced the relative growth rate at a L: D of 8:16, had no effect at 12:12 but reduced RGR at 16:8. At LC, the L: D of 16:8 significantly stimulated maximum quantum yield (Yield). Higher CO2 levels enhanced Yield at L: D of 12:12 and 8:16, had negative effect at 16:8. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased with increasing light period. High
Interaction of zoospores of Ulva linza with cationic, arginine-rich oligopeptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is characterized by rapid settlement. Some spores settle (ie permanently attach) in a normal manner involving the secretion of a permanent adhesive, retraction of the flagella and cell wall formation, whilst others undergo pseudosettlement whereby motile spores are trapped (attached) on the SAM surface without undergoing the normal metamorphosis into a settled spore. Holographic microscopy was used to record videos of swimming zoospores in the vicinity of surfaces with different cationic oligopeptide concentrations to provide time-resolved insights into processes associated with attachment of spores. The data reveal that spore attachment rate increases with increasing cationic peptide content. Accordingly, the decrease in swimming activity in the volume of seawater above the surface accelerated with increasing surface charge. Three-dimensional trajectories of individual swimming ...
Fertilization and zygote formation in the multicellular green alga Ulva mutabilis Føyn were studied with the aid of transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The growth mutant slender was used in this investigation. The initial contact between mating gametes is made by the flagella, whereupon cytoplasmic contact is established within a few seconds. Fusion of the cytoplasm of the 2 cells is completed in 5 min and the nuclei can be seen to fuse 30 min after the onset of copulation. The settling of the young zygotes initiates a process during which the 4 flagella are absorbed into the cell. Cell wall formation also starts when the zygotes settle. Observations indicate disintegration of one of the 2 chloroplasts in the young zygote.. ...
In coastal environments, acidification and eutrophication affect the physiology of marine macroalgae. We investigated the responses of Ulva pertusa Kjellman (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) under such conditions. Samples were cultured at two different pH settings (low, 7.5; high, 8.0) and at three different ammonium levels (low, 4; medium, 60; high, 120 μM NH4+). Our objective was to analyze…
New sources of protein are required to supplement current animal- and plant-protein. Here, we quantify the quality and yield of four protein-enriched biomass products (PEB-I to PEB-IV) and a protein isolate (PI) from the commercially produced seaweed Ulva ohnoi. To decrease the content of components of the biomass that may be undesirable in feed, we have developed a multi-step biorefinery process to produce salt, sulfated polysaccharides (ulvan), and protein products. The content of protein increased from 22.2 ± 0.4% dry weight (dw) in unprocessed biomass to between 39.5 ± 1.9% in the PEB-IV and 45.5 ± 0.8% in the PI. The quality (mol % of essential amino acids [EAA]) of the protein products was similar to soybean meal, with 41.6 ± 0.1 and 43.4 ± 0.1 mol% EAA in PEB-I and the PI, respectively. The yield of PEB products varied from 16.3 ± 0.8 to 41.0 ± 0.8% of the unprocessed biomass, with PEB-I , PEB-II=PEB-III , PEB-IV. The yield of all PEB products was more than four-fold greater than ...
Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyse green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal-bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. Ulva linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores) in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and
Increases longevity - Though sea lettuce is consumed worldwide, it is especially popular in Okinawan in Japan and Crete in Greece. Perhaps it is coincidental, but the residents of these two locations are well-known for their longevity. The Okinawa Centenarian Study, for example, found that the residents of Okinawa are 82 percent less likely than the average American to suffer from coronary heart disease. Moreover, a study published in the September 2008 edition of the British Medical Journal found that the morality rate of those who favor a Mediterranean diet is nine percent lower than those who favor the standard Western diet. Seafood - including sea vegetables like sea lettuce - dominate the diets of these people, so it is possible that these mineral-rich foods are responsible for such long-term healthfulness.. Rich in vitamins - Nutrition-wise, sea lettuce almost covers the entire vitamin spectrum. 100 grams of this green seaweed provide us with 221 micrograms of vitamin A, 10 milligrams of ...
This study a low-cost aquaculture diet with fresh seaweed was tested with the herbivorous rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry. Two fresh seaweed was genera, Ulva and Enter..
Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.. Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program. [in Korean]. Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.. Gittenberger, A., Rensing, M., Stegenga, H. & Hoeksema, B. (2010). Native and non-native species of hard substrata in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Nederlandse faunistische Mededelingen No. 33: 21-75.. Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the ...
Sustainable exploitation and valorization of natural marine resources represents a highly interesting platform for the development of novel biomaterials, with both economic and environmental benefits. In this context, toxicity data is regarded as a crucial and fundamental knowledge prior to any advances in the application development of natural derived polymers. In the present work, cytotoxicity of ulvan extracted from green algae Ulva lactuca was assessed by means of standard in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Fibroblast-like cells were incubated in the presence of this green algaes polysaccharide, and cell viability was assayed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium test. In addition, double stranded DNA and total protein were quantified in order to assess cell number. In order to establish ulvans non-cytotoxic behaviour, the effect of this polysaccharide on cellular metabolic activity and cell number was directly compared to hyaluronic ...
IMAGE: Porphyra aquaculture structures used closer to shore in the Jiangu coastal region (left). Green Ulva prolifera fronds growing on the raft support structures are scraped off by the growers, drift out to sea, and develop into massive macroalgal mats. Photographs from "The worlds largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: Formation and implications," Dongyan Liu, John K. Keesing, Peimin He, Zongling Wang, Yajun Shi, and Yujue Wang.. The aquatic cousin of a combine harvesters are used to gather the mature crop at the end of its 40-50 day growing period. It is then washed, dried, and processed, in a mill that resembles a paper-making machine, into the thin rectangular flakes that wrap our sushi rolls.. In Jiangsu, as nori production more than tripled in scale since 2005 to cover 38,260 hectares by 2010, seaweed rafts have moved farther and farther offshore, and now stretch up thirteen kilometres out to sea. That, say the scientists behind a recent paper, means that the Ulva prolifera ...
Uptake, assimilation and compartmentation of phosphate were studied in the opportunist green macroalga Ulva lactuca and the estuarine red algal epiphyte Catenella nipae. The Michaelis-Menten model was used to describe uptake rates of inorganic phosphate (Pi) at different concentrations. Maximum uptake rates (Vrnax) of P-starved material exceeded Vmax of P-enriched material; this difference was greater for C. nipae. Uptake and allocation of phosphorus (P) to internal pools was measured using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extracts and 32p. Both species demonstrated similar assimilation paths: when P-enriched, most 32p accumulated as free phosphate. When unenriched, 32p was rapidly assimilated into the TCA-insoluble pool. C. nipae consistently assimilated more 32p into this pool than U. lactuca, indicating C. nipae has a greater P-storage capacity. In both species, 32p release data showed two internal compartments with very different biological half-lives. The rapidly exchanging compartment had a ...
So now for the nutrition side of sea lettuce. Yes this seaweed algae has nothing but the good stuff. When used in soups and salads a few times per week many will actually feel the difference inside their body as far as increased energy and wellness. Some claim they sleep better and awake more robustly also as well as function more productive throughout the day. So what kind of nutrients are actually in sea lettuce you ask? Well first off sea vegetables contain up to 25 times the vitamins and minerals of land vegetables. Gram for gram, they are higher in vitamins and minerals than any other class of food. Also sea lettuce contains significant amounts of protein and fiber which makes it a super food in a class of its own. All our sea lettuce is harvested from clean unpolluted waters with no chemicals or additives ...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17427900. 73. Fletcher, J. T., Finlay, J. A., Callow, M. E., Callow, J. A., and Ghadiri, M. R. A combinatorial approach to the discovery of biocidal six-residue cyclic D,L-alpha-peptides against the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and E. coli and the biofouling algae ulva linza and Navicula perminuta. Chem.-Eur. J. 2007, 13, 4008-4013 ...
Epiphytic Bacteria of Macroalgae of the Genus Ulva and their Potential in Producing Enzymes Having Biotechnological Interest Marine environment represents broad potentia..
Effects of UV radiation and salinity on the intertidal macroalgae Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca; effects on photosynthetic performance, growth and pigments
additional source Fredericq, S., T. O. Cho, S. A. Earle, C. F. Gurgel, D. M. Krayesky, L. E. Mateo-Cid, A. C. Mendoza-González, J. N. Norris, and A. M. Suárez. 2009. Seaweeds of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 187-259 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. I. Biodiversity, pp. 187-259. Texas A&M Univ. Press. [details] ...
Non-venomous, Nerodia fasciata hunts fish and a wide variety of amphibians, particularly frogs. A nocturnal hunter, N. fasciata spends the day resting in the vegetation along the waters edge or hides deep in rodent burrows along the bank. Many species of Nerodia are suspected of being venomous cottonmouths (Agisktrodon piscivorus) but the behavior of the two snakes is tremendously different. Cottonmouths move much more slowly in the water, often keeping their entire body afloat. When threatened, cottonmouths show off their namesake white lined mouth in a defensive posture. All species of Nerodia are quick, agile swimmers which move rapidly through the water and water snakes never gape open their mouths if threatened. They may instead flatten their bodies in an attempt to look larger.. ...
Cosmosoma fenestrata is a moth of the family Erebidae. It was described by Dru Drury in 1773. It is found on Jamaica and Cuba. Upperside: Antennae nearly black and pectinated (comb like). Head and eyes black. Palpi small and long, and of a fine scarlet. Tongue spiral. Thorax blueish green, almost black. Abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings the same, the middle part being perfectly transparent like glass, wherein is a dark cloud which is joined to the anterior margin. Posterior wings small, transparent, with a dark brown narrow border running round their edges, which at the upper corners is broad where it becomes cloud like. Underside: Breast dark brown. Legs and thighs scarlet, which colour extends along the middle of the abdomen, almost to the tail, where it becomes a little fainter, being crossed by the rings of the abdomen, which are black and very narrow. All the wings of the same colour as on the upperside. Savela, Markku. "Cosmosoma Hübner, [1823]". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. ...
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
ABSTRACT: Increased nutrient loading favors macroalgal blooms in eutrophied coastal ecosystems. The main counteracting factor on this bottom-up support is top-down control by consumers. We asked (1) whether herbivore control on 2 bloom-forming macroalgae in the Baltic Sea varies between different algal life stages, (2) whether herbivores selectively feed on Enteromorpha spp. (Chlorophyceae) thereby supporting dominance of Pilayella littoralis (Phaeophyceae), and (3) whether various herbivore species differ in their effects. In comparative field and laboratory experiments, we analyzed herbivore pressure and selectivity on germling density and adult thalli of Enteromorpha spp. and P. littoralis. In the field, herbivores reduced macroalgal recruitment by 80% within 14 d indicating strong herbivore control at early life stages. Recruits of Enteromorpha spp. were significantly preferred over P. littoralis Adult thalli of both algae showed similar growth rates, but grazing rates were significantly ...
1IUZ: Novel insight into the copper-ligand geometry in the crystal structure of Ulva pertusa plastocyanin at 1.6-A resolution. Structural basis for regulation of the copper site by residue 88.
Researchers from Koreas Silla University have determined that many seaweed extracts inhibit bacteria known to cause gingivitis and gum disease. The researchers tested 57 different species of seaweeds harvested from the coast of South Korea. The research screened each of the extract…Read More » ...
The next speaker, Catherine Burke from University of Technology Sydney presented her PhD work on bacterial community assemblies associated with the green algae, Ulva australis. Her research findings demonstrated low similarity in bacterial species composition on surface colonization across algal samples. Despite a high species variability between samples there was a high functional similarity between the samples. These functions were widely distributed across different taxa suggests that the bacterial community structure may be performed at a functional genes level rather than the traditional species level ...
Description. Long, filamentous green alga up to 15 cm tall, mostly tubular, hollow, with tube walls 1 cell thick, axes 1-7 mm wide. Branches cylindrical throughout or with the terminal portion expanded and bladelike, or centrally compressed with only the margins hollow. Larger tubular portions may or may not branch; if branched, with narrow filamentous branchlets. Attached to rocky substrate by rhizoids that grow from basal cells of the tube. Grass green.. It often grows in tufts of 6 cm long, but in areas of high nutrients and fresh water, can form long, hairlike strands up to 20 cm long. Structural Features. Thallus hollow tube, walls 1 cell thick. Cells in surface view arranged in short longitudinal rows. Cells rounded rectangular, 10-28 m wide, 8-30 m long, in somewhat longitudinal and often transverse rows; basal cells up to 50 m long. Habitat. Forms clusters or tufts attached to rocks in sandy areas, high intertidal to mid-intertidal. Will often be exposed at low tide, and often found near ...
This type of dial is known as a navicula dial, because its shape is reminiscent of a boat. It was first mentioned by its Latin name in the 14th century.. This example consists of two engraved brass plates back to back, terminating in two protuberances which serve as sights. On one face are the solar and median hours and a zodiac scale. The mast of the instrument, pivoted at the centre, can describe an arc of approximately 45? and its protruding lower extremity can serve as a pointer. ...
Restoration Potential: Restoration will require a better understanding of population status, threats to the species, and landscape relationships. Management that maintains a combination of closed-canopy mature to old-growth forest, open-canopy forest with abundant food plants (e.g. oaks and fruiting shrubs), mineral sites and open water across the landscape should benefit the species.. Preserve Selection and Design Considerations: Nomadic, and uses large areas for foraging. Little information is available on home range, territory, and extent of movements, although fidelity to nesting areas, foraging areas, and mineral sites is strong (Braun 1972, Jarvis and Passmore 1992, Schroeder and Braun 1993). In the Oregon Coast Range, mean home range recorded for radio-tagged adults was 11,121 ha (SD +/- 24,298 ha, N = 70; Leonard 1998, cited in Keppie and Braun 2000). In northern California, nesting territories were reported to range from 0.16 to 0.81 kilometer (0.10 to 0.5 mile) in radius, but unclear ...
Proteoglicanos são macromoléculas complexas compostas de polissacarídeos lineares, os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs), ligados covalentemente a um core protéico. Os GAGs contêm grupamentos sulfato em várias posições, formando domínios específicos, que permitem a interação com moléculas da matriz extracelular, incluindo os fatores de crescimento. Neste estudo, utilizamos o sistema de co-cultura em Transwell para analisar a interação entre fibroblastos e células de adenocarcinoma colorretal humano, Caco-2, e investigar os efeitos dessa interação na proliferação celular e na síntese de GAGs. Componentes solúveis trocados pelas células nesse sistema, induziram um aumento marcante na proliferação da Caco-2, efeito não observado nos fibroblastos. Um aumento na biossíntese de GAGs por incorporação de 35S-NaSO4, foi observado em ambas linhagens, contudo o aumento mais significativo de condroitim sulfato (CS) foi detectado nas células estromais. A microscopia confocal mostrou um ...
O Mieloma Múltiplo é uma doença hematológica maligna caracterizada pela proliferação excessiva de plasmócitos na medula óssea. Desta proliferação resulta uma extensa destruição do esqueleto ósseo, provocando lesões osteolíticas. A gamapatia monoclonal de significado incerto precede virtualmente todos os casos de mieloma múltiplo, integrando o diagnóstico diferencial juntamente com a forma indolente de mieloma múltiplo. A presente revisão tem como objetivo reunir as informações mais pertinentes que retratem a evolução da abordagem terapêutica e novas terapêuticas do mieloma múltiplo. O tratamento é uma das componentes mais importantes da abordagem do doente com mieloma múltiplo. A aplicação das diferentes estratégias terapêuticas ao longo do tempo alterou de forma significativa a história natural do mieloma múltiplo. Estas englobam o uso de corticosteroides, imunomoduladores, inibidores do proteassoma, e o transplante autólogo de células hematopoiéticas. ...
Crosstalk between the thyroid hormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in regulating peroxisome proliferator-responsive genes.: Peroxisome prolif
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Abstract In the search of the improvement of the feeding of the fish in the aquaculture, macroalgae seem to be a promising source of nutrients and bioactive substances. In the case of the genus Ulva, the effect of its ...
Ekaitz Zulueta Guerrero, Naiara Telleria Garay, Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede, Borja Ayerdi Vilches, Eider Egilegor Iragorri, David Lecumberri Castaños, Ana Belén de la Hoz Rastrollo and Carlos Pertusa ...
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A leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) é uma neoplasia complexa e heterogénea da célula progenitora hematopoiética, cujas características incluem desregulação da diferenciação, proliferação clonal e acumulação na medula óssea de células mieloides imaturas. A leucemia promielocítica aguda é um subtipo raro de LMA em que existe acumulação de promielócitos na medula óssea. A maioria dos casos está associado a uma translocação reciproca t(15;17) (q24.1;q21.2) envolvendo os genes PML/RARα. Apesar dos bons resultados da terapêutica com o ácido all-trans retinóico (ATRA), um indutor da diferenciação, alguns doentes desenvolvem efeitos secundários (ex. síndrome do ATRA) e/ou resistência à terapêutica. Neste sentido, tornou-se necessário o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas. Sabendo que as células tumorais estão geralmente, hipermetiladas na zona do promotor de genes supressores tumorais, o que conduz ao seu silenciamento epigenético, foi relevante a ...
Abstract: As primeiras imagens crist s apareceram nas paredes das catacumbas e nas superfícies dos sarcófagos em sítios fúnebres. A sua principal finalidade foi transmitir aos fiéis a possibilidade definitiva de salva o eterna. Recordavam também a história sagrada e estimulavam a piedade crist , além de embelezar os locais fúnebres. A emergência gradual de vários textos religiosos, com conteúdos diversos e controversos, estimulou decis es sobre quais escritos eram can nicos e quais apócrifos. Ao mesmo tempo, a tolerancia do Império Romano ao Cristianismo causou uma prolifera o de lugares onde podiam ser colocadas essas imagens. Muitos temas originais apareceram, mas outros já existentes foram modificados e adaptados, fortalecendo o repertório iconográfico as partir do segundo século, principalmente sob a influência dos livros apócrifos. As imagens referentes à vida de Maria e de Jesus, mais tarde condenadas pela Igreja, foram designadas e moldadas sob a aprova o ...
It is actually the cell cycle arrest signals induced by p53 that pose the barrier to tumorigenesis, rather than the senes cent state per se. Our outcomes help this model, and delineate the bimodal regulatory program Perifosine induced by p53 to enforce concomitant block of the two cell prolifera tion and growth as two coordinated responses that sup press neoplastic transformation. Our comprehending of management mechanisms that transla tionally co regulate target mRNAs is scanty and quite restricted compared to our awareness on cis regulatory promoter factors that dictate transcriptional co regulation of their target genes. The 5 Top rated motif provides one glaring exam ple of a translational co regulation mechanism. The advent with the Ribo Seq procedure holds great promise for systema tic discovery of numerous additional such mechanisms during the coming years, just like the most important advance within the discovery of pro moter regulatory components that followed the maturation of ...
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Hydrolysis in bioethanol production is one of the most limiting stages in the entire production process since it is the stage where the sugars to be converted to ethanol are obtained. Ulva fasciata, ...
REFERENCES. Airanthi MKWA, Hosokawa M and Miyashita K. 2011. Comparative antioxidant activity of edible Japanese brown seaweeds. J Food Sci 76: 104-111. [ Links ] Alencar DB, Diniz JC, Viana FA, Pires-Cavalcante KMS, Sampaio AH and Saker Sampaio S. 2012. Prospecção fitoquímica das principais classes de metabólitos secundários da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile. In: CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE BIOTECNOLOGÍA ALGAL, 3, Concepción, Chile. Proceedings.... Concepción, 2012. [ Links ] Anderson JE, Goetz CM, McLaughlin JL and Suffness M. 1991. A blind comparison of simple bench-top bioassays and human tumour cell cytotoxicities as antitumor prescreens. Phytochem Analysis 2: 107-111. [ Links ] Andreo D and Jorge N. 2006. Antioxidantes naturais: técnicas de extração. Bol Centro Pesqui Process Aliment 24: 319-336. [ Links ] Ara J, Sultana V, Ehteshamul-Haque S, Qasim R and Ahmad VU. 1999. Cytotoxic activity of marine macroalgae on Artemia salina (brine shrimp). Phytother Res 13: ...
Baldauf, S.L., J.D. Palmer and W.F. Doolittle (1996). The root of the universal tree and the origin of eukaryotes based on elongation factor phylogeny. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 7749- 7754. Bornemann, C., K. Drude and H. Follmann (1996). Deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in green algae. Cell cycle fluctuation of ribonucleotide reductase is only moderate in the unicellular, exsymbiotic green algae, Chlorella sp pbi. J. Plant Physiol. 148, 657-661. Bruhn, J. and V.A. Gerard (1996). Photoinhibition and recovery of the kelp Laminaria saccharina at optimal and superoptimal temperatures. Marine Biol. 125, 639-648. Burkiewicz, K. and R. Synak (1996). Biological activity of the media after algal cultures can result from extracellular carbohydrates. J. Plant Physiol. 148, 662-666. De Souza, M.P., Y.P. Chen and D.C. Yoch (1996). Dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase from the marine macroalga Ulva curvata: Purification and characterization of the enzyme. Planta 199, 433-438. Graber, M.A., W.H. Gerwick and D.P. ...
There are four stages in the spontaneous generation of Bryopsis sub-protoplasts: aggregation of cell organelles, changes in protoplasmic masses to a spherical shape, primary envelope formation and secondary membrane development. Our data indicate that at least two types of molecules are involved in the aggregation of cell organelles, one acts at an optimum of pH 5-6 and the other on the surfaces of cell organelles acts at an optimum of pH 8-9. This result was surprising because it is contrary to previous results (Pak et al., 1991). Pak et al. suggested that the most effective material for agglutination of cell organelles might be contained in the vacuolar sap and, therefore, the sequential action of vacuolar sap (pH 5-6) and seawater would be very important for the aggregation of cell organelles. They also reported that prompt dilution of extruded algal cell contents with 20 volumes of seawater prevented aggregation. The discrepancy between our results and those of Pak et al. may be due to ...
Epiphytic bacteria are bacteria which live non-parasitically on the surface of a plant on various organs such as the leaves, roots, flowers, buds, seeds and fruit. In current studies it has been determined that epiphytic bacteria generally dont harm the plant, but promote the formation of ice crystals. Some produce an auxin hormone which promotes plant growth and plays a role in the life cycle of the bacteria. Different bacteria prefer different plants and different plant organs depending on the organs nutritional content, and depending on the bacterias colonization system which is controlled by the host plant. Bacteria which live on leaves are referred to as phyllobacteria, and bacteria which live on the root system are referred to as rhizabacteria. They adhere to the plant surface forms as 1-cluster 2- individual bacterial cell 3- biofilm . The age of the organ also affects the epiphytic bacteria population and characteristics and has a role in the inhibition of phytopathogen on plant. ...
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