Recently we have shown that in vitro binding of the proximal part of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene to the nuclear matrix is correlated with its transcriptional activity. The strongest binding potential was predicted by computing for the first intron sequence (Lenartowski & Goc, 2002, Neurosci Lett.; 330 : 151-154). In this study a 16 kb fragment of the bovine genomic DNA containing the tyrosine hydroxylase gene was investigated for its affinity to the nuclear matrix. Only a 950 bp fragment encoding the distal part of the first intron, second exon and a few nucleotides of the second intron bound to the nuclear matrix. The binding was independent of the tissue-specific tyrosine hydroxylase gene activation. The fragment was subcloned and sequenced. Computer search pointed to one potential intronic matrix attachment region with two AP1-like sites embedded in the sequence. We conclude that even if the position of the matrix binding region is conserved among the tyrosine hydroxylase genes in ...
How is tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive abbreviated? THI stands for tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive. THI is defined as tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive rarely.
Abstract: Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was measured under optimal and suboptimal assay conditions in hippocampal extracts from young (2 month), mature (12 month), and old (24 month) Fischer 344 male rats 72 h after the infusion of 200 µg of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine or vehicle into the lateral ventricle. The lesion resulted in a 45-55% decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under optimal conditions (pH 6.1, 3.0 mM 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin) and an ∼35% decrease in the relative concentration of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase. When measured under suboptimal conditions (pH 6.6, 0.7 mM 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin), tyrosine hydroxylase activity in 2- and 12-month-old lesioned animals was twice that measured in vehicle-treated animals. However, in the old lesioned animals, tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under suboptimal conditions was not different from that measured in age-matched vehicle-treated animals. Isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase were ...
in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (1993), 329(2), 230-56. The distribution of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, two key enzymes in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, was investigated by immunocytochemistry in the brain of male and female ... [more ▼]. The distribution of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, two key enzymes in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, was investigated by immunocytochemistry in the brain of male and female Japanese quail. Cells or fibers showing dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were considered to be noradrenergic or adrenergic, while all structures showing only tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were tentatively considered to be dopaminergic. The major dopaminergic and noradrenergic cell groups that have been identified in the brain of mammals could be observed in the Japanese quail, with the exception of a tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic group. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive ...
Rabbit anti Rat tyrosine hydroxylase (pSer31) antibody recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), also known as tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, when
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is secreted from various brain regions such as the substantia nigra, where levels of this molecule are disproportionately higher than those of choline acetyltransferase. It is thus possible that AChE may have alternative, non-cholinergic functions, one of which could be in development. Indeed, several recent studies have already demonstrated a neurotrophic action of AChE independent of hydrolysis of acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system the dominant forms of AChE differ from the tetramers (G4) that prevail in maturity, in that they are lower molecular weight monomers (G1) and dimers (G2). Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the neurotrophic role of AChE by comparing the effects of mouse recombinant G1 and G4 AChE on the survival and development of mid-brain tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which also hydrolyses acetylcholine, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), an established trophic factor for midbrain
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Neuroblastoma - Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are neuromodulatory lipids interacting with cannabinoid receptors, whose availability is regulated by the balance ...
Results Compared with normoxic conditions, hypoxia increased TH protein expression and catecholamine synthesis and decreased release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in OA/RA synovial cells. This inhibitory effect on TNF was reversed by TH inhibition with α-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMPT), which was particularly evident under hypoxic conditions. Incubation with specific TH cofactors (tetrahydrobiopterin and Fe2+) increased hypoxia-induced inhibition of TNF, which was also reversed by αMPT. To address a possible clinical role of TH+ cells, murine TH+ neuronal cells were generated from mesenchymal stem cells. TH+ neuronal cells exhibited a typical catecholaminergic phenotype. Adoptive transfer of TH+ neuronal cells markedly reduced CIA in mice, and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes TH+ cells, reversed this effect.. ...
in Experimental Cell Research (2001), 265(1), 114-24. Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors ... [more ▼]. Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors which participate in the adaptive response of the cells to hypoxia. Among these transcription factors, AP-1 is rapidly activated by hypoxia and triggers bFGF, VEGF, and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, the mechanisms of AP-1 activation by hypoxia are not well understood. In this report, we studied the events leading to AP-1 activation in hypoxia. We found that c-jun protein accumulates in hypoxic HepG2 cells. This overexpression is concomitant with c-jun phosphorylation and JNK activation. Moreover, we showed ...
Neuroblastomas (NB) are pediatric malignancies with heterogenous phenotypes, ranging from spontaneously regressing to highly aggressive, incurable tumors. Although NB is considered a genetic disease, its etiology and heterogeneity cannot be explained solely by genetic aberrations. NB arises due to defects in sympathetic neuron (SN) differentiation occurring during fetal development. Strikingly, the two factors promoting de-differentiation of NB cells, hypoxia and glucocorticoids, are elevated in the fetus during maternal stress, suggesting a role for prenatal stress in NB tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis we used mice expressing MYCN oncogene under tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-MYCN mice), which spontaneously develop NBs. To mimic stress, pregnant mothers carrying hemizygous TH-MYCN offspring were implanted with pellets containing either the main rodent glucocorticoid, corticosterone, or placebo at the time of neuroblast proliferation (embryonic days 10-20). Tumor frequency was compared ...
Primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used as a model to evaluate the ability of 8-Br cyclic AMP (8-Br cAMP) to induce tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to study the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in this induction. This cell preparation maintains a constant level of cyclic nucleotides, catecholamines and related enzyme activities for about four weeks. Exposure of the cells for 5 hr to 8-Br cAMP produces, 48 hr later, a dose-related increase in the TH activity; 8-Br cGMP fails to modify TH. The increase in TH activity caused by 8-Br cAMP is due to an increase of the Vmax and is preceded by an activation of cytosol cAPK associated with a decrease of the total cytosol cAPK. A sustained increase in nuclear phosphorylation begins 8 to 12 hr after 8-Br cAMP application. The delayed increase in TH activity induced by 8-Br cAMP is blocked by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, colchicine and vinblastine. The reduction of the TH induction by colchicine and vinblastine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Turnover rate of tyrosine hydroxylase during trans synaptic induction. AU - Chuang, D.. AU - Zsilla, G.. AU - Costa, E.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - The tyrosine hydroxylase of adrenal medulla was induced by exposing the rats to 40 for 4 hr. The synthesis rate of normal and induced tyrosine hydroxylase was measured by radiochemical and immunoprecipitation methods. Incorporation of 3H into the enzyme was normal 6 hr after the beginning of the stress but was greater than normal at 10 hr and reached a maximum increase of 65% at 16 hr. Beginning 20 hr after stress application the rate of 3H incorporation declined and approached normal values between 30 and 50 hr. The thyrosine hydroxylase activity was not yet increased 10 hr after the beginning of the stress; however, it was increased at 16 hr and a maximal increment was reached at 24 hr. This new steady state was maintained for the following 24 hr. The enzyme activity then declined, with a half life of about 3 days. The radioactivity ...
A total of 74 surface and subsurface water samples at depths shallower than 200 m were collected in the eastern East China Sea (ECS), and spatial and seasonal variations in ,sup,226,/sup,Ra, ,sup,228,/sup,Ra, and ,sup,228,/sup,Th activities were examined by low-background γ-spectrometry. The ,sup,228,/sup,Ra and ,sup,228,/sup,Th activities (as well as ,sup,228,/sup,Ra/,sup,226,/sup,Ra and ,sup,228,/sup,Th/,sup,228,/sup,Ra activity ratios) on the surface exhibited notable seasonal and lateral variations (,sup,228,/sup,Ra/,sup,226,/sup,Ra = 0.2-3.4; ,sup,228,/sup,Th/,sup,228,/sup,Ra = 0.1-0.4). From the ,sup,228,/sup,Ra activity (0.2-6 mBq/L) and salinity (27.2-34.5), fractions of the Kuroshio, shelf, and Yangtze River waters on the surface of the ECS were estimated to be 50-95%, 3-50%, and 2-8% in July, and 95-100%, 1-5%, and 0-1% in April, respectively, exhibiting a lower fraction of shelf water in winter-spring and on the Japan side of the ECS. While the surface waters had high ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction and oxidation of the active site iron in tyrosine hydroxylase. T2 - Kinetics and specificity. AU - Frantom, Patrick A.. AU - Seravalli, Javier. AU - Ragsdale, Stephen W.. AU - Fitzpatrick, Paul F.. PY - 2006/2/21. Y1 - 2006/2/21. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) is a pterin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form dihydroxyphenylalanine. The oxidation state of the active site iron atom plays a central role in the regulation of the enzyme. The kinetics of reduction of ferric TyrH by several reductants were determined by anaerobic stopped-flow spectroscopy. Anaerobic rapid freeze-quench EPR confirmed that the change in the near-UV absorbance of TyrH upon adding reductant corresponded to iron reduction. Tetrahydrobiopterin reduces wild-type TyrH following a simple second-order mechanism with a rate constant of 2.8 ± 0.1 mM-1 s-1. 6-Methyltetrahydropterin reduces the ferric enzyme with a second-order rate constant of 6.1 ± 0.1 mM -1 s-1 and ...
The present study was designed to investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in this process by estimating changes in PKCalpha and PKCgamma immunoreactivity, and whether pharmacological inhibition of PKC would attenuate morphine withdrawal-induced c-Fos expression and changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity levels in the PVN and nucleus tractus solitarius/ ventrolateral medulla (NTS/VLM ...
Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few research have got examined CA connectivity to and anatomically discovered sensory circuitry that controls behavior physiologically. with CellSens software program. Pictures had been combined jointly in Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems). Section limitations, landmarks, nuclei as described by Nissl spot and main TH-ir fibers tracts had been tracked in GNU Picture Manipulation Plan (GIMP) using a Bamboo sheets pad tablet (Wacom, Vancouver, California). The final images were compiled and labeled in Adobe Illustrator then. The atlas (Fig. 2) was meant to present main TH-ir cell groupings and fibers tracts in (OConnell et al., 2011) as well as in a very similar placement in zebrafish and Western european eel, in a area horizontal to the nMLF (Kaslin and Panula, 2001; Roberts et al., 1989). TH-ir neurons of the periventricular posterior tuberculum The most noticeable ...
LEGENDplex™ Rat Th9 Panel (3-plex) with V-bottom Plate - The LEGENDplex™ Rat Th Cytokine Panel is a bead-based multiplex assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase羊多克隆抗体(ab113)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被20篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Rat samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody in 0.01M HEPES with 50% glycerol, 0.15M NaCl, 100µg/ml BSA and no preservative; pH 7.5.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody, C-term (tyrosine hydroxylase) for WB. Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase pAb (GTX89578) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Localization of gad1b/2- or vglut2-expressing cells and TH-ir neurons in the telencephalon of the juvenile brain. A: Lateral overview of a juvenile brain staine
In flip, ICER overexpression abrogated the transcriptional action of your TH promoter, strongly suggesting ICERs involvement in Tat mediated inhibition of gene
Great for use in IHC staining! We are the original manufacturer of our Tyrosine Hydroxylase rabbit polyclonal antibody. It is affinity purified from pooled serum, and excellent for use in WB, IHC, and ICC.
purpose. Intrauterine infection has been linked to preterm delivery and neurologic injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fetal inflammation induced by exposure to endotoxin on the structure and neurochemistry of the retina and optic nerve.. methods. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was administered to fetal sheep at ∼0.65 of the ∼147-day gestation period via repeated bolus doses (1 μg/kg per day) over 5 days, with fetal retinas and optic nerves assessed 10 days after the first LPS exposure.. results. In the retina, the total number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR), dopaminergic amacrine cells was reduced (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed compared with control fetuses. There was no difference in the number of ChAT-, substance P-, or NADPH-d-positive amacrine cells. The total number of myelinated axons in the optic nerve was not different (P , 0.05) between groups; however, the myelin sheath was thinner (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mouse neuroblastoma clone N1E 115. AU - Richelson, E.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - Mouse neuroblastoma (clone NIE 115) cells in the logarithmic growth phase were incubated for 12 days. From early log phase to late stationary phase, the specific activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3a) increased by more than 30 fold. The increase in tyrosine hydroxylase per cell and per dish was 12 and 2700 fold, respectively. When cell division was stopped by removing serum or by adding 0.1 mM 5 fluorodeoxyuridine and 0.1 mM uridine, the enzyme activity was also found to increase. These results show that tyrosine hydroxylase is regulated in neuroblastoma clone N1E 115.. AB - Mouse neuroblastoma (clone NIE 115) cells in the logarithmic growth phase were incubated for 12 days. From early log phase to late stationary phase, the specific activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3a) increased by more than 30 fold. The increase in tyrosine hydroxylase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen. AU - Nordquist, R.E.. AU - Zeinstra, E.C.. AU - Rodenburg, T.B.. AU - van der Staay, F.J.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a ...
article{9fbb1b35-100c-4956-9da0-cee45e196e94, abstract = {,p,Release properties of intrahippocampal transplants of noradrenergic neurons were monitored by microdialysis in awake and halothane-anaesthetized rats. Fetal locus coeruleus neurons were implanted as a cell suspension into hippocampi deprived of their innate noradrenalin (NA) innervation by intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Dialysis probes of the loop type were implanted into the dorsal hippocampus 1 - 2 days before each experiment, i.e. 7 - 11 months after grafting. Age-matched intact and lesion-only animals served as controls. Microscopic analysis showed a graft-derived tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive, presumably noradrenergic, fibre network throughout the dorsal hippocampal formation, surrounding the probe site. The innervation density varied from sub- to supranormal. The grafts restored baseline NA release in the graft-reinnervated hippocampus to near-normal levels both in awake and halothane-anaesthetized animals. ...
Purpose.: Previously, retinopetal axons containing histamine and dopaminergic neurons expressing histamine H1-receptor had been localized in mouse retinas using anatomic techniques. The goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that these receptors are functional. Methods.: Dopaminergic cells were acutely isolated from retinas of transgenic mice expressing red fluorescent protein under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and loaded with the calcium indicator Fura-2. Results.: Under control conditions, there were spontaneous oscillations in the levels of free intracellular calcium in dopaminergic cells. These oscillations were abolished in nominally calcium-free extracellular medium and in 1 μM tetrodotoxin, findings suggesting that the oscillations were mediated by calcium entry across the plasma membrane in response to sodium-dependent action potentials. Histamine increased the mean free intracellular calcium in the dopaminergic cells by increasing the frequency and/or amplitude of ...
This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control) were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive
The dopamine biosynthetic machinery of intact synaptosomes of rat striatum showed a 5-fold increase in development from 3-day-old neonates to adults, and it was fully developed between 2-3 weeks after birth. Concurring with this development was the appearance 2 weeks after birth of a regulatory mechanism(s) through which amphetamine in vivo induced an inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis. The inhibition was not appreciably reversed when haloperidol, in addition to amphetamine, was administered. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of age, sex, and reproductive status to the quantity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the median eminence and superior cervical ganglion of the rat. AU - Porter, J. C.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the median eminence (ME) and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat was quantified by means of an immunoblot procedure, using highly purified rat TH as the standard. Antibodies against rat TH were produced in the rabbit. The assay was linear from 0-100 ng TH and had a correlation coefficient of 0.990 ± 0.0014 (mean ± SE: n = 22). The interassay coefficient of variation was 8.65% (n = 17). In young female rats (12-16 weeks old) with regular 4-day estrous cycles, the quantity of TH in the ME on various days of the cycle was as follows: estrus, 42 ± 2.9 ng; diestrous day, 1, 61 ± 2.8 ng; diestrous day 2, 75 ± 4.2 ng; and proestrus, 84 ± 3.3 ng. In ovariectomized rats (15-16 weeks old), the ME contained 24 ± 1.6 ng TH. In prepubertal rats ...
Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. A hallmark ofParkinsons disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra.
Tyrosine hydroxylase and NeuN cell counting in the substantia nigra. Three weeks following delivery of AAV1/2 to the substantia nigra there is significant reduc
The School aims to provide practical and theoretical training on the application of a large spectrum of techniques to neuroscience. The course will have sessions with tutorial lectures and sessions with hands-on practicals.
Dopamine plays key roles in many basic functions in the central nervous system. In order to study developmental and functional roles of dopaminergic cells in the zebrafish, we have examined a transgenic line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter. TH-driven GFP was expressed in cells located in the inner nuclear layer. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies for GFP and TH showed that 29 ± 2% of GFP-labeled cells also expressed TH. Loose-patch voltage-clamp recording from GFPlabeled cells revealed that these dopaminergic neurons are spontaneously active in darkness. This transgenic line provides a useful tool to target retinal dopaminergic cells in vivo and in situ. The vertebrate retina is profoundly influenced by circadian rhythmicity, yet little is known about the mechanisms of the zebrafish retinal circadian clock. To further the study of the zebrafish retinal clock, we have constructed a recombinant BAC in which ...
Ywhaq - Ywhaq (untagged ORF) - Rat tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide (Ywhaq), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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TYK2 - TYK2 (untagged)-Kinase deficient mutant (K930M) of Human tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Male and female adult mice (2 to 4 months old) were used for the present study. The mice were housed in the Oakland University animal facility on a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. All procedures conformed to National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for laboratory animals and were performed in conformity with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Oakland University. The four mouse lines described below were used for the present study. All of the lines were bred on a mixed C57BL/129 background. The first mouse line was the wild-type mice used for the immunohistochemistry study. The second mouse line was wild-type mice in which DACs are genetically labeled by the rate-limiting enzyme catecholamine biosynthesis tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven red fluorescent protein (RFP) used to visualize DACs for the mEPSC recordings (referred to as ...
article{8bf0b2a2-668e-47c2-96c7-c99a9822e436, abstract = {,p,The neurotrophic effects of the BB isoform of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on rat and human fetal mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons have been characterized in vitro. A dose-response analysis demonstrated maximal responses at 30 ng/ml of PDGF-BB. This concentration resulted in a marked increase in the survival and neurite outgrowth from rat and human tyrosine hydroxylase-(TH) positive, presumed dopaminergic neurons after 7 days in vitro. The effects of PDGF-BB on survival of TH-positive neurons were comparable to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whereas neurite outgrowth was more pronounced after addition of BDNF. The combination of BDNF and PDGF-BB yielded no additive effects. Double immunohistochemical staining of rat cultures demonstrated PDGF beta-receptors on about 90% of the TH-positive neurons. PDGF-BB treatment of rat mesencephalic cultures induced an upregulation of c-fos and TH mRNA with maximal ...
We characterized a unique mouse line in which the expression of AT1AR is deleted from TH-expressing cells. This deletion was verified by loss of AT1AR binding in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, as well as loss of a functional response to Ang II in the RVLM. At baseline, we observed no effect of this deletion. Subcutaneous infusion of a low dose of Ang II increased BP in both groups, but the increase was significantly delayed in onset (Discussion in the online-only Data Supplement) and reduced in magnitude in the CAT-KO mice. In WT mice, Ang II-dependent hypertension was associated with increased sympathetic activity as evidenced by increased power in the midfrequency band of the mean arterial pressure and HR spectra and activation of ROS production in key brain regions involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity. The CAT-KO mice have an attenuated sympathetic activation in response to Ang II and showed reduced ROS production in the RVLM. Overall, in Ang II-dependent hypertension, ...
Full Text - Studies indicate that mutant α-synuclein (mαSyn) is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mαSyn expression leads to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and consequent motor dysfunctions. Additionally, studies found that PD was accompanied by extensive neuroinflammation of SN. However, it remains unclear as to whether microglia participate in the mαSyn pathology. This issue is addressed by using AAV-mα-Syn (A30P-A53T) to overexpress the human mαSyn in the SN in view of establishing the PD model. Subsequently, minocycline (Mino) was used to inhibit microglia activity, and an interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist was used to hinder the IL-1R1 function. Finally, immunohistochemistry was used to analyze phosphorylated αSyn (Ser129) and TH-positive cells in the SN. Dopamine levels were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. mαSyn overexpression in the SN induced motor
Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta: A) TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), bar=500 um B) Estimation of total number of TH-positive neurons in SNpc after acute MPTP exposure using stereology shows ca. 50% loss in MPTP vs. sham group. Data presented as mean of n=4, with S.E.M., Student t-test, ***p,0.001. ...
Online Table II describes the twin subject population (n=344 individuals). Female subjects (n=267) had lower basal SBP (P=0.0438), plasma epinephrine (P=0.0065), urinary epinephrine (P=0.0284), and norepinephrine (P=0.0192) values than male subjects (n=77), consistent with previous reports.21. Older subjects (age ≥40 years, n=180) had higher basal SBP (P,0.0001) and DBP (P,0.0001) and poststress SBP (P,0.0001) and DBP (P=0.0008) values than younger subjects (n=164). Older subjects had lower baroreceptor slope, during both upward (P,0.0001) and downward (P,0.0001) deflections. Plasma norepinephrine was increased (P=0.0045) in older subjects.. Online Table III presents correlations between variables. In general, similar correlations were obtained with the parametric and nonparametric methods. Because of the effects of sex and age (online Table II), further inferential statistics were performed on age- and sex-adjusted data. Urinary norepinephrine excretion correlated directly with basal SBP, ...
Title:Alzheimers Disease And Type 2 Diabetes: Exploring The Association To Obesity And Tyrosine Hydroxylase. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Medha Priyadarshini, Mohammad A. Kamal, Nigel H. Greig, Marcella Realef, Adel M. Abuzenadah, Adeel G.A. Chaudhary and Ghazi A. Damanhouri. Affiliation:Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, UP, India.. Keywords:Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, neurodegeneration, tyrosine hydroxylase, dementia, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, neuroinflammation.. Abstract:Alzheimers disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two debilitating health disorders afflicting millions worldwide. Recent research has revealed similarities between AD and T2DM. Both these protein conformational disorders are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, en-route initiation and/or stage aggravation. In this mini review we ...
Hand2 has no effect on the initial stages of sympathetic neuron development, including the expression of the proneural gene ascl1 and the pan-autonomic regulatory genes phox2b and phox2a, nor on generic neuronal differentiation as assessed by the expression of elavl3. Therefore, hand2 seems to be required selectively for initial noradrenergic but not pan-neuronal differentiation.. Hand2 has been considered an important member of the transcriptional network controlling sympathetic neuron development due to its ability to induce the generation of noradrenergic/catecholaminergic neurons in gain-of-function experiments (Howard et al., 1999; Howard et al., 2000). Overexpression is an important tool to identify candidate target genes, but in the sympathetic lineage different effects were observed upon transcription factor overexpression compared with in vivo loss-of-function approaches. Gata2/3, for instance, is essential for Th expression during normal development of sympathetic neurons but has ...