Background: WHO recommends that Xpert MTB/RIF replaces smear microscopy for initial diagnosis of suspected HIV-associated tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, but no data exist for its use in children. We aimed to assess the accuracy of the test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children in an area with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalences.Background WHO recommends that Xpert MTB/RIF replaces smear microscopy for initial diagnosis of suspected HIV-associated tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, but no data exist for its use in children. We aimed to assess the accuracy of the test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children in an area with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalences. Methods: In this prospective, descriptive study, we enrolled children aged 15 years or younger who had been admitted to one of two hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis between Feb 19, 2009, and Nov 30, 2010. We ...
Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Jigjiga town, Ethiopia Mussie Brhane,1 Ameha Kebede,2 Yohannes Petros 2 1Department of Tuberculosis Culture and DST Laboratory, Harar Health Research and Regional Laboratory, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Biology, College of Computational and Natural Sciences, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia Background: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Sputum specimens were collected, and using a pretested questionnaire, data for associated risk
BACKGROUND Quick diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB are urgently needed in clinical diagnosis. Our research aims to investigate the usefulness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. METHODS We performed TB antibody and TB-IGRA tests on 389 pulmonary TB patients (including 120 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 269 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients), 113 extra-pulmonary TB patients, 81 patients with other pulmonary diseases and 100 healthy controls. Blood samples for the TB-Ab test and the TB-IGRA were collected, processed, and interpreted according to the manufacturers protocol. RESULTS The detection ratio of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients were 90.8% (109 of 120) and 89.6% (241 of 269), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of its performance between these two sample sets (P | 0.05). The detection ratio
In co-endemic areas, rate of intestinal parasites and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection thought to be high. However, there are limited studies on the epidemiology of this co-infection in Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study aimed to generate evidence on intestinal parasites co-infection rate and associated factors among pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB) and their household contacts in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted. Data were collected from 91 PTB patients (cases) and 89 household contacts (controls). Socio-demographic characteristics and associated factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Sputum, stool and blood specimens were collected, processed and examined for PTB, intestinal parasites and Human Immunodeficiency virus anti-body test, respectively. Data were entered and analyzed by Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Descriptive statistics, Fishers exact test, binary logistic regression, and odds ratio were used. P-value of
... was last measured at 38 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) is the ratio of newly notified tuberculosis cases (including relapses) to estimated incident cases (case detection, all forms).This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Mozambique.
... was last measured at 87 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) is the ratio of newly notified tuberculosis cases (including relapses) to estimated incident cases (case detection, all forms).This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Hong Kong.
Background: In high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis diagnosis is challenging. Some countries hence use clinical algorithms to screen for tuberculosis in People Living with HIV (PLHIV). Objectives: The aim of the study was to validate the national algorithm for clinical tuberculosis screening of persons living with HIV who attend comprehensive HIV clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional study of PLHIV who presented with cough of at least 2 weeks duration between 2009 and 2011 at St Patricks Hospital, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli was obtained from the participants. Results: Three hundred and twelve PLHIV were studied: 146 (46.8%) males and 166 (53.2%) females. Only 55 (17.6%) of the participants had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Weight loss (c2 = 2.33; P = 0.127), hemoptysis (c2 = 0.03; P = 0.864), night sweats (c2 = 1.52; P = 0.218), fever (c2 = 3.49; P = 0.06), anorexia (c2 = 0.49; P = 0.484), chest pain (c2 = 2.48; P = 0.115), breathlessness (c2 = 0.63; P = 0
Background: The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time is complex and has been divergently reported.. Methods: CD4 counts were assessed from time of diagnosis till the end of TB treatment in a cohort of pulmonary TB patients with and without HIV co-infection and compared with cross-sectional data on age- and sex-matched non-TB controls from the same area.. Results: Of 1,605 study participants, 1,250 were PTB patients and 355 were non-TB controls. At baseline, HIV was associated with 246 (95% CI: 203; 279) cells per μL lower CD4 counts. All PTB patients had 100 cells per μL lower CD4 counts than the healthy controls. The CD4 levels were largely unchanged during a five-month of TB treatment. HIV infected patients not receiving ART at any time and those already on ART at baseline had no increase in CD4 counts after 5 months of TB treatment, whereas those prescribed ART between baseline and 2 months, and between 2 and 5 months increased by 69 (22;117) and 110 (52; 168) ...
Rates of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were compared in Kinshasa, Zaire, in 521 household contacts of 74 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive index patients and in 692 household contacts of 95 HIV-1-seropositive index patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis: No difference was noted between contacts of HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative patients. The increasing prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection with increasing age was similar in household contacts of seropositive and seronegative patients; by age 16 years, 75% were purified protein derivative-positive. The similarly low rates of M. tuberculosis infection in household contacts of HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative index patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis indicates that HIV-1-seropositive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are not more infectious than HIV-1-seronegative patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. ...
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Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Georgia was reported at 73 in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Georgia - Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on July of 2020.
Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb) patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive
Background: Human tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the result of the failure of host immune system to control mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to asses the changes of the cytokines in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients before and after the use of anti-TB therapy. Methods: Multiple cytokine responses in active tuberculosis (TB) patients were investigated in this study following anti-TB drug therapy after 2 months. Ninety-six participants with pulmonary TB were engaged in the study between May 2018 and October 2018. Samples of blood were taken early before treatment at 0 and 2 months after using anti-TB therapy. The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in whole blood plasma collected from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus were measured. Results: Compared with baseline levels, TNF-α, IL6 and IL10 were significantly lower following ...
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Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al., N Engl J Med 371:1577-87, 2014) were retrospectively reviewed. Two clinicians blinded to clinical details using the Ralph scoring system performed separate readings. An independent reader reviewed discrepant results for quality assessment and cavity presence. Cavitation presence was plotted against time to positivity (TTP) of sputum liquid cultures (MGIT 960). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to calculate the difference in average TTP for these groups. The average lung field affected was compared to log 10 TTP by linear regression. Baseline markers
INTRODUCTION: the diagnosis of tuberculosis and its treatment is challenging in resource limited settings. The growth and speed of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high burden countries like Nigeria is a growing concern. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Yenagoa, Nigeria. METHODS: a descriptive survey of all consecutive sputum specimens of adults greater than 15 years of age that presented to the Tuberculosis Referral Hospital Laboratory were subjected to the automated Genexpert test between January and December 2016. RESULTS: all 446 specimens were tested using the Genexpert automated system. 102 (22.9%) of the sputum specimens were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with 15 (14.7%) showing rifampicin resistance. CONCLUSION: there was significantly high prevalence of MDR-TB much higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) prediction of 3.2 -5.4% for Nigeria.
Early case detection, treatment, and prompt household contact investigation, depend on rapid microbiological confirmation, by direct smear microscopy of acid-fast bacilli, in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Since delayed diagnosis may result in death due to lack of appropriate therapy, rapid microbiological diagnosis is especially critical in HIV-infected persons. Improved rapid diagnostic methods are also crucial for the success of epidemiological studies; trials of preventative interventions, such as novel vaccines; and therapeutic interventions, since the diagnostic endpoints of such trials may require microbiological confirmation of tuberculosis. In clinical practice, early therapeutic intervention might reduce the risk of death, especially in patients co-infected with HIV. In this study, researchers propose to test a simple diagnostic modality for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adolescents and adults. Researchers will test ...
Background: Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patients attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment programme. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 105 respondents who had been registered as pulmonary TB patients (new and retreatment cases) in Ndola District between January 2006 and July 2007. We administered a structured questionnaire, bearing questions to obtain individual data on socio-demographics, health seeking behaviour, knowledge on TB, reported adherence to TB treatment, and health centre care received during treatment to consenting ...
Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, lung damage in addition, will also cause the nervous, endocrine disorders, pulmonary tuberculosis patients will feel limb weakness, loss of appetite, indigestion, weight loss, etc., so how to early dete
Pulmonary tuberculosis caused by remains a global problem. Crizotinib manufacturer of inflammatory elements interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-4 had been upregulated in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis in ICU. Decrease plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-15 and interferon- had been detected in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis weighed against healthy controls. It had been proven that high flexibility Crizotinib manufacturer group package-1 protein manifestation levels had been higher in the serum Crizotinib manufacturer of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis weighed against healthy settings. Notably, an imbalance of T-helper cell (Th)1/Th2 cytokines was seen in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis due to also upregulated manifestation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in hPMCs. To conclude, these outcomes proven that inflammatory reactions and inflammatory elements are from the development of pulmonary tuberculosis, recommending ...
Abstract Poverty undermines adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Economic support may both encourage and enable patients to complete treatment. In South Africa, which carries a high burden of tuberculosis, such support may improve the currently poor outcomes of patients on tuberculosis treatment. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering economic support to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in a high-burden province of South Africa. Methods This was a pragmatic, unblinded, two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial, where 20 public sector clinics acted as clusters. Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in intervention clinics (n = 2,107) were offered a monthly voucher of ZAR120.00 (approximately US$15) until the completion of their treatment. Vouchers were redeemed at local shops for foodstuffs. Patients in control clinics (n = 1,984) received usual tuberculosis care. Results Intention to treat analysis showed a small but non-significant improvement in ...
The etiology of pulmonary tuberculosis 1, genetic factors, genetic factors can affect the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, if the family close relatives have history of tuberculosis, the offspring are likely to suffer from tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnoses of pulmonary tuberculosis contribute to the spread of the epidemic. METHODS: This study aims to identify risk factors associated with patient delay (from symptoms onset to the first visit), health system delay (from the first visit to the tuberculosis treatment initiation) and total delay (sum of the patient and the health system delay) in low income and high tuberculosis burden countries. A systematic literature review has been performed using the keywords: tuberculosis; delay, care seeking; health care seeking behavior; diagnosis and treatment. Only quantitative studies showing delays for pulmonary tuberculosis adult cases were included in this review. RESULTS: Low income, gender, rural life, unemployment, ageing and misunderstanding the microbial cause of tuberculosis are associated with delayed diagnoses. Systemic factors including low health care coverage, patient expenditures and entry into the health system by consulting a traditional healer or a non
In 2006, the estimated smear-positive tuberculosis CDR in HIV-negative adults was 79% (95% confidence interval, CI: 64-94) and in HIV-positive adults, 57% (95% CI: 26-88), giving a weighted mean of 68% (95% CI: 49-87). The separate estimate for all smear-positive tuberculosis cases was 72% (95% CI: 53-91), giving an overall average for the three estimates of 70% (95% CI: 58-82). As the tuberculosis CDR in 1996 was 57% (95% CI: 47-67), the estimated increase by 2006 was 13 percentage points (95% CI: 6-20), or 23%. This increase was accompanied by a more than doubling of the resources devoted to tuberculosis control in Kenya, including facilities and staff.. ...
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated risk factors in West Armachiho and Metema districts of North Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and June 25, 2014. A total of 124 consecutive smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Socio-demographic and possible risk factor data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug susceptibility testing was first performed for rifampicin using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For those rifampicin resistant strains, drug susceptibility testing was performed for both isoniazid and rifampicin to identify MDR-TB. Of 124 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, 117 (94.4 %) were susceptible to rifampicin, while 7 (5.7 %) were confirmed to be resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. History of previous treatment was significantly associated with MDR-TB. Maximizing early case detection and treatment, strengthening TB infection control activities and proper implementation of DOTS are ...
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.. Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website ...
Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis - Iranian Journal of Radiology - - Kowsar
The development and evaluation of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is essential to improve tuberculosis (TB) control in developing countries. In a previous study, the first release of a urine LAM-ELISA by Chemogen (Portland, USA) has been evaluated with a promising sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In the present study, the now commercially available assay has been clinically assessed regarding its diagnostic value alone and in combination with clinical co-factors. The test was applied to two urine samples from 291 consecutively enrolled Tanzanian patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The participants were subsequently assigned to classification groups according to microbiological, clinical and radiological findings at recruitment and during a maximum follow up period of 56 days. Only 35 out of 69 pulmonary TB cases -confirmed by smear microscopy and/or solid culture and/or liquid culture- showed at least one positive LAM-ELISA result (sensitivity 50.7%).
To the editor: Abbasi and associates (1) suggest that hypercalcemia associated with tuberculosis does not occur until 4 weeks after hospitalization and may be related to vitamin D intake. We have found that a disorder of calcium homeostasis is present at admission in many such patients and explain here why it is not usually recognized.. We have retrospectively studied 89 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis admitted to the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 2½-year period. Because hypoalbuminemia was present in 32 patients (36%) at admission, we corrected the calcium to the midpoint of the albumin reference range, assuming that 0.025 ...
Background & Objectives: Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease that gets created by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes more than 80% of the Tuberculosis cases. Despite the availability of effective treatment for pulmonary TB, sputum smear negative time course of patients affected by various factors is not as expected. The aim of ...
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a human pathogen is largely due to its ability to switch between latent and active states and to adapt to different environments and stresses. These adaptations are reflected by...
China is one of the countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease in the world. Although its ranking in total TB cases dropped in
Tuberculosis is a major global public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. TB control has remained a major challenge for the TB control..
Tuberculosis is a very ancient disease of mankind; its description has been found in Hippocrates (460-377BC) observation, the ancient Buddhist and Chinese writing.
This is a randomized, open-label study comparing three existing treatment strategies of ART initiation in HIV/TB co-infected patients:. Group 1: early initiation of ART with TB treatment, Group 2: initiation of ART upon completion of the intensive phase of TB treatment, Group 3: initiation of ART upon completion of the continuation phase of TB treatment. Approximately 700 men and women ≥ 18 years of age with documented HIV infection and smear-positive pulmonary TB patients will be enrolled. Eligible TB/HIV co-infected patients will be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART), starting at one of the three time points listed above through the CAPRISA AIDS treatment programme which includes extensive counselling and adherence support. The study participants will be followed for 18 months to assess the primary study endpoint of the optimal time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients on tuberculosis (TB) treatment by comparing clinical status (CD4+ cell count, viral load, opportunistic ...
An infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and characterized pathologically by inflammatory infiltration, caseation, necrosis, abscesses, fibrosis,formation of tubercles, and calcification. The lungs are the major site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) include primary, reactivation, endobronchial, and lower lung field infection. It most commonly affects the respiratory system, but other parts of the body such as the gastrointestinal and bones, joints, nervous system, lymph nodes, genitourinary tracts, and skin may also become infected. ...
SETTING: Effective tuberculosis (TB) control requires prompt diagnosis of infectious cases through early suspicion of pulmonary TB in all subjects with suspected respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE: To test our hypothesis that prior antibiotic treatment for presumed bacterial infection leads to a delay in diagnosing TB in a European country with low TB incidence. DESIGN: Adults with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB at a single metropolitan centre were assessed for the impact of any previous antibiotic treatment on symptoms and the time to starting specific anti-tuberculosis treatment. RESULTS: Of 83 patients, 42 (51%) received antibiotics prior to TB diagnosis, with symptomatic improvement reported in 20 of the 42 (48%) patients. This was unrelated to specific drug class. Although the median time to diagnosis in subjects receiving antibiotics was prolonged (P=0.001), this was not predicted by treatment response. In 94% of cases, the initial chest radiograph was suggestive of TB infection. C. ...
SETTING: Effective tuberculosis (TB) control requires prompt diagnosis of infectious cases through early suspicion of pulmonary TB in all subjects with suspected respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE: To test our hypothesis that prior antibiotic treatment for presumed bacterial infection leads to a delay in diagnosing TB in a European country with low TB incidence. DESIGN: Adults with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB at a single metropolitan centre were assessed for the impact of any previous antibiotic treatment on symptoms and the time to starting specific anti-tuberculosis treatment. RESULTS: Of 83 patients, 42 (51%) received antibiotics prior to TB diagnosis, with symptomatic improvement reported in 20 of the 42 (48%) patients. This was unrelated to specific drug class. Although the median time to diagnosis in subjects receiving antibiotics was prolonged (P=0.001), this was not predicted by treatment response. In 94% of cases, the initial chest radiograph was suggestive of TB infection. C. ...
... remains a major health hazard throughout the world and specifically in developing countries. Most cases detected are those of pulmonary (lung) tuberculosis. However, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also on the rise. Endometrial tuberculosis is tuberculosis in the inner lining (endometrium) of uterus. It is one form of female genital …. ...
This is also known as Respiratory Tuberculosis or Kochs disease. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that mainly involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs. It has a worldwide prevalence of 1.5 billion people infected with the disease. 10% of these infections .
ICD-9 code 011.83 for Other specified pulmonary tuberculosis tubercle bacilli found (in sputum) by microscopy is a medical classification as listed by
The health seeking behaviour of tuberculosis TB patients, and their beliefs and attitudes with regard to the disease, was studied in 212 Batswana with smear-positive pulmonary TB during 1993/94. There is an apparent resemblance between traditional ideas of disease being caused by pollution breaking of taboos and modern theories of spread via...
As part of a major project to investigate protective and diagnostic immune markers against tuberculosis (TB), we measured antibody isotype responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens (LAM, Rv2031, and HBHA) in cohorts of 149 pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTBP), 148 household contacts (HHCs), and 68 community controls (CCs) in an endemic setting. ELISA was used to measure levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM from sera of cohorts at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months from entry. The results show that there were significant differences in IgA, IgG, and IgM responses to the different antigens and in the three cohorts. At baseline, the level of IgM against RV2031 and LAM did not vary between cohorts, but the levels of IgA and IgG against Rv2031 were significantly higher in PTB patients than HHCs and CCs, followed by HHCs, and the lowest in CCs. In patients, there was a significant variation in antibody responses before and after chemotherapy. The levels of IgA and IgG against HBHA, and IgA against ...
Chadha VK, Anjinappa SM, Gowda U, Srivastava R, Ahmed J, Kumar P. Annual risk of tuberculosis infection in a rural population of South India and its relationship with prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. 2013 ...
This study sought to describe the challenges of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children under the age of 5 years at clinics under the Prince Mshiyeni Hospital at Ethekwini Health District in KwaZulu-Natal. The study showed that primary health care (PHC) nurses do not have adequate knowledge to effectively diagnose PTB in children and, in addition, that PHC clinics are not adequately equipped to effectively diagnose PTB in children ...
Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Among the Prisoners of Jail - 9783639286380 By Mohammad Mohsin Khan, Mohammad Fazil, Zareena Kosar: Buy its Paperback Edition at lowest price online for Rs 3537 at BuyHatke.com.
Diagnosis and conservative treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (costs for program #50751) ✔ Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen-Steele ✔ Department of Internal Medicine III ✔ BookingHealth.com
Please cite as follows: Goussard, P. & Gie, R. 2007. Airway involvement in pulmonary tuberculosis. South African Medical Journal, 97(10):986-988.. ...
With pulmonary drug administration gaining more and more importance, there is an obvious need for improvement in the existing methods and search for the newer ones. We have carried out the first ever study on the potentials of yagyopathy in this regard. While introducing this new mode of pulmonary drug administration, we also highlight some preliminary clinical and empirical results on drug inhalation characterization of yagyopathy that indicate its effectiveness in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis and thus motivate the present study. We construct mathematical models to evaluate the efficacy of this method of herbal cure vis-a-vis the common modes of oral and intravenous medication. The models are analyzed mathematically for the availability of the drug and other important pharmacokinetic features for the case when the site of infection and hence of desired activation is located in the lungs. Computer simulation experiments and validation are also carried out using available data from ...
A great deal of confusion exists in the interpretation of roentgenological chest findings in terms of symptoms, clinical findings, pathological findings, and prognosis. Many of our roentgenologists are laboriously trying to master details of what are supposed to be pictures characteristic of certain types of pulmonary tuberculosis, without considering any basic reason for the production of these types. The variations are so numerous and changing that one would be kept constantly on the jump to keep a patient correctly tabulated. No one can be surprised at the controversies that are continually arising between clinician and roentgenologist. Certain broad principles will ...