abstract = "Background: Default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment remains a major barrier to cure and epidemic control. We sought to identify patient risk factors for default from MDR-TB treatment and high-risk time periods for default in relation to hospitalization and transition to outpatient care. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 225 patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment between 2007 through 2010 at a rural TB hospital in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Results: Fifty percent of patients were cured or completed treatment, 27{\%} defaulted, 14{\%} died, 4{\%} failed treatment, and 5{\%} transferred out. Recent alcohol use was common (63{\%} of patients). In multivariable proportional hazards regression, older age (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.97 [95{\%} confidence interval 0.94-0.99] per year of greater age), formal housing (HR=0.38 [0.19-0.78]), and steady employment (HR=0.41 [0.19-0.90]) were associated with decreased risk of default, while recent ...
Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is an emerging challenge for TB control programs globally. According to the National DRS result in 2005, ...
Researchers find the preventive treatment beneficial in protecting the children, who are in close contact with multidrug resistant tuberculosis affected patients, from acquiring the disease.
We wish to clarify a point made in our report on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States. By noting that clusters of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases had been reported from 12 U.S. hospitals [1], we did not mean that nosocomial transmission had been verified in each. Hospital clusters may result from outbreaks caused by transmission inside or outside the hospital. Transmission in the hospital may be implicated by epidemiologic associations between exposure in the hospital and the subsequent development of disease or by the demonstration of molecular genetic similarity between patient isolates [1 ...
Although our baseline analysis assumed that DOTS-plus can be implemented effectively, the proportion of patients completing even standard treatment regimens is low in areas where multidrug resistant tuberculosis has become a major problem.21 In areas where direct smear microscopy and giving two to four relatively non-toxic drugs for six months is impossible, routinely performing mycobacterial cultures and first and second line susceptibility testing as well as administering four to seven toxic drugs for 18-24 months is unlikely to be possible.. A tuberculosis control programme should have implemented effective DOTS before implementing DOTS-plus.28 A poorly run control programme can generate multidrug resistant tuberculosis, but effective DOTS can decrease the rates of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.29 More widespread implementation of effective DOTS would therefore decrease the number of cases for which DOTS-plus would be necessary.30 Currently, 77% of tuberculosis cases worldwide are not ...
Strong strategies, including proven service delivery models, are needed to address the growing global threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in low- and middle-income settings. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the nationally approved ambulatory service delivery model for MDR-TB treatment in two regions of Ethiopia. We used routinely reported data to describe the process and outcomes of implementing an ambulatory model for MDR-TB services in a resource-limited setting. We compared percentage improvements in the number of MDR-TB diagnostic and treatment facilities, number of MDR-TB sputum samples processed per year, and MDR-TB cases ever enrolled in care between baseline and 2015. We also calculated interim and final treatment outcomes for patients who had completed at least 12 and 24 months of follow-up, respectively. Between 2012 and 2015, the number of MDR-TB treatment-initiating centers increased from 1 to 23. The number of sputum ...
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Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has become one of the major obstacles currently encountered in the control of this disease worldwide.1 The widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of rifampicin in the last 40 years has generated a growing number of cases of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Rifampicin resistance is the most decisive factor in the prognosis of TB patients.2 If this drug cannot be used, treatment must continue for at least 21-24 months, and combinations of less effective, more toxic drugs3 are required, leading to cure rates of only 50%.1 Moreover, more than 90% of RR-TB cases are also carriers of isoniazid (H)-resistant strains3; these patients make up the so-called multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) group.. The problem is further compounded by the appearance and spread of cases of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), which is MDR-TB that is also resistant to the fluoroquinolones (FQ: levofloxacin and/or moxifloxacin) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID: amikacin and/or ...
There are approximately 13000 cases of multi drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) diagnosed in Pakistan each year. Treatment of MDR-TB requires 18-24 months of medication, support and supervision at a significant cost. The study will assess 2 types of service delivery models for their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in low resource settings in Pakistan. These care models are: ...
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Africa may be more prevalent than previously appreciated. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. We gathered estimates of MDR TB rates for 39 of 46 countries in Africa. The relationship between MDR TB rates and independent factors was analyzed by using correlation and linear regression models. Our findings indicate that drug resistance surveys in Africa are critically needed. MDR TB rates must be assessed in countries without these surveys. In countries that have conducted a drug resistance survey, a new survey will determine evolution of drug resistance rates. We found no correlation between high MDR rates and TB incidence, HIV/TB co-infection rates, or year of introduction of rifampin. Results show that the retreatment failure rate was the most predictive indicator for MDR TB. Current category II drug regimens may increase MDR TB.
Multidrug- and higher degrees of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis have become a global public health issue of high priority. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 estimates, there were 440.000 cases and 150.000 deaths of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) globally and only about 1% of these cases were on treatment regimens based on WHO recommended standards [1]. In 2010, extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB was reported in 58 countries throughout all regions of the world. Due to the emergence of MDR-TB, the WHO developed a directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) Plus strategy in 2000 [2]. This strategy aims at ensuring correct identification and proper management of MDR-TB patients. DOTS-Plus treatment of MDR-TB cases has been proven to be highly cost effective in certain areas [3, 4].. Treatment delays have been attributed to various factors, such as living far from the health care facility, feeling a high degree of stigma, seeking initial care at a ...
The World Medical Association is scaling up its training courses on multidrug resistant tuberculosis and placing emphasis on reaching health professionals in nations heavily affected by the epidemic, such as South Africa, India, China, and Russia.. The thrust of the associations actions is to provide online training to help doctors to use the latest World Health Organization guidelines and treatment protocols for multidrug resistant tuberculosis so that they can diagnose, prevent, and treat the drug resistant strains more effectively.. "All healthcare is local. The intention of the programme is to get all knowledge and know-how to physicians. This includes revising the multidrug resistant tuberculosis course for online use, plus providing a refresher course in tuberculosis … ...
Introduction In high multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. Methods We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. Results Of 875 participants with complete data,
Discussion In early 2012 the Chhattisgarh state government included packages under RSBY (Rastriya Swasthya Bima Yojana) and MSBY (Mukhyamantri Swasthya Bima Yojana) in various national health programmes, where hospitalisation is necessary. Leveraging this opportunity, the state TB Control Programme in Chhattisgarh facilitated Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP) partnership with RSBY and MSBY through creation of innovative MDR-TB packages under the Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), integrating it in a list of other disease packages by December 2012.. Our study provides evidence of cost savings for MDR-TB patients requiring hospitalisation for ambulatory care patients in comparison with facility-based treatment with similar outcomes. These cost savings may improve equity, however covering of indirect costs such as travel as part of the current government initiative for covering MDR-TB costs under the state health insurance schemes could mitigate the costs impact on low-income ...
Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global health security. In 2017, only 50% of patients with MDR-TB who received WHO-recommended treatment were cured. Most MDR-TB patients who recover continue to suffer from functional disability due to long-term lung damage. Whilst new MDR-TB treatment regimens are becoming available, conventional drug therapies need to be complemented with host-directed therapies (HDTs) to reduce tissue damage and improve functional treatment outcomes. This viewpoint highlights recent data on biomarkers, immune cells, circulating effector molecules and genetics which could be utilised for developing personalised HDTs. Novel technologies currently used for cancer therapy which could facilitate in-depth understanding of host genetics and the microbiome in patients with MDR-TB are discussed. Against this background, personalised cell-based HDTs for adjunct MDR-TB treatment to improve clinical outcomes are proposed as a possibility for complementing standard ...
Tuberculosis is usually treated with first-line anti-tuberculous drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide.. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is disease due to strains resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin. Treatment of such strains requires use of second-line drugs which include fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, capreomycin (injectable drugs), para-aminosalicylate, cycloserine, and ethionamide.. Recently, however, strains resistant to fluoroquinolones have been noticed worldwide. When MDR TB strains become resistant to fluoroquinolones, treatment becomes difficult since other drugs used have limited efficacy. Treatment options become even more limited when in addition to fluoroquinolones, strains are resistant to any one of the injectable drugs. Such strains are labeled extensively drug resistant (XDR).. Patients with XDR TB require longer duration of treatment (at least 18 months) with drugs regimens that incorporate both old and new agents. Newer drugs ...
Revised national tuberculosis control programme in India has limited co-hort-wise information about what happens to patients diagnosed with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). We determined the pre-treatment loss to follow-up (non-initiation of treatment by programme within 6 months of diagnosis) and time from diagnosis to treatment initiation in Bhopal district, central India (2014). Pre-treatment loss to follow-up was 13% (0.95 CI: 7%, 23%), not significantly different from the national estimates (18%) and median time to initiate treatment was seven days, lower than that reported elsewhere in the country. Bhopal was performing well with reference to time to treatment initiation in programmatic settings.
Revised national tuberculosis control programme in India has limited co-hort-wise information about what happens to patients diagnosed with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). We determined the pre-treatment loss to follow-up (non-initiation of treatment by programme within 6 months of diagnosis) and time from diagnosis to treatment initiation in Bhopal district, central India (2014). Pre-treatment loss to follow-up was 13% (0.95 CI: 7%, 23%), not significantly different from the national estimates (18%) and median time to initiate treatment was seven days, lower than that reported elsewhere in the country. Bhopal was performing well with reference to time to treatment initiation in programmatic settings.
Attend the Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Clinicians Short Course on the 10th of July 2019 to add additional points to your (CPD) Continuing Professional Development po
Kiev, Ukraine (PRWEB) January 26, 2009 -- Ekomed LLC publishes study of immunoadjuvant therapy with Dzherelo (Immunoxel) in patients with drug-resistant TB.
The largest recent outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the United States is currently unfolding in the Minnesota Hmong community. Many Hmong elders were resettled in the Twin Cities years ago after living in a Thai refugee camp where TB ...
Extremely drug resistant TB, or XDR-TB, is a serious problem in India, according to a study presented at the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference, on Monday, May 21.
This natural history study seeks to determine some of the mycobacterial and host factors involved in the failure of antituberculous chemotherapy, disease recurrence, and the development of multidrug resistance by M. tuberculosis. Despite optimal treatment with directly-observed short-course therapy (DOTS), about 5-10% of compliant patients with cured tuberculosis relapse, usually within a year after completion of therapy. In Korea, where DOTS is not practiced, the relapse rate has been reported to be 15 to 20 %. In individual patients, failure to eradicate disease contributes directly to the development of drug-resistance and to low overall cure rates. While factors such as patient drug compliance and HIV status have been extensively studied in relation to rates of relapse; host genetic factors and the specific relevance of the infecting mycobacterial strain have not yet been investigated in detail. Identification of patient characteristics and specific strains of M. tuberculosis that are ...
Sirturo (bedaquiline) is used to treat multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Includes Sirturo side effects, interactions and indications.
Background There are significant delays in initiation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR -TB) treatment. The Xpert MTB/RIF test has been shown to reduce the time to diagnosis and treatment of...
This case report describes an HIV-positive patient with recurrent tuberculosis in Uganda. After several failed courses of treatment, the patient was diagnosed with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). As adequate in-patient facilities were unavailable, we advised the patient to remain at home, and he received treatment at home via his family and a community nurse. The patient had a successful clearance of tuberculosis. This strategy of home-based care represents an important opportunity for treatment of patients in East Africa, where human resource constraints and inadequate hospital facilities exist for complex patients at high risk of infection to others.
The WHO warned on Friday that the new drug resistant TB could create an apocalyptic scenario if it not contained. It has already affected more than 30,000 people.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an increasing global problem. Meta-analysis by Orenstein et al. about treatment outcome of MDR TB worldwide was: 62% successful, 11% death and 12% defaulted. Report by Chiang et al. about treatment without DOTS-Plus showed an outcome for 299 MDR-TB patients in Taiwan as follows: 51.2% treatment success, 9.4% died, and 29.1% defaulted.. Our aim was to assess treatment outcome of MDR-TB patients after introduction of "DOTS-Plus strategy" in Eastern Taiwan, following WHO guidelines.. We reviewed all patients who began treatment with DOTS-Plus for MDR-TB in Eastern Taiwan, between May 1st, 2007 and November 30th, 2012.. Out of a total of 135 bacteriologically confirmed MDR-TB cases, 13 were still in treatment. Among 122 patients with final outcomes, 54 (44.26%) were new cases, 47 (38.52%) have been previously treated with first line anti-TB drugs, 21 (17.21%) with secondary second line drugs. The mean age was 49.7 years (range 12 to 93) and 94 (77.05%) ...
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The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
A 35-year-old female prisoner presented to the infirmary with a complaint of fever and 22-pound weight loss. She denied cough, nausea, emesis, headache, ...
Background:Poverty and overcrowding in urban slums creates hot spots for initial drug resistant tuberculosis. One such area is the M (east) ward in Mumbai, India.. Aim:. 1. To identify factors for drug resistant TB in urban slums. 2. Study resistance patterns to anti-TB drugs. Method: Retrospective analysis of records at a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai was done. Patients from M (east) ward in Mumbai were included. Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB were diagnosed by analysis of sputum/relevant samples by Line probe assay, liquid culture and sensitivity.. Results:. 38 patients (23 men,15 women), had drug resistant TB. 33(84%) had MDR, 5(16%) XDR TB. No HIV/diabetes.. Initial drug resistance - MDR-5/33 (15%). XDR-1/5(20%).. Contact history- 6/38 (15%) cases.. Causes identified in each group- ...
This year alone, approximately half a million people will develop drug-resistant TB. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is caused by TB bacteria that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs. Less than 20 percent of people with MDR-TB receive treatment; of that small fraction, about half are cured. To place the drug resistant TB situation in perspective, patients with Ebola, for whom there is no available drug therapy, have the same chances of survival that patients with drug-resistant TB patients have, accessing todays available medicines. MDR-TB is also the most contagious of all the pathogens noted on the WHOs list, spreading readily from person to person, and is especially dangerous to children, people with HIV, and other vulnerable populations ...
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The majority of persons with the illness (90% to 95%) have latent TB infection (LTBI) and do not exhibit any symptoms. The bacteria can remain inactive for many years and the chance of developing active TB diminishes over time.. Persons with active TB have symptoms which include excessive coughing (sometimes with blood), chest pain, general weakness, lack of appetite, weight loss, swollen lymph glands, fever, chills, and night sweats. It can be misdiagnosed for bronchitis or pneumonia. If untreated, active TB can fatal.. Tuberculosis treatment involves taking antibiotics for a minimum of 6 months. Drug-resistant TB is a major concern as an increasing number of people are no longer able to be treated with previously effective drugs. Due to misuse of antibiotic therapies, patients can develop multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB). When a second line of antibiotics fail to cure the multi-drug resistant infection, it is known as extensively drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB).. ...
The majority of persons with the illness (90% to 95%) have latent TB infection (LTBI) and do not exhibit any symptoms. The bacteria can remain inactive for many years and the chance of developing active TB diminishes over time.. Persons with active TB have symptoms which include excessive coughing (sometimes with blood), chest pain, general weakness, lack of appetite, weight loss, swollen lymph glands, fever, chills, and night sweats. It can be misdiagnosed for bronchitis or pneumonia. If untreated, active TB can fatal.. Tuberculosis treatment involves taking antibiotics for a minimum of 6 months. Drug-resistant TB is a major concern as an increasing number of people are no longer able to be treated with previously effective drugs. Due to misuse of antibiotic therapies, patients can develop multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB). When a second line of antibiotics fail to cure the multi-drug resistant infection, it is known as extensively drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB).. ...
TB is routinely treated with daily doses of a range of proven and effective low cost drugs. Treatment is lengthy and demands regular daily intake. Unsupervised patients can discontinue treatment or restrict the number of drugs used which has led to the recent and rapid development of drug resistant strains and more worrying, so called multiple drug resistant strains (MDR TB). This is not only a 3rd World problem, where WHOs program of "daily observed treatment" (DOT) of supervised drug delivery has helped. It is also a problem in New York and California where the Federal Centre for Disease Control (CDC) report 7.7% of new cases in 2002 were resistant to isoniazid, the first line drug of choice. WHO estimates that 50 million people worldwide are infected with MDR TB ...
The following is a guest post by Siân L. Curtis of MEASURE Evaluation. People treated for tuberculosis in Ukraine are more likely to stay on their medication if they receive some social services, according to a study conducted by MEASURE Evaluation, funded by USAID. Ukraine is among 20 countries that have the worlds highest burden of drug-resistant TB and so is an important locale for determining best-practice strategies in the fight against TB, especially multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The evaluators consulted medical records from 2011 to 2012 for the study-just published by the PLOS Tuberculosis Channel - and showed that people being treated for MDR-TB are 10 percent more likely to complete their full course of treatment if social support is included. Read the full article here.. The study identified factors predictive of treatment default and used regression analyses to estimate the impact of the social support program on default. Typically, TB clients must go to a clinic that ...
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Janssen Therapeutics announced that the FDA has granted accelerated approval to Sirturo (bedaquiline tablets) for the treatment of pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) as part of combination therapy in adults.
Lack of access to reliable drug-susceptibility testing (DST) is a critical public health challenge posed by drug resistant forms of tuberculosis (TB). Drug-susceptibility testing means testing to find out if a person has drug resistant TB. On average, it is estimated that 50% of those in need of second-line drug-susceptibility testing in high burden countries do not receive it.. To better understand the barriers that stand in the way of patient access to this life-saving testing, BD and USAID formed a partnership, called STRIDES (Strengthen TB Resistance Testing and Diagnostic Systems).. As part of the partnership, BD and USAID are working with the National TB Elimination Program (NTEP) in India to strengthen liquid culture (the standard of care for TB diagnosis and patient management in industrialized countries) and drug susceptibility testing across all 55 labs in the national network to improve detection and appropriate treatment for multi-drug resistant TB patients across the country. Key ...
In the past, the groups at greatest risk of developing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) included HIV patients, prisoners, and the homeless. Today, however, it is more likely that new cases of the resistant form of the potentially deadly disease will be brought into the country by immigrants who have traveled from areas where there is a raging pandemic of TB.. Drug-resistant TB arises when ineffective drugs are prescribed or infected patients stop taking their medication too soon thereby allowing mutant strains of the TB bacteria to multiply. Once this type of mutant strain arises it is capable of person-to-person transmission. Whereas multidrug-resistant TB had been resistant to 2 or 3 drugs in the past, todayÃ-s strains are resistant to 6 to 11 drugs.. A report in todayÃ-s Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) also reveals that California has the largest concentration of drug-resistant TB cases in the U.S. with 37 in 2004. California has gone from about 20% of the nations ...
To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review with cohort analysis and meta-analysis that has evaluated the role of WHO group 5 drugs in the treatment of fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB and XDR-TB and with emphasis on the strength of association rather than statistical significance. We have systematically collected individual patient data from 20 articles in English to assemble a cohort of 194 fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB patients treated with WHO group 5 drugs. Statistical analyses showed neither between-study heterogeneity nor publication bias. Both cohort analysis using robust Poisson regression models and meta-analysis using random-effects models showed that use of linezolid substantially and significantly increased the probability of favorable outcome by 50% to 60%. Defining clinically significant improvement by risk ratios ≥ 1.2 or ≤ 0.9, neither cohort analysis nor meta-analysis demonstrated any add-on benefit from the use of the other group 5 drugs (high-dose isoniazid, ...
The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team of international researchers, and will be led by Professor Sharon Peacock and Dr Soumya Swaminathan. The team, including Professors Lalita Ramakrishnan, Ken Smith, Tom Blundell and Andres Floto, will focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB). This will include research into:
Generations of doctors, politicians, and public health officials have struggled to defeat tuberculosis. But, after years of success, TB is making a comeback. The increase in TB in the developed world since 1992 was initially attributed to HIV. However, over time, other factors behind the growing number of cases, such as immigration and a particular type of drug-resistant TB, have emerged. The World Health Organization has developed a strategy to fight TBs return, including a standardized therapy that specifies appropriate drugs, doses, and timing of therapy. Unfortunately, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is any TB resistant to the traditional treatments of isoniazid and rifampicin, represents a serious challenge: because standard treatment is less effective in curing it, its transmission continues. Moreover, any inadequately treated TB becomes multi-drug resistant, so that treatment failure can be either cause or consequence of MDR-TB. This underscores the need for a ...
In 2014 only 50 % of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients achieved a successful treatment outcome. With limited options for medical treatment, surgery has re-emerged as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the evidence for the effect of surgery as an adjunct to chemotherapy on outcomes of adults treated for MDR-TB. Databases and grey literature sources were searched using terms incorporating surgery and MDR-TB. No language or publication type limits were applied. Articles published pre-1990, without a comparator group, or reporting <10 surgical participants were excluded. Two-stage sifting in duplicate was employed. Data on WHO-defined treatment outcomes were abstracted into a standardised database. Study-level risk of bias was evaluated using standardised tools. Outcome-level evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. Forest plots were generated, random effects meta-analysis conducted, and heterogeneity assessed using the I2
Via The Economic Times: Government to provide free tuberculosis drugs at all chemist shops and corporate hospitals. Excerpt: NEW DELHI: In a move to curb multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases caused mostly because of irregular medication, the government has decided that...
In children Tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health issue increasingly being recognized as the new figures now estimate that at least 67 million, 850,000 children were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the development of active disease.. Two million of these children, 25,000 cases of MDR-TB disease requires expensive and toxic treatments, leading to multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of TB were estimated to be infected. The new data "innovative modeling and statistical analysis," Sheffield University, Imperial College London and carried out by researchers from the World Health Organization has been compiled as a result.. "Our report shows that more drug resistant TB in children have shown, and a large pool of drugresistant infection," Peter Dodd, University School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) said the cholera epidemic.. "They are not identified as having drug-resistant TB; the children are not likely to receive appropriate and effective treatment. After infection ...
Bacteria were conquered, at least temporarily, when modern antibiotics arrived on the scene. But the scene has changed. The bugs are fighting back and winning, which is putting us in a dangerous mess. In this chapter of his multi-part series, What Will the Next Plague Be? Dr. Steve Schow examines what can happen if we dont come up with better weapons against resistant
The study, which systematically reviewed all available data reporting outcomes for children with DR-TB found results to be very encouraging: overall the proportion of children achieving treatment success (82%) was found to be as good as, if not better than, that reported for adults (64%). Mortality was low (6%) but a substantial number of children (39%) experienced side effects to treatment. This points to the urgent need for more effective drugs, paediatric formulations of drugs, and a better understanding of the best possible dosing in children. Moreover, delays in starting treatment were common, underscoring the need for rapid, reliable, and affordable tuberculosis diagnostics for children.. Nevertheless, these results provide encouragement that successful outcomes can be achieved when treating children with DR-TB.. ...
TheTribune: Taking vitamin D supplements with antibiotics can help speed up the process of clearing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis bacteria from the lungs, a study claims.
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Otsuka) announced that the European Commission has granted a marketing authorization for Deltyba™ (delamanid) for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen for pulmonary multidrug-resistanttuberculosis (MDR-TB) in adult patients when an effective treatment...
An investigational drug (R207910, currently in clinical trials against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains) is quite effective at killing dorman
We report the treatment success rates and 2-year outcomes in the first cohort of HIV-negative (81.0%) and HIV-coinfected (69.9%) patients (combined treatment success of 78.6%) enrolled into MDR TB treatment in Ethiopia. These outcomes surpass the outcomes reported elsewhere in Africa and exceed the WHO 2015 target of at least 75% treatment success of MDR TB.17 Furthermore, these outcomes were achieved in a setting with many programmatic challenges including lack of both SLD and isolation space at programme initiation and the persistent programmatic challenges of lack of oxygen support, lack of consistent lab capacity and ancillary drug supply. Furthermore, the cohort was treatment-experienced with advanced disease, had a substantial HIV-coinfection rate and nearly half of the cohort had severe malnutrition (BMI,16). Our positive outcomes are thus in striking contrast to reports of high mortality and lower treatment success rates (40-62%) for patients with MDR TB treated elsewhere in Africa.3 ,4 ...
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New tuberculosis medicines prove more effective in treating resistant strains of TB, with new findings leading to overhaul of worldwide guidelines
Sarah Meredith, clinical co-Chief Investigator for STREAM and Professor of Clinical Trials at the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, said: "We have the opportunity to try to improve the regimen during the remainder of STREAM Stage 2 to see if we can reduce the need for ECG monitoring throughout treatment. This is just one reason why dynamic clinical trials of this nature are so important, and why we felt it important to release these preliminary results as soon as they became available.". In terms of the economic burden of MDR-TB, the results show the nine-month regimen reduces costs to both the health system and patients, compared to the 20-month regimen. In South Africa the nine-month regimen reduced the cost to the health system for each patient by USD4,900 (around a third). Patients direct costs were also reduced due to fewer visits to health facilities, reduced spending on supplementary food and the fact that the patient was able to return to work sooner than if on the ...
Half a million people fell sick with dangerous superbug strains of tuberculosis (TB) in 2012, but fewer than one in four were diagnosed, putting the rest at risk of dying due to the wrong medicines or no treatment at all.
After the Ahmednagar resident was admitted to Sassoon Hospital, doctors were shocked to find that she was suffering from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, highly unusual for such a young child
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J T Denholm, D E Leslie, G A Jenkin, J Darby, P D R Johnson, S M Graham, G V Brown, A Sievers, M Globan, L K Brown, E S McBryde
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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The Office of Public Health Practice hosted their annual symposium on Wednesday, and the theme was Can the World be TB Free? I only had a chance to attend one of the talks (by Dr. Joseph McCormick), which dealt with the rising problem of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and how our treatment strategies for TB…
A study published on 23rd July 2012 in the medical journal The Lancet has raised hopes for a novel combination drug regimen that promises to make multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) treatment shorter, simpler, safer, and more cost effective. The findings of this study from researchers and the non-profit Global Alliance For TB Drug Development (TB Alliance), which were presented at the XIX International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2012) reveal that a novel TB drug combination PaMZ (consisting of PA- 824, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide) has shown the potential to dramatically shorten the length of multi drug resistant TB treatment by 80%, from the existing 24 months to 4 months; reduce the pill burden by 97%, from the existing 12,600 pills to 360 pills; and eliminates the need of injections and daily powdered drug formulations completely. (Currently patients have to take a daily dose of very painful injections for 6 months). ...
XDR Tuberculosis, or extensively drug resistant TB, doesnt respond to any of the first-line drugs nor 3 of the 6 second line drugs, making it very evasive of our current medical arsenal. We arent facing a disease as dangerous as the subject of the film Outbreak, but there is concern. TB is spread through droplets in the air, which only reach those in close proximity, and only active TB infections are spread by coughing. Moreover, you need a high dose of the bacteria in order to get a productive infection; just a few mycobacteria will be non-infectious to nearly any normal host. This TB scare is not frightening because of its ability to spread rapidly or its high host fatality, but rather because modern medicine isnt equipped to deal with large numbers of cases of this disease ...
Comprehensive analysis of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China based on the First National Survey of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis: a cross-sectional whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological ...
... London: Researchers in Britain have used genetic analysis of the tuberculosis (TB) bacteria to trace the fatal spread of multidrug-resistant TB
Discussion. We aimed to investigate the time from the collection of sputum samples for DST to the initiation of effective therapy. A similar study in Cape Town showed an average of 5 - 6 weeks delay in initiation of treatment for patients with MDR TB.7 However, in our study 131 (75%) of patients experienced delays of up to 22 weeks, and only 44 (25%) patients were started on treatment without a significant delay. This is of concern, since almost 90% of all patients seen were coughing. Delaying treatment for patients who are actively coughing perpetuates the spread of MDR TB. It was previously believed that resistant strains of TB were not virulent enough for high transmission rates and that infection control was therefore not important.8 However, human-to-human spread of MDR TB is more common than anticipated, and the disease spreads while patients await diagnosis and initiation of treatment.8 In the Western Cape, 90% of all tested drug-resistant TB cases were smear-positive, suggesting that ...
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) occurs when TB patients stop taking their prescribed medications or do not take them as directed. Patients often stop taking the drugs when they begin to feel better or to avoid side effects. However, TB bacteria can survive inside the body for several months during treatment and are ready to spring back into activity when the medication disappears. Symptoms return with a vengeance, and infected people become highly contagious again, putting those close to them at risk. In MDR TB, germs become stronger than the antibiotics, making the drugs less effective. Patients with MDR TB need special medications, but they may not work as well. In addition, patients can spread this highly dangerous form of the disease to others. One way to fight this problem is through directly observed therapy (DOT). In DOT, patients must take their medications regularly in the presence of a health professional. Home visits by health professionals to supervise the taking of ...
Aminoglycosides, recommended by the World Health Organization to treat multidrug resistant tuberculosis, cause hearing loss and kidney damage in a dose dependent manner.
Among a group of 205 patients who had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB) for an average of over 4 years, the 130 persons who underwent surgical resection to remove diseased lung tissue had nearly a fivefold increase in favorable outcome, according to a study published in the second issue for May 2004 of the American Thoracic Societys American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Resistance to drugs generally results from the overuse of antibiotics. Its simple evolution, really. Few of a population of TB germs may develop a genetic factor enabling it to resist a drug administered on the patient, say drug A. These few are the only surviving members of the population. Now, these multiply, giving rise to the next generation of germs resistant to this particular drug. When it infects another patient, a new drug - say drug B - is needed. Some members of this new population can then develop resistance to drug B, while retaining its resistance to drug A. Over prescription of medicines known to work on TB germs accelerates this process and very soon we get TB germs resistant to multiple drugs. This is what is referred to as Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB).. TDR-TB refers to TB which are resistant to first line drugs. First line drugs are drugs proven to work against the bacteria, with the least amount of side-effects. There is a second line, which may not be as effective, or ...
One of the greatest threats to public health in the Third World is strains of tuberculosis bacteria that have grown resistant to antibiotics and other traditional medicines.. Now, scientists in Japan and Switzerland have witnessed a previously unknown method a certain bacterium uses to evade the best weapons in the medical armory. The discovery, made in a bacterium similar to the one that causes TB, could potentially lead to more effective drugs.. Reported in the latest issue of the journal Science, the finding also casts doubt on the conventional explanation of how bacteria develop resistance to drugs.. Making drugs that are more effective against tuberculosis is not a minor matter. According to the World Health Organization, there are parts of the world where one-quarter of all TB patients have a drug-resistant form of the disease, called multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, or MDR-TB. WHO reports that 440,000 people had MDR-TB in 2008 worldwide and a third of them did not survive. Half the cases ...
Between 1993 and 2002, the World Health Organisation violated sound medical care by urging low- and middle-income countries to follow less expensive, largely untested and ineffective treatment protocols to treat people with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB), says a paper published on June 21, 2016 in the Health and Human Rights Journal. Cost factor was the…
GUPTA: What Ill tell you, Anderson, is that with regard to infectious diseases, diseases that youre worried about -- it could be things like multiple drug resistant tuberculosis, Marberg (ph), Ebola -- the way that theyre treated is, from a macro standpoint, pretty much the same. These patients need to be in isolation, and that isolation needs to be pristine. Everything from the way that the air circulates in the room, the way that people are allowed to enter into the room, the anterooms before you get into the room with a patient so people can gown up. All of that is necessary and really, you know, quite effective ...
When a mother has TB, its dangerous not only for her but also for her baby. Women infected with TB are twice as likely to have a premature or underweight baby, and the baby can be born with congenital TB.. Multidrug-resistant TB is resistant to the two most potent drugs used to treat TB disease and further exacerbates the risk that pregnant women can face. There is a conspicuous lack of treatment guidelines for women with multidrug-resistant TB, leading to few options for the expectant mother: delaying treatment until after the pregnancy; terminating the pregnancy and beginning immediate treatment; or continuing the treatment without knowing all of its effects. None of these are optimal options for women or their babies.. Prompt, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of TB-like what Kayange received-can save women and their children.. On World TB Day, we celebrate successes like Kayanges and push ahead for the millions more who need that same care. Take three minutes and watch the video ...
PhD Project - New treatments for antimicrobial resistant TB via modulation of innate immunity at University of Sheffield, listed on FindAPhD.com
But about ten million people around the world still get TB, and one particular strain is resistant to our usual treatment methods, making it extremely deadly. The vast majority of people who contract drug resistant TB die before theyre even diagnosed, and even with treatment, only 34% of them make it. Plus, that treatment involves taking upwards of 40 pills a day for up to two years, and can have some serious side effects ...
The firm signed a memorandum of understanding with the agency and is expected to detail the terms of the cooperation in a subsequent collaborative agreement.
This figure has not changed for the past three years. According to the report, India had the largest number (2.2 million) of cases of TB in 2011. TB mortality rate has decreased by 41 per cent since 1990 and the TB control programme globally seems to be on track in terms of achieving the global target of a 50 per cent reduction in TB deaths by 2015. While we are struggling to control what is an entirely preventable and curable disease, and achieving some progress as the above data suggests, with alarming rapidity, prefixes such as MDR, XDR and TDR threaten to make the situation with regard to TB difficult. As Dr Lucica Ditiu, executive secretary of the Stop TB Partnership points out, "In 2011, there were an estimated 440 000 new cases of MDR-TB. Considering the detection and notification rate globally, we would have expected to have found around 300,000 MDR-TB cases ...
Source: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2019/01/study-sheds-more-light-delamanid-role-treating-mdr-tb Study sheds more light on delamanid role in treating MDR-TB Filed Under: Antimicrobial Stewardship; Tuberculosis Lisa Schnirring | News Editor |
This report focuses on just some of the many factors that hamper the scaling up of DR-TB treatment-the limited availability and high cost of quality assured medicines for resistant strains of the disease, owing to an insecure market and insufficient demand; and the research questions that remain unsolved with existing medicines.
Looking for online definition of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Medical Dictionary? Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis explanation free. What is Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis? Meaning of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis medical term. What does Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis mean?
Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Jigjiga town, Ethiopia Mussie Brhane,1 Ameha Kebede,2 Yohannes Petros 2 1Department of Tuberculosis Culture and DST Laboratory, Harar Health Research and Regional Laboratory, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Biology, College of Computational and Natural Sciences, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia Background: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Sputum specimens were collected, and using a pretested questionnaire, data for associated risk
Background. A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion. ...
BACKGROUND: Peru holds the fourth highest burden of tuberculosis in the Americas. Despite an apparently well-functioning DOTS control program, the prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) continues to increase. To worsen this situation, cases of extensively drug resistance tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have been detected. Little information exists about the genetic diversity of drug-susceptible vs. MDR-TB and XDR-TB. METHODS: Cryopreserved samples of XDR strains from 2007 to 2009 (second semester), were identified and collected. Starting from 227 frozen samples, a total of 142 XDR-TB strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC; 1 isolate per patient) were retained for this study. Each strain DNA was analyzed by spoligotyping and the 15-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit (MIRU-15). RESULTS: Among the 142 isolates analyzed, only 2 samples (1.41%) could not be matched to any lineage. The most prevalent sublineage was Haarlem (43.66%), followed by T (27.46%), LAM (16.2%),
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line drug in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) treatment. However, the unreliable results obtained from traditional susceptibility testing limits its usefulness in clinical settings. The detection of pncA gene mutations is a potential surrogate of PZA susceptibility testing, especially in MDRTB isolates. The impact of genotypes of M. tuberculosis in pncA gene mutations also remains to be clarified. MDRTB isolates were collected from six hospitals in Taiwan from January 2007 to December 2009. pncA gene sequencing, pyrazinamidase activity testing, and spoligotyping were performed on all of the isolates. PZA susceptibility was determined by the BACTEC MGIT 960 PZA method. The sensitivity and specificity of pncA gene analysis were estimated based on the results of PZA susceptibility testing. A total of 66 MDRTB isolates, including 37 Beijing and 29 non-Beijing strains, were included for analysis. Among these isolates, 36 (54.5%) were PZA-resistant and 30 (45.5
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is difficult to treat and there exists a significant lack of information about this infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Stop TB Strategy and guidelines on how to prevent, control and treat MDR-TB by using available data worldwide.. Guidelines, however, are theoretical knowledge that are not always easy to put into practice. The WMA therefore volunteered to produce a learning programme for the MDR-TB Guidelines. The course was updated together with the new WHO MDR-TB strategy in 2010.. This MDR-TB online course exists as a free self-learning online tool in English and Mandarin Chinese allowing physicians worldwide to learn and test their knowledge about MDR-TB. It is accredited by the South African Medical Association and the Norwegian Medical Association and will therefore be recognised throughout Europe.. A tablet application of the MDR TB course was developed to scale-up the education and skills of health care workers ...
Abstract. To find out the reason why some people get infected directly with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), whereas some get infected with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB), a 1:1:1 matched-pairs case-control study was conducted to identify predictors associated with primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB against the control in Jiangsu Province, China. All three groups were geographically matched (by neighborhood) and matched on sex and age (±5 years). In total, 110 participants were enrolled in each of three matched groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that predictors independently associated with primary MDR-TB were illiteracy or primary school education, annual per capita income ≤ US$2,000, per capita living space < 40 m2, and interval ≥ 7 days of eating fruits; predictors with primary DS-TB were body mass index ≤ 20 and feeling higher life pressure. This indicates that there are different predictors impacting the transmission range of primary MDR-TB and primary
Nanomedicine as a Newly Emerging Approach Against Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): 10.4018/978-1-5225-0610-2.ch003: Emergence of MDR-TB is highly associated with morbidity and mortality and it needs high concerns about the possibility of a future TB epidemic as limited
Research in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, however, shows that the use of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scans can help to determine earlier if treatment for tuberculosis is working or if the disease is MDR.. Tuberculosis and HIV have been linked since the AIDS epidemic began. Approximately 33.2 million people across the world are living with HIV, and an estimated one-third of them are co-infected with tuberculosis. In 2008, the number of MDR tuberculosis cases reached between 390,000-510,000, or 3.6 percent of all incident tuberculosis cases. MDR tuberculosis is very difficult to treat and is often fatal.. "Early detection of drug resistance of tuberculosis allows the initiation of an appropriate treatment, which may significantly affect patient survival. Currently, more than two-thirds of patients with MDR tuberculosis die," said Mike Sathekge, MD, PhD, lead author of the study "Use of 18F-FDG PET to Predict Response to First-Line Tuberculostatics in ...
In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.
Although progress has been made to reduce global incidence of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis during the past decade threatens to undermine these advances. However, countries are responding far too slowly. Of the estimated 440 000 cases of MDR tuberculosis that occurred in 2008, only 7% were identified and reported to WHO. Of these cases, only a fifth were treated according to WHO standards. Although treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis is possible with currently available diagnostic techniques and drugs, the treatment course is substantially more costly and laborious than for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, with higher rates of treatment failure and mortality. Nonetheless, a few countries provide examples of how existing technologies can be used to reverse the epidemic of MDR tuberculosis within a decade. Major improvements in laboratory capacity, infection control, performance of tuberculosis control ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Newer drugs and targets in tuberculosis. AU - Subramanian, Harish Thanu. AU - Meena Kumari, K.. AU - Amberkar Mohan Babu, V.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - In the year 2013, nine million people suffered from tuberculosis. Around 1.5 million people (men, woman and children) died due to tuberculosis. About 1.1 million people with HIV developed tuberculosis. The major drawbacks of tuberculosis treatment in a patient are multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Recently newer drugs and targets have been the key focus of research in finding the permanent cure for tuberculosis. The FDA has recently approved a new tuberculosis drug bedaquiline. The drugs under trials are delamanid, pretomanid, sutezolid and SQ109. Drugs in preclinical development showing promising results are benzothiazinone, spectinamide, capuramycin, TBI-166 (Riminophenazines antibiotic). The various lead compounds which showed promising activity against ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data complexity has restricted their clinical application. A library (1,325 mutations) predictive of DR for 15 anti-tuberculosis drugs was compiled and validated for 11 of them using genomic-phenotypic data from 792 strains. A rapid online TB-Profiler tool was developed to report DR and strain-type profiles directly from raw sequences. Using our DR mutation library, in silico diagnostic accuracy was superior to some commercial diagnostics and alternative databases. The library will facilitate sequence-based drug-susceptibility testing.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transmission of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in Shanghai, China. AU - Zhao, Ming. AU - Li, Xia. AU - Xu, Peng. AU - Shen, Xin. AU - Gui, Xiaohong. AU - Wang, Lili. AU - DeRiemer, Kathryn. AU - Mei, Jian. AU - Gao, Qian. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are global health problems. We sought to determine the characteristics, prevalence, and relative frequency of transmission of MDR and XDR TB in Shanghai, one of the largest cities in Asia. Methods: TB is diagnosed in district TB hospitals in Shanghai, China. Drug susceptibility testing for first-line drugs was performed for all culture positive TB cases, and tests for second-line drugs were performed for MDR cases. VNTR-7 and VNTR- 16 were used to genotype the strains, and prior treatment history and treatment outcomes were determined for each patient. Results: There were 4,379 culture positive TB cases diagnosed with drug susceptibility test results ...
But TB is making a comeback globally today - particularly among the homeless, those in prison, and those rendered susceptible because of HIV infection. TB remains one of the major diseases afflicting children throughout the world. Although the exact number of annual cases of childhood tuberculosis is unknown, the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated approximately 1 million new cases and 400,000 deaths per year in children due to tuberculosis. Many of these cases go undiagnosed and untreated and many of these children could be salvaged if there were improvements in diagnosis and treatment available for ...
Endalkachew Fekadu, a multi-drug resistant TB survivor. Multi-drug resistant, or MDR-TB, is on the rise in the developing world. In 2014, WHO estimated that between 32 000 to 49 000 MDR-TB patients live in the African Region. In Ethiopia, about 40 health centres do have the capacity to diagnose and treat MDR-TB.. "Diagnosis didnt lead to immediate treatment. The MDR-TB treatment I desperately needed was only available outside Ethiopia, and it was too expensive. My family and friends made contributions but it wasnt enough.. Everybody was waiting for my death, until a guardian angel appeared. Mr. Mike Hinckfoot from Compassion International offered to bring the drugs from the USA. They were difficult to import and werent even registered with drug administration and control authority. But after many ups and downs I got the medicine," tells Endalkachew.. "But with thanks to God I finished the medication on 6 June 2007. I was certified cured and I am perfectly OK now! I feel like Ive been given a ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MDR-TB and XDR-TB strain, rod bacterium (prokaryote). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the primary causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB). Contaminated respiratory secretions transmit the infection between humans. In the past few years drug resistant strains, MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains have emerged, especially in developing countries. MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant TB) strains are resistant to at least the two first-line TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin. XDR-TB, or Extensive Drug Resistant TB (also known as Extreme Drug Resistance) is a strain that is also resistant to three or more of the six classes of second-line drugs. Drug-resistant TB is a public health issue in many developing countries, as treatment is longer and requires more expensive drugs. Magnification: x3,400 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0132