False colour scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the head of a tsetse fly Glossina morsitans, a large bloodsucking fly of tropical Africa. The tsetse fly transmits a parasitic protozoan called Trypanosoma, of which T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense are the agents of sleeping sickness in humans. Both male & female are bloodsuckers. Their habitat is varied, ranging from forest to river bank to savannah. Unlike most flies the tsetse gives birth to fully developed larvae, which immediately pupate. The female nurtures one larva at a time, with a total of 8-10 per lifetime. Control of the tsetse is by destruction of their habitat. Mag: X32 at 10x8, X5 at 35mm. Original is bw print Z340/067. - Stock Image Z340/0078
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Tsetse populations and trypanosome prevalence in cattle were monitored from 1986 to 1993 in the Ghibe valley, southwest Ethiopia. From January 1991 to October 1993 between 2000 and 4000 cattle were treated at monthly intervals with a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrine high-cis. A dosage of 1 ml per 10 kg bodyweight was used to control tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Treatments were given as a pour-on applications along the backlines of animals, using automatic drench-gun applicators. This resulted in a decline of 93 percent in the apparent density of G. pallidipes and of 83 percent in the apparent density of G. mortsitans submorsitans by 1993. This reduction was associated with a reduction in trypanosome prevalence in cattle of 74 percent, despite a high level of resistance to all available trypanocidal drugs. The numbers of Stomaxys spp. and Tabanidae were also significantly reduced (P,0.01 ...
Photograph of Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans) abdomen distended with single larva. Africa. Rights managed white background image. Warren Photographic WP16225
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclics in tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) is a crucial step in the establishment of midgut infections. A number of factors have been implicated in the transformation process, including enzymes and lectins or lectin-like molecules. Recently, Glossina proteolytic lectin (Gpl) gene, which encodes a protein with both lectin and trypsin activities has been shown to stimulate transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclics in vitro. Using RT-PCR, we show that the induction of Gpl gene expression by blood meal occurs only in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead, Glossina austeni Newstead, Glossina pallidipes Austen, and not in the Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann and Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus). The expression means of Gpl mRNA in G. f. fuscipes following a blood meal were significant (P , 0.05) with low expression in teneral flies and reaching a ...
My research focuses on acquiring a better understanding of the relationship between insect disease vectors and their associated symbiotic micro-organisms. To this end, I currently use the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans) as a model system. These insects are the sole vectors of pathogenic African trypanosomes, which are the causative agent of Human African trypanosomiasis. Tsetse flies also harbor two distinct endosymbiotic bacteria (Wigglesworthia and Sodalis) that are intimately associated with hosts physiological well-being. I am interested in learning more about 1) the evolution adaptations that permit host tolerance of bacterial endosymbionts, 2) how symbiotic bacteria impact host physiology, with specific emphasis on nutritional supplementation and host immunity, and 3) how to use microbial symbionts to reduce disease vector competence.. ...
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the ...
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
A decade-long effort by members of the International Glossina Genome Initiative has produced the first complete genome sequence of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans. The blood-sucking insect is the sole transmitter of sleeping sickness, a potentially deadly disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The vast store of genetic data will help researchers develop new ways to prevent the disease and provide insights into the tsetse flys unique biology.
Female Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) were treated with deltamethrin or pyrethrum extract through topical application or by exposure to cloth or glass treated with the same insecticides. Reproductive performance was assessed in terms of survival, pupae number and viability and reproductive deformities and abnormalities within the reproductive systems including abortions. Survival and fecundity of treated flies were significantly reduced (P<0.001). Pupae were small, mostly non-viable, and were arrested at various stages of development. Abortions of egg and all stages of larvae were observed in pregnancy cycles 1-7 following insecticide treatment. Various concentrations ranging from 1-1014 nanograms per micro litre (ng/μL) of insecticide in redistilled acetone topically applied (1μ/fly) on the dorsal thorax of the females, 24 hr after their previous blood meal, resulted in both insecticides in various concentrations causing reproductive ...
recordings were made of the activation of hungry glossina morsitans morsitans westwood, g. pallidipes austen, and g. austeni newstead in response to odours from ox breath and ox urine, and a moving visual stimulus, in a wind tunnel. the spontaneous activity of g.m.morsitans was very low (less than 4% of males and 2% of females active per min during control periods). that of g.austeni and g.pallidipes was in the region of 20% except for g.pallidipes females when in excess of 40% were active durin ...
Tsetse fly definition, any of several bloodsucking African flies of the genus Glossina, that act as a vector of sleeping sickness and other trypanosome infections of humans and domestic animals. See more.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a form of pest control that uses ionizing radiation (gamma ray or X ray) to sterilize male flies that are mass-produced in special rearing facilities. The sterile males are released systematically from the ground or by air in tsetse-infested areas, where they mate with wild females, which do not produce offspring. As a result, this technique can eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. SIT is among the most environmentally friendly control tactics available, and is usually applied as the final component of an integrated campaign.. The sustainable removal of the tsetse fly is in many cases the most cost-effective way of dealing with the T&T problem resulting in major economic benefits for subsistence farmers in rural areas. Insecticide-based methods are normally very ineffective in removing the last remnants of tsetse populations, while, on the contrary, sterile males are very effective in finding and mating the last remaining females. Therefore, the ...
Lindh, Jenny M., Goswami, Parikshit, Blackburn, Richard S., Arnold, Sarah E.J., Vale, Glyn A., Lehane, Mike J. and Torr, Steve J. (2012) Optimizing the colour and fabric of targets for the control of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6 (5):e1661. ISSN 1935-2727 (Print), 1935-2735 (Online) (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001661) ...
Investigations to identify the causes of high mortalities in cattle in the agropastoral zone (ZAP( of Yale started in March 1993. African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) was found to be the major constraint, with incidence rates exceeding 30 percent, justifying a tsetse control programme, which started in March/April 1994. The treatment of all cattle at bimonthly intervals with deltamethrin 1 percent pour on and the display of 1500 insecticide impregnated targets during the 6 months of the dry season each year helped to reduce the tsetse populations (Glossina tachinoides and G. morsitans submorsitans) by more than 90 percent. In less than 7 months, the incidence of AAt dropped below 5 percent and remained there throughout the intervention until June 1996, in spite of an increase to 3 months in the interval between the treatments. Mean PCV values increased significantly from 26.5-30.9 percent, before, to 30.7-36.3 percent during the intervention. The improvement in the overall health resulted in a ...
We used Genepop 4.1[31] to test for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and also test for linkage disequilibrium (LD). For loci with fewer than four alleles, the complete enumeration method [32] was used. All other loci were tested using the Guo and Thompson [33] Markov chain method with 100,000 dememorizations, 1,000 batches and 10,000 iterations per batch. We also used Genepop to carry out global tests across loci for heterozygote deficiency and heterozygote excess. Significance values were adjusted for multiple testing (HWE) and comparisons (LD) using the Benjamini-Hochberg method [34] with a false discovery rate of 0.05. Summary statistics, including allele frequencies, allelic richness, observed heterozygosity (HO), expected heterozygosity (HE) and the inbreeding coefficient (FIS) were calculated using the program Genalex 6.41[35]. In order to assess the statistical significance of genetic differentiation between temporal samples, we used Genepop to perform Fishers exact test ...
All three synthetic diastereoisomers of 13,23-dimethyl-pentatriacontane, the pheromone of Glossina pallidipes (Austen), have been tested in the G. pallidipes sex pheromone bioassay, together with one of the four diastereoisomers of 13,17-dimethylpentatriacontane, originally proposed as a candidate pheromone of G. pallidipes. Of the three isomers of 13,23-dimethylpentatriacontane only the (13R,23S) isomer was active with an ED-50 of 4.47±1.09/μg (mean±SD). The (13R,17R)-13,17-dimethylpentatriacontane was inactive. The diastereo-isomeric mixtures of 13,17- and 13,23-dimethylpentatriacontane were active with ED-50 values of 17.88±1.25/μg and 8.88±1.15μg respectively. The natural pheromone was active with an ED-50 of 8.07±1.17 μg indicating it to be a diastereoisomeric mixture ...
Genetically modified bacterial symbionts of arthropod disease vectors are potential tools for the delivery of proteins that interfere with pathogen development in the vector and may serve as a powerful complementary approach to control disease transmission [2]. Furthermore, the use of bacterial symbionts expressing foreign proteins in disease-carrying arthropods has also an intriguing potential for studying insect-pathogen interactions. The advent of Nanobody® technology has offered new prospects for the development of new effector molecules applicable for the paratransgenesis approach. These single-domain antigen-binding fragments represent exquisite targeting tools because of their small size (13-15 kDa) and stability properties [17, 22]. Despite the interest for a paratransgenesis approach in tsetse flies to control transmission of African trypanosomiasis, little progress has been made on the identification and expression of trypanosome-interfering proteins in the tsetse fly bacterial ...
Tsetse have an unusual life cycle. Female tsetse only fertilize one egg at a time and keep each egg in their uterus while the offspring develops internally during the first larval stages. During this time, the female feeds the developing offspring with a milky substance secreted by a modified gland in the uterus. In the third larval stage, the tsetse larva finally leave the uterus and crawl into the ground. There it forms a hard outer shell and becomes the pupa. It completes its metamorphosis into an adult fly. This takes twenty to thirty days, while the larva relies on stored resources. Normally, insect larvae feed themselves before pupation, but tsetse development (before it emerges as a full adult) occurs without feeding. The development is based only on nutritional resources provided by the female parent, which shows how blood is a rich source of nutrition. The female must get enough energy for her needs, for the needs of her developing offspring, and to store the resources which her ...
This thesis investigates the potential contribution of data from the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (A VHRR) on-board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites and data from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the Meteosat geostationary meteorological satellites for predicting the distribution and abundance of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Africa. The images were processed to produce a range of monthly land surface temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall indices for the period 1988 to 1990. The performance of these indices, derived from several different methods, was tested using meteorological records collected during these years at stations across continental Africa and the most accurate used to form a refined dataset for subsequent analysis. The time-series of these land surface temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall indices and a range of Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) were subject to temporal
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The ...
More than 11 million Kenyans are at risk of contracting sleeping sickness if the government does not improve education on tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis, a research states.. The Kenya Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Council chairman Gideon Nzau said the state over the years has neglected the disease even though tsetse flies breed in large numbers in North Rift, South Rift, Western and Nyanza.. He spoke during a workshop on tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis management in Siaya on Thursday.. ...
Gloria-Soria, A, Dunn, WA, Yu X, Vigneron A, Lee K-Y, Weiss BL, Zhao H, Aksoy, S, and Caccone, A. Harnessing genomic data from closely related taxa to uncover gene-phenotype associations in non-model organisms: genomic regions associated with Trypanosoma infections in wild populations of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes. Genes, Genomes, Genetics. Early online January 17,…
<p>Chemicals in human odour that attract tsetse flies have been identified and could bait traps to kill more of the disease-carrying insects.</p>
After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock.
We study the molecular basis of biological complexity that determine host-microbe interactions, with a focus on tsetse flies, insect vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes. We investigate the molecular aspects of tsetse immunity during parasite transmission with the eventual goal of manipulating these responses to block disease transmission. Tsetse also harbors three maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts, which influence its nutritional and reproductive biology. We characterize the biology of each symbiont using biochemical, genetic, cellular and molecular techniques to understand the evolution and functional significance of each in the context of the dynamic host environment. We developed a paratransgenic approach where we exploit the commensal gut flora to express in the midgut mileu trypanocidal products that can block parasite development. The replacement of natural tsetse populations with the engineered parasite refractory flies can provide a novel approach for control ...
Sleeping sickness, also called "human African trypanosomiasis", is a widespread tropical disease that can be fatal if not treated. It is spread by the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina Genus), a species native to the African continent. Sixty million people who live mainly in rural parts of East, West and Central Africa are at risk of contracting sleeping sickness.. The tsetse fly bite erupts into a red sore and within a few weeks the person can experience fever, swollen lymph glands, aching muscles and joints, headaches and irritability. In advanced stages, the disease attacks the central nervous system and people present with changes in personality, alteration of the biological clock (the circadian rhythm), confusion, slurred speech, seizures and difficulty in walking and talking. These problems can develop over many years and if not treated, the person dies.. I experienced the tsetse fly first hand on the border of Zambia and the Democratic of the Congo and they are literally ...
The disease is a threat to an estimated 50 million people and 48 million cattle with estimated annual losses in cattle production alone of 1-1.2 billion US$. These losses are due to stock mortality and depressed productivity, which may be of meat, milk, reproduction or traction. Beyond its direct effects on humans and livestock is its impact on African agriculture and the livelihood of the rural population in the affected countries: the fly and the disease influence where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock, and the intensity and the mix of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use and environment which may, in turn, affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. Trypanosomosis is, therefore, both a public health and an agricultural development constraint. The challenges that the elimination or control of tsetse fly and trypanosomosis pose as well as the opportunities to develop appropriate intervention technologies are ...
Bauer first went to Kenya in 2001, where he managed an EU-funded project on dairy farming in zones where tsetse fly populations are a problem. Tsetse flies transmit the disease trypanosomosis or nagana to animals, which is responsible for the deaths of 3 million cattle and economic losses of more than $4.5 billion every year in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease when transmitted to humans is better known as sleeping sickness, and it is inevitably fatal in humans when left untreated. Some 30 000 people contract the disease in Africa every year, and it is a significant impediment to economic development in so-called T&T (tsetse and trypanosome) zones across Africa ...
Serap Aksoy, PhD, came to Yale as a postdoctoral fellow in 1982 and worked her way to Professor in 2002. From 2002-2010, she headed the Division of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. She serves as editor in Chief of the journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases and chaired both the NIH/NIAID Vector Biology Study Section (2010-2012) and the WHO/TDR, Molecular Entomology BL5 (2008-2012). Dr. Aksoys lab aims to understand the biology of host-pathogen interactions--in particular in tsetse flies, which transmit African trypanosomes and harbor multiple symbiotic microbes. A graduate of Vassar College (BA) and Columbia University (PhD), Dr. Aksoy has lectured around the world, and maintains ongoing collaborative research programs with the National Livestock Research Institute (NaLIRRI) and Gulu University in Uganda, and Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI) in Kenya. The laboratory at Yale focuses on the development of novel methods to ultimately reduce tsetse populations in the field, or to reduce ...
09-27-2013 - Each year millions of cattle in Africa are killed by a parasite transmitted by the tsetse fly. Parasitologists at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna have studied a breed of cattle with a natural tolerance against the parasite. They found that Baoulé cows are doubly protected against the disease: they are less often infected and can tolerate higher levels of parasites in the blood. The work was published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Every year, millions of cattle die of trypanosomosis. The UN and the International Livestock Research Institute list trypanosomosis among the ten diseases of cattle with the greatest impact on the poor. In Africa the disease is known as "Nagana", which translates literally as "being in low or depressed spirits". The disease is caused by a parasite that enters the animals blood as a result of the bite of the Tsetse fly. Surprisingly, one West-African dwarf cattle breed, the Baoulé, seems less affected by trypanosomosis ...
Laler tsetse ya iku laler raseksa kang asalé saka Afrika, dawa awaké bisa ngant 1,6 cm saka puncuk endhas nganti buntut.[2] Werna awaké manéka warna, antarané soklat enom lan soklat tuwa.[2] Tsetse nduwé antena loro ing pérangan endhasé, saéngga bisa dadi pambédéa karo laler kang padatan. Nalika maur, suwiwi loroné dilempitkanthi tumpuk-tumpukan ing sadhuwuré awaké.[2] Fosil oaling tuwa saka laler jinis iki wis tau tinemu ing Colorado lan sawisé ditliti umuré punjul 30 yuta taun kapungkur, saéngga Tsetse kagolong kéwan purba kang isih ana nganti saiki.[2]. ...
African sleeping sickness is a fatal disease caused by parasitic, single-celled microbes called trypanosomes. The disease gets its name from the terminal stage when the trypanosomes invade the brain and cause the patient to become comatose. In Africa, trypanosomes also infect animals, causing a wasting disease - Nagana - that has devastated livestock production in many regions. Both human and animal trypanosomes are transmitted from host to host by the same bloodsucking tsetse flies. This potentially allows mating and exchange of genes to occur between the human and animal parasites inside the fly, leading to the generation of new strains not previously encountered by either humans or animals. The Bristol team used different coloured fluorescent markers to genetically tag trypanosomes of human or animal origin. These red and green parasite lines were then allowed to mix inside tsetse flies. Any hybrid offspring were easily detected, because they fluoresced both red and green.. Further studies ...
Trypanosome trypomastigotes (Trypanosoma sp.), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). A parasitic hemoflagellated protozoan that causes trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease). This trypanosome is a vector borne parasite transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). The ribbon like flagellated trypomastigote is carried in the insects saliva (and faeces) and enters the human host through a wound made by the fly. This protozoan infects the blood, lymph and spinal fluid and rapidly divides. Upon entering the cerebral spinal fluid the parasite can damage brain tissue causing eventually causing death. Magnification: x1,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0955
Biorealm Genus}} ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa=== Kingdom: Eukaryota Phylum: Euglenozoa Order: Kinetoplastida Family: Trypanosomatidae Genus: Trypanosoma SubGenus: Trypanozoon Species: Trypanosoma brucei ===Species=== Genus: Trypanosoma Species: brucei Sub-species: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma brucei TREU927. ==Description and Significance== The parasitic eukaryote, Trypanosoma brucei, is a heterotrophic species from the Trypanosoma genus. It exists in two forms: an insect vector, and once inside the bloodstream, a mammalian host. T. brucei exists as its insect vector in the tsetse fly, a large, biting fly originating in Africa. Once the tsetse fly bites a mammal, the microbe enters the bloodstream where it transforms into the mammalian host form, and is then capable of mutating and invading the central nervous system, (CNS). Once inside the CNS, it has the ability to ...
Sleeping sickness is caused by trypanosoma brucei which is a flagellated trypomastigote. Tsetse fly is the vector of transmission of the trypanosoma brucei infection. Physical protection is used to avoid bites from tsetse fly.
IN HUMANS it is usually mistaken for malaria whose symptoms are fever, headache and general body weakness while in animals, it reduces productivity through reduced conception and birth rates. Trypanosomiasis is a serious chronic disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa which causes enormous economic losses by severely depressing livestock production and deprives man-hours through increased time spent on seeking medical attention ...
a) Virus. (b) Fungi. (c) both. 2. Nethertons syndrome is associated. (a) Lack of IgE. (b) Lack of SPINK5. (c) Excess IgG. 3. Desensitization therapy involves the. (a) Injection of the IgE antibody. (b) Injection of the serum. (c) Injection of an allergen introduced with minute quantities. 4. The tsetse fly is a vector for. (a) Elephantiasis. (b) Sleeping sickness. (c) Crohns disease. 5. The tsetse fly is predominantly found in which region. (a) Asian region. (b) African region. (c) North American region. 6. The exotoxin encoding diptheria is a. (a) Bacterial virus. (b) Bacteria. (c) None of the above. 7. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an Autoimmune disease resulting in the destruction of insulin producing pancreatic. (a) Alpha cells. (b) Beta cells. (c) Gamma cells. 8. Live attenuated vaccines can revert to pathogenic forms because. (a) The genome of the pathogen in intact. (b) The vulnerability of the cell wall of the pathogen. (c) The markers of the pathogen. 9. Latex allergy is a ...
Genital Stimulation Opens Door For Cryptic Female Choice In Tsetse Flies: By snipping off parts of male genitalia and reducing genital sensation in both male and female tsetse flies, researchers induced a suite of changes in female reproduction, including reduced ovulation, reduced sperm storage and increased re-mating attempts by the females.
Paper In Press by Shaw APM, Torr SJ, Waiswa C, Cecchi G, Wint GRW, Mattioli RC, Robinson TP (2013). Funding for this work was received from several funders including FAOs Pro-poor Livestock Policy Initiative, under a grant from the UKs Department for International Development (GCP/INT/804/UK) and ICONZ (an EC FP7 project). Abstract. Decision-making and financial planning for tsetse control is complex, with a particularly wide range of choices to be made on location, timing, strategy and methods. This paper presents full cost estimates for eliminating or continuously controlling tsetse in a hypothetical area of 10,000 km2 located in south-eastern Uganda. Four tsetse control techniques were analysed: (i) artificial baits (insecticide-treated traps/targets), (ii) insecticide-treated cattle (ITC), (iii) aerial spraying using the sequential aerosol technique (SAT) and (iv) the addition of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to the insecticide-based methods (i-iii).. For the creation of fly-free ...
African trypanosomes are the causative agents of fatal diseases in humans and livestock. Trypanosomes show a complex lifecycle and shuttle between the transmitting vector, the tsetse (Glossina spec.), and the mammalian host. As a result of this the parasite undergoes tremendous changes in morphology and metabolism to adapt to the different living environments. The two best-studied lifecycle stages are the procyclic forms (PCF) that live in the tsetse fly and the proliferative bloodstream form (BSF) that resides in the mammalian blood. The most conspicuous weapon that trypanosomes use to evade the host immune attack is a dense layer of a single protein type, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), which shields the entire cell surface. Immune evasion required high rates of surface membrane turnover and surface coat recycling. Trypanosomes show highly polarised cell architecture with all major eukaryotic organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, endosomal apparatus, lysosome, ...
(1999) Maudlin. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This book provides a comprehensive review of much of the recent literature published about Glossina spp., the vectors of African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma spp., and is of interest to medical and veteri...
Identification record : Swynnertons Robin (Swynnertonia swynnertoni) is a bird which belongs to the family of Muscicapidés and the order of Passeriformes.
This is an alphabetical author-index of published works on sleeping-sickness, the trypanosomiases of man and animals, and the tsetse fly, containing nearly 2,00
African trypanosomiasis is transmitted through the bite of the Tsetse fly and threatens tens of millions of people in sub-Saharan African countries.
Fresh discoveries about the parasite that causes sleeping sickness could lead to new avenues of research into treatments for the disease.. Scientists studying the parasite which is spread by the tsetse fly and infects the blood of people and animals have shed light on how it is able to survive when taken up by a feeding fly.. Sleeping sickness is a potentially fatal condition which affects up to 70,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa, and millions more are at risk from the disease.. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh found that when the parasite is swallowed by a fly, a reaction is triggered in a particular part of the parasites cells. This causes a change in the activity of enzymes stored there, allowing the parasite to rapidly adapt its body to survive in the flys gut.. The part of the parasite cell associated with this response has a corresponding part in human cells. Because of this, researchers say their study could also point towards greater understanding of human genetic ...
Life scientists from UCLA and the University of Bern have identified a key gene in the transmission of African sleeping sickness - a severe disease transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse flies, which are common in sub-Saharan Africa.. The disease is fatal if untreated, as the parasite responsible moves from the bloodstream to the central nervous system. Tens of millions of people in 36 African countries are at risk. There is no vaccine, and conventional drug treatments, which include an arsenic derivative, are antiquated, not very effective and have severe side effects.. The research, published in the journal Nature Communications, could lead to new approaches to treat the disease. It also provides scientists with the first detailed understanding of how the parasite moves through the fly and what genes enable it to do so.. The tiny, single-celled parasite that causes African sleeping sickness in humans, and debilitating diseases in other mammals, is called Trypanosoma brucei, or T. brucei. ...
Whereas most eukaryotes have only one or two genes encoding the kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), Trypanosoma and the related human pathogenic parasite Leishmania have four. TOR forms two functionally distinct complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. Barquilla et al. identified a third TOR complex, TbTORC4, containing the kinase TbTOR4, TbLST8 (a component common to all known TOR complexes), and TbArmtor (T. brucei Armadillo-containing TOR-interacting protein), a protein with an Armadillo domain that is unique to this TOR complex. During the Trypanosoma life cycle, the parasite is transferred from the mammalian host to the tsetse fly, which requires different forms of the parasite. In the mammalian host, bloodborne Trypanosoma differentiate from the slender proliferating form to a cell cycle-arrested "stumpy" form, which can survive and subsequently differentiate into a proliferative form in the insect. Trypanosomes isolated from the bloodstream of infected mice and in which TbTOR4 or TbArmtor was knocked ...
UNC has just received a $22.6 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support a pivotal clinical trial of a promising new oral drug for the treatment of African sleeping sickness. African sleeping sickness, or trypanosomiasis, is a deadly parasitic disease transmitted by tsetse flies. More than 300,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa…
Researchers from Aarhus University have taken an important step in the fight against sleeping sickness, a disease that is a major problem in parts of Africa. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the disease threatens approximately 60 million people and the treatment options are poor.. The deadly disease is caused by a parasite that is transferred to people via the bite of the African tsetse fly. The parasite lives in the bloodstream where it absorbs haemoglobin from human red blood cells. However, if left untreated it can infect the central nervous system and cause a coma-like state. Haemoglobin is important for the parasite as it contains what are known as haem groups, which it cannot produce itself. The researchers have now discovered precisely how the parasite finds this crucial haemoglobin in humans. With the new knowledge it will be possible to develop targeted treatments and fight the disease much more effectively.. The results have recently been published in the scientific ...