A microfluidics assay to study invasion of human placental trophoblast cells.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytogenetic features of human trophoblast cell lines SWAN-71 and 3A-subE. AU - Reiter, Jill. AU - Drendel, Holli M.. AU - Chakraborty, Sujata. AU - Schellinger, Megan M.. AU - Lee, Men Jean. AU - Mor, Gil. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Immortalization of primary cells with telomerase is thought to maintain normal phenotypic properties and avoid chromosomal abnormalities and other cancer-associated changes that occur following simian virus 40 tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) induced immortalization. However, we report that the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized SWAN-71 trophoblast cell line has a near pentaploid 103∼119,XXXX[cp20] karyotype. Additionally, DNA typing analysis indicated that SWAN-71 cells have acquired microsatellite instability. In comparison, the post-crisis SV40-transformed trophoblast cell line 3A-subE was hypertriploid 69∼81,XX[cp20]. Both cell lines contained multiple specific clonal rearrangements. These findings emphasize the need ...
Monoclonal antibodies raised against living, early invasive mouse trophoblast cells were screened on paraffin sections from first- and third-trimester placentas and from hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. Several mouse-human cross-reacting antibodies were recognized, which implies that mouse trophoblast cells can be used as immunogen for producing antibodies against human trophoblast. Among the new antibodies obtained, some were selected for further study. That panel includes a trophoblast specific antibody with capacity to differ between invasive and noninvasive molar tissues, and two antibodies, which detect antigen epitopes in the normal, but not in the neoplastic trophoblast.. ...
In contrast to cattle, there is an abundance of data on human trophoblast proliferation [7] and differentiation [8] or mouse trophoblast development [9, 10]. Cancer research also disclosed an abundance of data on proliferative and invasive properties, thereby providing evidence for molecular circuits shared with human trophoblast cells [7]. Moreover, a special kind of trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placenta - choriocarcinoma type - was used to derive choriocarcinoma cell lines, frequently used to study trophoblast properties (Rcho-1, for example) [11], and to elucidate transcriptional regulation of a bovine trophoblast-specific gene, such as the IFN-tau [12, 13]. Stem cell research also provides molecular data on trophoblast stem cells in mouse and human [14, 15].. In addition to the text mining issue, we addressed here inter-specific differences in proliferation and differentiation, whose molecular bases are likely common over species and cell types. The total number of published ...
During pregnancy, the placenta plays a vital role in protecting the developing fetus from microbial infections. The multinucleated and terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts actively coordinate host defense through a multitude of mechanisms. In addition to forming a cellular barrier, the syncytiotrophoblasts release extracellular vesicles containing microRNAs from the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC). These vesicle-packaged miRNAs, upon uptake by recipient cells, induce autophagy and limit viral infection, acting against a diverse panel of both DNA and RNA viruses. We have shown that medium conditioned by primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells, which contain these vesicles, confers resistance from pathogens associated with congenital infections to recipient non-placental cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that primary human trophoblasts constitutively produce interferon lambda 1 (IFNλ1), leading to a robust induction of interferon stimulated genes in an autocrine and ...
Human cytotrophoblast cells are invasive by virtue of their ability to secrete metalloproteinases (MMP) capable of digesting the extracellular matrix of the endometrium. It is the aim of the present study to determine which of the known MMP is responsible for this invasive behavior and to see to what extent endometrial secretions can modulate this enzymatic activity. Under our experimental conditions, first-trimester cytotrophoblast cells invade matrigel; this invasive behavior is inhibited by phenanthroline (an inhibitor of MMP) and by a polyclonal antibody to the 92-kDa gelatinase but not to other MMP. Since cytotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro secrete the 92-kDa gelatinase, and since adhesion to a substrate increases their gelatinolytic activity, it is believed that cytotrophoblast cells invade their surrounding matrix by binding to it and by increasing their secretion of 92-kDa gelatinase which then digests the collagen type IV of their micro-environment. This process of invasion is controlled by
The trophoblast cell lineage is an interesting model system because it is composed of a limited number of cell types that are spatially patterned. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells reside within a layer called the chorion and either remain as stem cells or differentiate into spongiotrophoblast (SpT), trophoblast giant (TG) cells or syncytiotrophoblast cells (SynT) of the labyrinth. Maintenance of the TS phenotype is dependent on stimulation by FGF4, whereas differentiation and/or maintenance of the differentiated derivatives are dependent on key transcription factors: Mash2 for SpT, Hand1 for TG cells and Gcm1 for SynT cells. TS cells proliferate and retain their stem cell phenotype in culture in response to FGF4 and an additional factor(s) that can be provided by conditioned medium from embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (CM). To understand the functions of Hand1, Mash2 and Gcm1 at a cellular level, we tested the effects of their ectopic and over-expression on the ability of TS cells to either ...
The mammalian placenta consists of different trophoblast cell types that assist in the variety of functions required for the maintenance of pregnancy. In rodents, labyrinthine trophoblasts of the placenta are especially important, because they are capable of differentiating into fused labyrinthine cells, which form the feto-maternal exchange surface. Even though the molecular signals triggering labyrinthine trophoblast differentiation are poorly understood, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to be present in the placental environment and alter trophoblast development. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on the differentiation of the labyrinthine trophoblast stem cell lines SM10 and HRP-1. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that while the molecular expression of labyrinthine-specific lineage markers (Esx1, Tfeb, and Tec) was maintained in TGF-β-treated SM10 and HRP-1 cells, TGF-β induced the down-regulation of trophoblast stem cell markers Id2 and Cdx2. In contrast, TGF-β
Preeclampsia is associated with placental hypoxia at early gestation. We therefore investigated the effect of hypoxia on the apoptosis of cultured first trimester human cytotrophoblasts and the expression of apoptosis relevant proteins, Bcl-2 and Bax. First trimester human cytotrophoblasts were isolated and cultured under either standard or hypoxic conditions. Cellular apoptosis was monitored by TUNEL and Annexin V binding, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis increased significantly in cytotrophoblasts cultured for 24 h under hypoxic conditions in contrast with those cultured under standard conditions, meanwhile expression of Bcl-2 reduced, and that of Bax increased. These changes suggested that hypoxia induced apoptosis in cultured first trimester cytotrophoblasts with altered Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Further study is needed to explore the role of cytotrophoblasts apoptosis in hypoxia-induced maternal and fetal diseases. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. ...
The maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia is thought to result from endothelial cell damage caused by a circulating factor derived from the placenta. This study investigates the hypothesis that trophoblast deportation may be part of the process by which this factor enters the maternal circulation. The nature and incidence of trophoblast deportation was studied in uterine vein and peripheral blood taken from normal and pre-eclamptic women at caesarean section. Trophoblasts were enriched using immunomagnetic beads to deplete leucocytes and labelled with trophoblast-specific monoclonal antibodies. Syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast clumps and anucleate trophoblast cells were found in uterine vein blood. Cytotrophoblast cells were found to be shed less frequently than syncytiotrophoblast and the majority were probably villous in origin. Trophoblasts were found in the uterine vein blood of normal pregnant women with higher levels in pre-eclampsia. However, trophoblasts were rarely found in
A monoclonal antibody GB25 which was raised against placental syncytiotrophoblast reacted specifically with villous trophoblasts. It recognized syncytiotrophoblast, villous cytotrophoblasts of the first-trimester placentae, and a majority of the cytotrophoblasts in the chorion laeve, but not the residual cells of cytotrophoblastic shell in the basal plates and the cells in the cytotrophoblastic columns. This antibody will be useful for isolating and differentiating villous from extravillous cytotrophoblasts in the first-trimester placentae.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of congenital infection and birth defects. Primary maternal infection often results in virus transmission, and symptomatic babies can have permanent neurological deficiencies and deafness. Congenital infection can also lead to intrauterine growth restriction, a defect in placental transport. HCMV replicates in primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), the specialized cells of the placenta, and inhibits differentiation/invasion. Human trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs) give rise to the mature cell types of the chorionic villi, CTBs and multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs). Here we report that TBPCs are fully permissive for pathogenic and attenuated HCMV strains. Studies with a mutant virus lacking a functional pentamer complex (gH/gL/pUL128-131A) showed that virion entry into TBPCs is independent of the pentamer. In addition, infection is blocked by a potent human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), TRL345, reactive with glycoprotein B (gB), but
To our knowledge, this is the first description of a biological effect of FSS on human syncytiotrophoblasts. On the basis of a previous study,16 we applied a laminar continuous FSS of 1 dyn cm−2. Our main result is that expression and secretion of PlGF by human syncytiotrophoblasts are significantly increased in fluid flow that mimics physiological conditions compared with static conditions. Human PlGF is essentially expressed in the placenta,26 more precisely in the syncytiotrophoblast.1 PlGF is a potent stimulator of placental angiogenesis.3,27 These new data provide 1 mechanism by which biomechanical forces induced by maternal blood flow, that is FSS, could modulate the angiogenic potential of the syncytiotrophoblast. Vascular functions are controlled by biochemical mediators and the autonomic nervous system. It is although well established that the biomechanical forces generated by blood flow and blood pressure regulate vascular functions. Endothelial cells responses to shear stress play a ...
One of the long term goals of our research is to determine why the maternal immune system does not reject the genetically disparate fetus during pregnancy. Our studies are focused primarily on the immunoregulatory properties of trophoblast cells, which are the first cells to differentiate from the embryo, and ultimately form the fetal component of the placenta. Trophoblast cells are the only cells derived from the blastocyst that are in direct contact with maternal blood, and therefore play an essential role in protecting the fetus from attack from the maternal immune system. Trophoblast cells are relatively unique in that they do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, either constitutively, or after exposure to IFN-gamma. The absence of MHC class II antigen expression on trophoblast cells is thought to be critical for prevention of deleterious maternal immune responses against the fetus. Thus, successful reproduction of mammals may require that MHC class II gene ...
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are in vitro equivalents to the precursor cells of the placenta. TSCs are cultured in serum-rich medium with fibroblast growth factor 4, heparin, and embryonic-fibroblast-conditioned medium. Here, we developed a simple
Trophoblast adhesion to the uterine wall is the requisite first step of implantation and, subsequently, placentation. At the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated the expression of selectin adhesion systems that enable leukocyte capture from the bloodstream. On the maternal side, human uterine epithelial cells up-regulated selectin oligosaccharide-based ligands during the window of receptivity. On the fetal side, human trophoblasts expressed L-selectin. This ligand-receptor system was functional, because beads coated with the selectin ligand 6-sulfo sLex bound to trophoblasts, and trophoblasts bound to ligand-expressing uterine luminal epithelium in tissue sections. These results suggest that trophoblast L-selectin mediates interactions with the uterus and that this adhesion mechanism may be critical to establishing human pregnancy. ...
Term cytotrophoblast do not express polymorphic MHC Class I antigens, unlike other fetal and maternal cells in the amniochorion/decidua. This allows cytotrophoblast to be isolated and purified from this tissue, utilizing 4E, a monoclonal antibody specific for HLA-B, which labels only non-trophoblast. We have developed a method using enzymic dispersion and Percoll gradient centrifugation, followed by flow cytometry, that yields, on average, a total of 5 X 10(6) term extravillous cytotrophoblast, 97 per cent pure. The availability of highly purified extravillous cytotrophoblast, for the first time, permits precise investigation of trophoblast function.
Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg. This layer of trophoblasts is also collectively referred to as "the trophoblast", or, after gastrulation, the trophectoderm, as it is then contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo. The trophoblast proliferates and differentiates into 2 cell layers at approximately 6 days after fertilization for humans: Trophoblasts are specialized cells of the placenta that play an important role in embryo implantation and interaction with the decidualised maternal uterus. The core of placental villi contain mesenchymal cells and placental blood vessels that are directly connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical cord. This core is surrounded by two layers of trophoblast; a single ...
Figure 5. CDX2 transactivates miR-290 cluster, cyclin D1 promoter in trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and miR-322 cluster members directly inhibit CDX2.. (A, B) ChIP analyses revealed direct binding of CDX2 in miR-290 cluster (A) and cyclin D1 (B) promoter regions. BS indicates binding site. (C, D) Real-time PCR analysis of Cyclin D1 (C) and Western blot analysis of CYCLIN D1 (D) in CDX2 knocked down TS cells. Shown in the following is the NIH imageJ analysis of Western blot. (E) TaqMan assays of miR-290 cluster members in Cdx2 knocked down TS cells. (F) TaqMan assays of miR-290 cluster members in CDX2 overexpressed TS cells. (G) Relative luciferase assay showing the repressive effect of miR-322/503/542 mimic on wild-type Cdx2-3′-UTR. (H, I, J) Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Cdx2 (H) and Western blot analysis of CDX2. (I) in TS cells transfected with mimic or inhibitor of miR-322 cluster members. Quantification of protein expression using NIH imageJ analysis of the Western blot. (J) Data ...
Hemochorial placentation, with placental villi bathing in maternal blood, entails direct contact of circulating maternal leukocytes with the fetal trophoblast, ,nobr,i. e.,/nobr, the syncytiotrophoblast, which covers all placental villous trees as well as parts of the inner surfaces of chorionic and basal plates (1). This way, placenta-derived factors, such as hormones and cytokines predominantly released by the syncytio-trophoblast, may influence circulating maternal blood cells and vice versa factors from maternal leukocytes may regulate villous trophoblast functions. Thus, a combination of modulating signals and responses between maternal circulating blood cells and the placental trophoblast may dynamically be adjusted over gestation for an overall cooperative microenvironment in the intervillous space. Alterations in this cooperative microenvironment may occur very early in pregnancy and is suggested to program early placenta functions and growth long before any phenotypic changes become ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that trophoblast produces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and its level is elevated in trophoblast from preeclamptic women compared with normal. We also used selective enzymatic inhibitors to determine the relativ
The question we are addressing is: how does the maternal immune system regulate placentation in humans? Our view of the fetal allograft is one of cooperation between mother and fetus. We focus on how the dominant population of uterine leukocytes, Natural Killer (NK) cells, that have receptors for HLA class I ligands on fetal trophoblast cells, regulate trophoblast function.. We work in close collaboration with Dr Francesco Colucci in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. The main areas of current research are:. 1) Interactions between maternal Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) and fetal HLA-C molecules. Because both KIR and HLA-C genes are highly polymorphic, each pregnancy is likely to be different. Our genetic and functional studies in Europeans and Africans show certain KIR/HLA-C genetic combinations are associated with extremes of the normal birth weight distribution.. 2) Culture of human trophoblast cells. Studies on pregnancy disorders are limited because trophoblast ...
Cell-cell fusion and cell invasion are essential for placental development. Human cytotrophoblasts in the chorionic villi may undergo cell-cell fusion to form syncytiotrophoblasts to facilitate nutrient-gas exchange or differentiate into extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to facilitate maternal-fetal circulation. The placental transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) regulates syncytin-1 and -2 expression to mediate trophoblast fusion. Interestingly, GCM1 and syncytin-1 are also expressed in EVTs with unknown physiological functions. In this study, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-chip) analysis and identified the gene for high-temperature requirement protein A4 (HtrA4) as a GCM1 target gene, which encodes a serine protease facilitating cleavage of fibronectin and invasion of placental cells. Importantly, HtrA4 is immunolocalized in EVTs at the maternal-fetal interface, and its expression is decreased by hypoxia and in preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication associated with
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The vertical transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV -1) is defined as the transmission of the virus from infected mother to fetus. In order to infect the fetal blood supply in utero, the virus must pass through the placenta. The virus collects in the placental trophoblast, and only certain strains are able to pass from that point into the fetal blood supply, because the placental trophoblast is not a strong host for HIV replication. This report analyzes transcription factors present in placental trophoblast which may be critically important to HIV replication in trophoblast. This is done through the use of a set of 27 linker-scanning mutants created by Dr. Steven L. Zeichner in Philadelphia. These mutants replace 18 bp at a time in subsequent order along the U3 and R regions of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). The U3 and R regions of the LTR are primarily regions of viral transcriptional control. By transfecting the mutated LTRs into human placental trophoblasts, it ...
Differentiation of human placental mononuclear trophoblasts into a multinucleate syncytium involves up-regulation of key proteins promoting cell fusion and increased capacity for placental hormonogenesis. It is well established that the activation of adenylyl cyclase leads to increased expression of trophoblast fusogenic gene machinery and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion. We used the forskolin-induced syncytialisation of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells as a model to characterise in detail the signalling pathway downstream of adenylyl cyclase. Forskolin treatment induced a rapid and potent ERK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation; this cascade required PKA-AKAP interactions and led to downstream CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation via ERK1/2-dependent but p38MAPK-independent mechanisms. Interestingly both p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were involved in forskolin-induced hCG-secretion, suggesting the presence of additional p38MAPK-dependent but CREB-1/ATF-1-independent pathways. Forskolin treatment of BeWo cells ...
The cytotrophoblast (or layer of Langhans) is the inner layer of the trophoblast. It is interior to the syncytiotrophoblast and external to the wall of the blastocyst in a developing embryo. The cytotrophoblast is considered to be the trophoblastic stem cell because the layer surrounding the blastocyst remains while daughter cells differentiate and proliferate to function in multiple roles. There are two lineages that cytotrophoblastic cells may differentiate through: fusion and invasive. The fusion lineage yields syncytiotrophoblast and the invasive lineage yields interstitial cytotrophoblast cells. Cytotrophoblastic cells play an important role in the implantation of a newly fertilized egg in the uterus. The formation of all syncytiotrophoblast is from the fusion of two or more cytotrophoblasts via this fusion pathway. This pathway is important because the syncytiotrophoblast plays an important role in fetal-maternal gas exchange, nutrient exchange, and immunological and metabolic functions. ...
http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/1/102.full.pdf is one discussion but there are hundreds if you search strings like "trophoblast spiral artery first trimester". It starts Remodeling of the uterine arteries is a key event in early pregnancy. In the first trimester of pregnancy, a subpopulation of fetal trophoblast cells, the extravillous trophoblast, invade the uterine wall (interstitial invasion) and its blood vessels (endovascular invasion) as far as the myometrial segments. In the uterine spiral arteries, the trophoblasts interdigitate between the endothelial cells (ECs), replacing the endothelial lining and most of the musculoelastic tissue in the vessel walls. This creates a high-flow, low-resistance circulation that increases maternal blood flow to the placental villi at the maternalâ€"fetal interface... Defective remodeling of the spiral arteries is associated with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and is proposed to lead to an ...
Intermediate filaments support a cell by attaching to desmosomes, cell-cell adhesion junctions at the cell membrane. Desmoplakin is not only required to attach filaments to the desmosome but it also maintains desmosomal stability (Gallicano et al., 1998). Desmoplakin mutants die at E6.5 because unstable desmosomes lead to a loss of integrity within extra-embryonic tissues (Gallicano et al., 2001; Gallicano et al., 1998). Normal localization of desmoplakin at the desmosome within K18-/-;K19-/- trophoblast cells (Hesse et al., 2000) suggests that, in the absence of keratin filaments, desmosomes remain relatively stable. By contrast, Mrj-deficient chorionic trophoblast cells showed a significant reduction of desmoplakin expression. As a result, desmosomes in Mrj-/- trophoblast cells may be unstable, resulting in disrupted chorionic organization. This implies further that keratin inclusion bodies disrupt cell function independently of keratin deficiency. Presumably, the reduction of K18 expression ...
The observed gap times cannot be naively treated as clustered survival data in analysis because of the sequential structure of recurrent events. Glial cells were labeled and their number increases throughout postembryonic life with a pattern of proliferation similar to the pattern of mitotic activity of the undifferentiated cells. Studies accounting for the polymicrobial nature of CF respiratory disease and the heterogeneity of P.. Oestrogen-like effects of tamoxifen on the concentration of proteins generic cialis in plasma. Histological examination of the sural nerve showed the presence of numerous segmental axonal swellings and features of demyelination as well as remyelination. Removal of RF had little or no effect on the reaction of the IgM fraction of sera with CMV by the indirect hemagglutination test.. Despite improved pharmacological therapy, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases are still not fully understood. Preventing and managing infections in ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jung-Chien Cheng, Hsun-Ming Chang, Lanlan Fang, Ying-Pu Sun, Peter C K Leung].
Regulation of placental trophoblast cell function by combinatorial signaling. Expression of the glycoprotein hormone a subunit gene is restricted to pituitary gonadotropes and placental trophoblast cells. Trophoblast production of chorionic gonadotropin (CG; consisting of the a subunit and separate bsubunits) is required for the maintenance of early pregnancy in non-human primates and women. Distinct elements within the a subunit promoter are required for placental-specific expression and includes dual cAMP responsive elements (CRE) that serve a twofold function; elements necessary to mediate activation by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The combined action of the PKA and EGF pathways results in a remarkable synergistic activation of the a subunit gene in choriocarcinoma cells. The synergistic activation of the a subunit gene absolutely requires activation of MAPK pathways by EGF; however, MAPK activation alone is not sufficient to regulate the a ...
hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free beta and hyperglycosylated free beta are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines, that act by antagonizing a TGF beta receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies. The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human
hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free beta and hyperglycosylated free beta are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines, that act by antagonizing a TGF beta receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies. The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human
In the present study, a detailed temporal and spatial placental expression map was generated for all murine PRL/PL family members from E7.5 to E18.5 of gestation in three genetic strains. This detailed analysis uncovered several new markers for some trophoblast cell types that will be useful for future analysis of placental structure in mutant mice with placental phenotypes. Moreover, several important conclusions about regulation of the locus are apparent. First, no two family members have the same expression pattern even when complete temporal and spatial data are examined. Second, most genes are expressed in multiple trophoblast cell subtypes though none were detected in the chorion, where trophoblast stem cells reside, or in syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinth layer. Third, bioinformatic comparisons of upstream regulatory regions identified predicted transcription factor binding site modules that are shared by genes expressed in the same trophoblast subtype. Fourth, further diversification ...
Expression of H/358 in Cultured Placental Cell Lines The HRP/LRP trophoblast stem cells provide an important source of labyrinthine trophoblast cell precursors from which to obtain additional information about placental cell lineages. We therefore determined whether cell lines isolated from the labyrinthine placenta (HRP/LRP) and postulated to contain trophoblast stem cells expressed Hp58. The amount […] ...
BACKGROUND:Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited. Due to ethical constraints and the inaccessibility of very early implantation tissues, our knowledge of early placentation has been largely based on historical histological sections. More recently, stem cell technologies have begun to shed important new light on the origins of the placental mesenchymal lineages. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE:This review aims to amalgamate the older and more modern literature regarding the origins of the non-trophoblast lineages of the human placenta. We highlight ways in ...
Maternofetal transfer of nutrients such as glucose and amino acids is mostly determined by the activity of specific transporter proteins expressed in the placental syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes. Glucose transport from the mother to the fetus seems to be influenced by the maternal blood glucose concentration across the placenta and is mediated by members of the facilitative glucose transporters (Baumann et al., 2002), although evidence for SLGT1-mediated Na+-coupled transport in the syncytiotrophoblast has also been provided (Kevorkova et al., 2007). The maternofetal transfer of most amino acids is dependent on the coupling of secondary active amino acid transporters localized in the microvillous apical membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast (in direct contact with the maternal blood) and facilitative transporters present in the basal membrane (facing the fetal circulation) (Grillo et al., 2008). This model of nutrient vectorial flux is to some extent similar to the one described for ...
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Figure 5D displays the expression of TH transporters and deiodinase mRNA levels in the rat placental trophoblast cells acquired by LCM. Oatp1c1 mRNA of the
Pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), preterm labor affect a considerable number of pregnancies and account for significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology has not been clearly defined, the common phenomenon observed between these diseases is abnormal development and function of the placenta. In complicated pregnancies such as preeclampsia or IUGR, a greater incidence of trophoblast apoptosis has been observed, suggesting that alterations in the regulation of trophoblast apoptosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. We evaluate morphogenetic alterations of placenta and apoptosis of trophoblast into placenta of pregnancies with preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction and controls. Trophoblasts apoptosis into placenta was quantified evaluating bcl-2 apoptosis marker. Placentals morphogenetic alterations was evaluated with HGF/c-met/STAT3 cascade. Placental ischemia is thought to develop as a ...
The distribution of mRNAs and antigens of tissue type (t) and urokinase type (u) plasminogen activators (PA) plus their corresponding inhibitors, type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) were studied in human and rhesus monkey placentae by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry. Specific monkey cRNA and antibodies against human tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 were used as probes. The following results were obtained. (1) All the molecules tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 and their mRNAs were identified in the majority of the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of the decidual layer between Rohrs and Nitabuchs striae and in cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic plate, basal plate, intercotyledonary septae and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic villous tree. (2) Expression of uPA and PAI-2 was noted in villous trophoblast whereas tPA and PAI-1 were mainly concentrated where detachment from maternal tissue occurs. (3) No expression of tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 was observed in the basal plate endometrial ...
Neither parthenogenetic (PG) nor androgenetic (AG) mouse embryos survive after day 9.5 of pregnancy, owing to the inadequate growth of extraembryonic tissues, including the placenta. At day 9.5 of pregnancy, the placental structures are poorly developed in PG embryos, while trophoblast giant cells a …
Trophoblasts are invasive, eroding, and metastasizing cells of the placenta. Trophoblasts mediate the implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, but they are never incorporated into the mothers body or the fetus. They are not "fetal" cells. Trophoblasts become inert during pregnancy and are completely rejected by the fetus and mother at delivery. They can be seen as the thin membrane covering the fetus at birth, the caul.[1] ...
For successful establishment of the placenta, fetal trophoblast cells need to infiltrate the decidua and transform spiral arteries in the first few weeks of pregnancy. As a result, the fetus receives sufficient oxygen and nutrients for normal growth and development. This invasion must be balanced, so that excessive trophoblast penetration of the uterus does not occur (which would endanger the mother), or so that arterial transformation is not defective (which would starve the feto-placental unit). Our findings suggest that the immune system plays a part in defining this maternal-fetal boundary. The different experimental approaches we used all indicate that interactions of maternal KIRs with trophoblast HLA-C molecules influence placentation. Using the mAb WK4C11, we show that trophoblast cells strongly express both parental HLA-C allotypes. At the site of placentation, these fetal cells mingle with maternal NK cells expressing activating (2DS1) and inhibitory (2DL1) KIRs. Fresh uNK cells do not ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be induced to differentiate to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and by aggregation to form embryoid bodies (EB), but there are many differences and controversies regarding the nature of the differentiated cells. Our goals herein were to determine if BG02 cells form trophoblast-like cells (a) in the presence of BMP4-plus-basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and (b) upon EB formation, and (c) whether the BMP4 antagonist noggin elicits direct effects on gene expression and hormone production in the cells. Transcriptome profiling of hESC incubated with BMP4/FGF-2 showed a down-regulation of pluripotency-associated genes, an up-regulation of trophoblast-associated genes, and either a down-regulation or no change in gene expression for many markers of the three embryonic germ layers. Yet, there was up-regulation of several genes associated with mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm, strongly suggesting that differentiation to trophoblast-like cells under the
Results: We found that normal placental growth occurs not just by hyperplasia, but also through extensive polyploidy and cell hypertrophy, unique to each trophoblast subtype. In response to feeding a low protein diet, this normal program was altered, and influenced by the sex of the conceptus. Male fetuses showed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at E18.5, just before term, whereas female fetuses showed IUGR at E16.5. This difference was correlated with the size of the labyrinth layer of the placenta. Functional changes were implied based on up-regulation of nutrient transporter genes. The junctional zone was also affected, with a reduction in both glycogen trophoblast and spongiotrophoblast cells, and increased expression of Phlda2 and reduced expression of Egfr. Polyploidy, which results from endoreduplication, is a normal feature of trophoblast giant cells (TGC) but also spongiotrophoblast cells. Ploidy was increased in sinusoidal-TGCs and spongiotrophoblast cells, but not parietal-TGCs, ...
Accumulating evidence has shown that preeclampsia (PE) was associated with an aberrant maternal-fetal inflammatory response. In the present study, we first found that in human PE placentas levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly upregulated. Next, we demonstrated a notable increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and proteinuria in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated pregnant rats and concomitant high levels of TLR4 and p-p38 in these PE-like rat placentas, which led to aberrant overexpression of both IL-6 and MCP-1, as well as deficient trophoblast invasion and spiral artery (SA) remodeling, and these abnormalities were ameliorated by SB203580, a reported inhibitor of p38. In vitro we further confirmed that LPS triggered the activation of TLR4/p38 signaling pathway, which promoted trophoblast apoptosis and damaged trophoblastic invasion via downstream effectors IL-6 and MCP-1;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decidual endothelial cells express surface-bound C1q as a molecular bridge between endovascular trophoblast and decidual endothelium. AU - Tripodo, Claudio. AU - Agostinis, Chiara. AU - Rizzi, Lucia. AU - Tedesco, Francesco. AU - Radillo, Oriano. AU - De Seta, Francesco. AU - Ghebrehiwet, Berhane. AU - Bossi, Fleur. AU - Bulla, Roberta. AU - Debeus, Alessandra. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This study was prompted by the observation that decidual endothelial cells (DECs), unlike endothelial cells (ECs) of blood vessels in normal skin, kidney glomeruli and brain, express surface-bound C1q in physiologic pregnancy. This finding was unexpected, because deposits of C1q are usually observed in pathologic conditions and are associated with complement activation. In the case of DECs, we failed to detect immunoglobulins and C4 co-localized with C1q on the cell surface. Surprisingly, DECs expressed mRNA for the three chains of C1q and secreted detectable level of this component in serum-free ...
Professor Graham Burton. The role of the endometrial glands during human early pregnancy has largely been ignored once implantation is complete. However, we have recently demonstrated that the glands are an important source of nutrients for the conceptus during the first trimester. The glandular secretions also contain a rich mix of growth factors and cytokines, and so play a role in regulating early placental development, modulating trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. In other species, such as the sheep and rabbit, there is good evidence that the secretions are essential for promoting growth of the conceptus. It is also known that in these species signals from the conceptus increase the production of glandular secretions to meet its demands. Our interests now are to identify how endometrial gland secretions are regulated in human early pregnancy, their composition, and their effects on trophoblast behaviour. The project may tackle one or more of these topics depending on the ...