TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of a Y-chromosomal complement in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. AU - Yap, Kai Lee. AU - Hafez, Michael J.. AU - Mao, Tsui Lien. AU - Kurman, Robert J. AU - Murphy, Kathleen M.. AU - Shih, Ie Ming. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs) are a rare group of neoplastic diseases composed of choriocarcinomas, placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs). Since these tumors are derivatives of fetal trophoblastic tissue, approximately 50% of GTN cases are expected to originate from a male conceptus and carry a Y-chromosomal complement according to a balanced sex ratio. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a comprehensive analysis by genotyping a relatively large sample size of 51 GTN cases using three independent sex chromosome genetic markers; Amelogenin, Protein Kinase and Zinc Finger have X and Y homologues that are distinguishable by their PCR product size. We found ...
Trophoblastic neoplasms are neoplasms which derive from trophoblastic tissue. Examples include: choriocarcinoma hydatidiform mole Gestational trophoblastic ...
Gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTN) is a group of malignant tumors derived from placental trophoblastic cells, most of which occur in women of reproductive age. The survival rate of patients with score of 7 or more points, or WHO Ⅳ period for high-risk patients was of 60% to 80%. However, due to severe toxic reactions, long treatment time, loss of optimal reproductive age and increased costs, and treatment failure caused by chemotherapy resistance, high-risk GTN is still one of the tumors seriously affecting the life health and quality of life of young women.. First-line chemotherapy recommended by FIGO is regimen of EMA - CO with corresponding side effects and adverse factors in the following aspects as relatively higer incidence of myelosupression, VP - 16 being associated with a second tumor, especially leukemia, and a definite effect of cyclophosphamide on the failure ovarian function Taxol (Taxol) is the most widely used and most effective broad-spectrum anti-tumor drug in gynecological ...
A rare disease in which cancer cells grow in the tissues that are formed following conception (the joining of sperm and egg). There are two types of gestational trophoblastic cancer hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma.
It is useful to consider the treatment of trophoblastic tumours against the background of the major studies of their pathology by Park and Lees [19], Park [20], and Oberet al. [18]. The therapeutic...
A drug used to treat breast cancer and choriocarcinoma (a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor) that have not gotten better with other treatment. It is also used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, mycosis fungoides, and testicular cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vinblastine sulfate blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. The brand name Velban has been taken off the market and is no longer available ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone family and is composed of two non-covalently associated subunits a and b. In urine, b-core fragment is also found. The determination of hCG in blood or urine is the main method for diagnosis of pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders and enables the diagnosis of Downs syndrome in the fetus. HCG is also highly useful marker for placental and testicular trophoblastic tumours and some non-tropohoblastic tumors, too.. ...
Talk Page}} ==2019== Trophoblastic neoplasms Trophoblastic neoplasms, benign XH8CX2 Hydatidiform mole, NOS XH5325 Partial hydatidiform mole Trophoblastic neoplasms, malignant XH3WM1 Choriocarcinoma combined with other germ cell elements XH0774 Malignant teratoma, trophoblastic XH8PK7 Choriocarcinoma, NOS XH8FW3 Trophoblastic tumour, epithelioid Trophoblastic neoplasms, uncertain whether benign or malignant XH46G2 Invasive hydatidiform mole XH1RM5 Placental site trophoblastic tumour ==2018== ===Causative Mutations and Mechanism of Androgenetic Hydatidiform Moles=== Am J Hum Genet. 2018 Nov 1;103(5):740-751. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.10.007. Nguyen NMP1, Ge ZJ1, Reddy R1, Fahiminiya S2, Sauthier P3, Bagga R4, Sahin FI5, Mahadevan S6, Osmond M2, Breguet M3, Rahimi K7, Lapensee L8, Hovanes K9, Srinivasan R10, Van den Veyver IB6, Sahoo T9, Ao A11, Majewski J2, Taketo T12, Slim R13. Author information Abstract Androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles are human pregnancies with no embryos and affect 1 ...
Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE IN HUMAN TROPHOBLAST AND GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE submitted by Feng Hui-Chen for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong in August 2004 Trophoblast in normal placenta is pseudo-malignant in nature. Neoplastic transformation of trophoblast leads to gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Choriocarcinoma (CCA) and hydatidiform mole (HM) are major types of GTD. Generally GTD shows varying potential for local invasion and metastasis, but responds well to chemotherapy. The major problem in the treatment of GTD is the delay of chemotherapy particularly in highly malignant cases. Identification of predictive molecular markers may improve the early diagnosis for malignant GTD. In this study, both trophoblastic cell lines and clinical tissues were used in the examination of differentially expressed genes using various approaches. Their gene expression profiles were used in the identification of ...
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception. In gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a tumor develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of...
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumours. These tumours are rare, and they appear when cells in the womb start to proliferate uncontrollably. The cells that form gestational trophoblastic tumours are called trophoblasts and come from tissue that grows to form the placenta during pregnancy. There are several different types of GTD. Hydatidiform moles are benign in most cases, but sometimes may develop into invasive moles, or, in rare cases, into choriocarcinoma, which is likely to spread quickly, but which is very sensitive to chemotherapy, and has a very good prognosis. Gestational trophoblasts are of particular interest to cell biologists because, like cancer, these cells invade tissue (the uterus), but unlike cancer, they sometimes "know" when to stop.[citation needed] GTD can simulate pregnancy, because the uterus may contain fetal tissue, albeit abnormal. This tissue may grow at the same rate as a normal pregnancy, and produces chorionic ...
Risk factors for gestational trophoblastic disease include maternal age, previous molar pregnancy and history of miscarriage. Learn about GTD risk.
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a broad term encompassing both benign and malignant growths arising from products of conception in the uterus.[1] Incidence and Mortality The reported incidence of GTD varies widely worldwide, from a low of 23 per 100,000 pregnancies (Paraguay) to a high of 1,299 per 100,000...
Treatments for gestational trophoblastic disease include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Learn about treatment plans and options for GTD.
In case of symptoms or an abnormal screening test, more testing can help find out if its cancer. Learn about gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis tests here.
If you or your loved one has been diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic disease, Memorial Sloan Kettering is ready to help. Find a doctor or clinical trial, and learn about our approach to treatment.
For gestational trophoblastic disease that have not spread to distant sites, surgery is usually the primary or first treatment. Learn about other treatment options here.
Researchers from The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions have used short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping and p57 immunohistochemistry to distinguish hydatidiform moles. The related report by Murphy et al "Molecular Genotyping of Hydatidiform Moles: Analytic Validation of a Multiplex Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Assay," appears in the November 2009 issue of The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.. Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a fertilized but non-viable egg implants in the uterus, resulting in a hydatidiform mole. Hydatidiform moles, which occur in one in every 1000 pregnancies in the United States, increase the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and choriocarcinoma, a malignant, rapidly-growing, and metastatic form of cancer. Molar pregnancies can have either partial or complete hydatidiform moles. Complete hydatidiform moles (CHMs) arise when an empty egg with no nucleus is fertilized by a normal sperm, and partial hydatidiform moles (PHMs) arise ...
Goldstein DP, Berkowitz RS. Gestational trophoblastic disease. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG, eds. AbeloffsClinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 94.. McGee J, Covens A. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatidiform mole, nonmetastatic and metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor: diagnosis and management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 35.. Braunstein GD. Endocrine changes in pregnancy. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 21. ...
Gestation trophoblastic disease is a rare condition that arises out of an abnormal pregnancy in which a tumor develops in the cells and tissue that form the placenta, preventing the embryo from developing normally. If benign, the tumor is generally called a molar pregnancy. In rare cases, the tumor develops into a malignancy that can invade the walls of the uterus or other organs. Dr. Sean S Tedjarati and his team treat this condition using a dilatation and curettage, which removes affected cells from the uterine walls. In some cases of persistent disease, chemotherapy or additional surgery may be required, all provided under the careful guidance of our experienced specialists. ...
in Acta Clinica Belgica (2013), 68(6), 465. Introduction: Beyond pregnancy, persistent low levels of hCG may be associated with various benign and malignant conditions, i.e. quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease (QTD), raised pituitary hCG or ... [more ▼]. Introduction: Beyond pregnancy, persistent low levels of hCG may be associated with various benign and malignant conditions, i.e. quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease (QTD), raised pituitary hCG or false positive elevation caused by circulating heterophilic antibodies. This situation requires a clinico-biological approach in order to avoid misunderstandings that could lead to inappropriate diagnostic or therapeutic attitudes. Observation: A 23 years old woman (GOPO status) consulted his gynaecologist because of persistent abdominal pain. She was diagnosed of having trophoblastic disease on the basis of persistently positive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test (Roche Modular) results, in the absence of pregnancy. Persistent ...
in Acta Clinica Belgica (2013), 68(6), 465. Introduction: Beyond pregnancy, persistent low levels of hCG may be associated with various benign and malignant conditions, i.e. quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease (QTD), raised pituitary hCG or ... [more ▼]. Introduction: Beyond pregnancy, persistent low levels of hCG may be associated with various benign and malignant conditions, i.e. quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease (QTD), raised pituitary hCG or false positive elevation caused by circulating heterophilic antibodies. This situation requires a clinico-biological approach in order to avoid misunderstandings that could lead to inappropriate diagnostic or therapeutic attitudes. Observation: A 23 years old woman (GOPO status) consulted his gynaecologist because of persistent abdominal pain. She was diagnosed of having trophoblastic disease on the basis of persistently positive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test (Roche Modular) results, in the absence of pregnancy. Persistent ...
In a complete mole there is no fetal tissue. The macroscopic appearance is of multiple villi with central cavitation, giving a grape like appearance. Microscopically, there is central necrosis within atypical trophoblast.. ...
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Cancer Therapy Advisor provides obsteticians and gynecologists with the latest information to correctly diagnose obgyn conditions, recommend procedures and guides. Visit often for updates and new information.
Cancer Therapy Advisor provides obsteticians and gynecologists with the latest information to correctly diagnose obgyn conditions, recommend procedures and guides. Visit often for updates and new information.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To test the hypothesis that treatment with multi-day methotrexate is inferior to treatment with pulse actinomycin-D (dactinomycin) in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease with respect to complete response.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To describe the frequency of post protocol surgical treatment for each arm. II. To describe the frequency of post protocol multi-agent chemotherapy treatment for each arm.. III. To compare multi-day methotrexate to actinomycin-D with respect to frequency and severity of adverse events in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.. IV. To investigate the impact of treatment on overall quality-of-life (QOL) and explore the influence of treatment on issues such as body image, sexual functioning, and patient-reported side effects and disruption.. V. To assess whether uterine artery pulsatility index (UAPI) can provide independent prognostic information predictive of single-drug resistance.. OUTLINE: Patients ...
Hustin, J. ; Foidart, JM. ; Philippe, E.. Distribution of Collagen-i and Collagen-iii and of Laminin in Trophoblastic Disease.In: Placenta, Vol. 7, no. 5, p. 465-465 (1986 ...
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes several rare tumors that occur in the uterus and start in the cells that form the placenta during pregnancy. In 6th century, Aetius of Amida, a physician at Justinians court came up with the term hydatid. Next mention of mole is from 1276 when Margaret, Countess of Henneberg, delivered approximately 300 babies on Good Friday (the Friday before Easter Sunday). In 1827, Marie Anne Victoire Boivin, a Parisian midwife, proposed her findings of this condition in Nouvelles Recherches de la Mole Visiculaire (News Searches of the Vesicular Mole). In 1840, William Wilton reported a case of invasive mole that was complicated by uterine perforation and fatal internal hemorrhage. In 1867, Richard von Volkmann, a German surgeon, also described a lesion resembling an invasive mole. In 1877, Hans Chiari, an Austrian pathologist, reported three cases of choriocarcinoma. He recognized the tumors as epithelial. In 1888, Max Sanger, a German obstetrician, ...
RNA sequencing of cDNA libraries reveals biomarker potential and limitations. Comprehensive profiling of circulating microRNA via small. Some studies have found, in nonpregnant women, most compatible with complete molar pregnancy. Thyroid disease in pregnancy. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. The incidence of molar pregnancy in women older than 45 years was found. Marker for tumor activity in the nonpregnant. Easily share your publications and get. Gestational trophoblastic tumors. ...
Uterine enlargement can occur in a number of situations from both diffuse and focal processes. These include: gestation related events normal intrauterine pregnancy molar pregnancy - gestational trophoblastic disease postpartum uterus - sti...
hCG is a sialoglycoprotein hormone with a molecular weight of about 36.5 kDa. hCG, together with LH, FSH and TSH, forms the glycoprotein hormone family, all of which are heterodimers that share a common 92 amino acid α--subunit. The distinct β-subunit confers biological activity and only the intact αβ-heterodimer of hCG can stimulate sex steroid production through the LH/hCG G-protein-coupled receptor. hCG is secreted by the trophoblastic placental cells and a variety of tumours. However, tiny amounts are also produced by the pituitary. hCG exists not only as the intact heterodimer but also as free subunits and an array of molecular variants that are recognised by different hCG assays to a variable degree. The rapid hCG tumour marker assay we provide is a total hCG assay that recognises all forms for which WHO protein standards have been formulated, and is used for the management of germ cell tumour (GCT) and gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The rapid tumour marker assay is the ...
Belongs to a class of drugs known as podophyllotoxin derivatives; it slows or stops the growth of cancer cells in the body. Used to treat testicular cancer, lung cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphomas, mycosis fungoides, Hodgkins disease, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, Kaposis sarcoma, gestational trophoblastic tumors, ovarian germ-cell tumors, hepatoma, Ewings sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, brain tumors, and refractory advanced breast cancer. High doses of etoposide along with other chemotherapy drugs have been used with autologous bone marrow transplant for refractory advanced malignant neoplasms. Drug can also be used in combination with other chemo drugs.
Nick Carr is a GP in St Kilda and previously an associate lecturer in the Department of General Practice at The University of Melbourne. He trained at Cambridge University and Charing Cross Hospital, London before moving to Melbourne in 1988. He completed a Masters Degree (on antibiotic prescribing for sore throat) at The University of Melbourne in1992. Nick has a long-standing interest in Quality Use of Medicines (QUM). He was QUM consultant for his Division of General Practice and is a member of the writing group for Therapeutic Guidelines - Psychotropic. He has been a member of the Pharmaceutical Health and Rational Use of Medicine (PHARM) Committee, and has also worked extensively with the National Prescribing Service. Nick has a particular interest in drug-seeking behaviour, and runs workshops on how to manage "doctor-shopping" consultations. He has published on a wide variety of subjects, from sore throats to computing, baby sleep programs, enemas, sport, fatigue, personality disorders, ...
Dr Arun Bhaskar MBBS MSc FRCA FFPMRCA FFICM FIPP EDPM, Consultant in Pain Medicine, Anaesthesia and Intensive care is the current President of the British Pain Society. He is also the Hon. Secretary of the Neuromodulation Society of UK and Ireland. Dr Bhaskar is also the present Chairman of the UK Section, World Institute of Pain. Dr Bhaskar advises NICE on interventional procedures, cancer pain and was a co-opted member of the GDG for Care of the Dying. Dr Bhaskar is currently the Co-chair of the Committee for the Cancer Pain Management Guidelines; he is also the Co-chair of the Neuromodulation Guidelines Committee. Dr Bhaskar is the Head of Service at the Pain Management Centre, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London and has special interests in complex pain, including cancer pain, neuropathic pain, visceral & pelvic pain, pain interventional procedures and neuromodulation. He has also a specific interest in opioid management in complicated cancer pain, as well ...
Location: Charing Cross Hospital, London. Last Dates: 4th-5th March 2017. Registration Form. Course Schedule. FRCS (SN) revision and practice examination course.. ...
I had been told it wasnt a very nice experience, and I can now agree wholeheartedly with that. It is very uncomfortable, physically. But on the other hand, in every respect where they can make it less horrible, they do (or at least Charing Cross Hospital in Hammersmith do). I had the chance to choose an appointment date and time that suited me. When I arrived, I was seen promptly (I had taken a book and a bottle of water and was expecting a long wait, but I was into the screening room on the dot of three oclock). The radiologist was female, and was friendly, kindly, sympathetic and chatty - yet at the same time she also managed to be unintrusive and decorous. That cant be easy when you spend your working day handling other womens tits like so many slices of steak to be tenderised. She was gentle, she primed me for what the machine would feel like, and gave me tips on what I could do to minimise the discomfort (basically, relax, keep breathing, keep still, and dont hunch your shoulders ...
Synthroid - Late Lecturer on Psychologic Medicine at Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, London; and Physician tothe Hospital for Epilepsy and Paralysis, London.
Detailed Dinoprostone Topical dosage information for adults. Includes dosages for Abortion, Labor Induction and Trophoblastic Disease; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.
Objetivo: Comparar características clínicas e resultados de gestações múltipla com mola completa e feto normal coexistente (MHCFC) no New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) e em centros de doença...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
A minor operation under general anaesthetic where the opening to the uterus (womb) is dilated (enlarged) and the lining of the uterus is scraped using a sharp instrument called a curette. If used in early pregnancy it will be called Evacuation of Retain ...
Similar to the Main Programme sessions, the panel of the CX Edited Live Cases will include a chairman, the operator in the Edited Live Case, the phycisian who will be explaining it to the audience and two invited discussants. The speaker will present the case including patient characteristics, reason for the procedure, the necessary investigation undertaken (eg. X-rays), the choice of devices available, the strategies of treatment proposed and all of the pitfalls and concerns raised before the procedure. After this presentation, a 10-minute edited video will be presented. In order to allow room for discussion about a specific technique the video could be stopped-this is an added benefit you could not have in a live case presentation. This approach will help to improve the educational basis of this session. After that, the aim will be to engage the audience in discussion.. Delegates will also have the opportunity to see these cases post Charing Cross 2015 from a video library that will be created ...
Although...hang on a minute...that departure board is clearly not at Paddington. Hayes? Ashford? I smell Charing Cross. And you, sir, are a charlatan ...
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HtrA1 is a secreted protein which behaves as a molecular chaperone at low temperatures and as a serine protease at high temperatures. When the placenta escapes the normal growth control mechanisms, which are present during normal pregnancy, it may develop trophoblastic diseases, such as hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. The aim of the study is to investigate the expression of HtrA1 in these gestational trophoblastic diseases and evaluate whether different HtrA1 expression might be associated with increasingly severe forms of disease. We used immunohistochemistry to assess the expression of HtrA1 in normal human placenta, hydatidiform mole (partial and complete) and choriocarcinoma. In addition to that we used the western blotting technique to quantify HtrA1 immunoreaction in normal human placentas. The most striking finding of our investigation is the decrease in immunostaining of this protease with increasing severity of gestational trophoblastic disease. For instance, in partial and ...
After the diagnosis of complete or partial hydatidiform mole is made or suspected, the uterine contents are removed by dilation and evacuation (D&E). Hysterectomy may be advisable in older patients who have completed childbearing to reduce the risk of malignancy. After the uterus is emptied, testing for human chorionic gonadotropin should be performed every week in order to determine if the molar pregnancy is malignant. If the molar pregnancy is benign the hormone level will become undetectable in 8-12 weeks. Hormone testing should be continued until three weekly negative levels are obtained, then followed by monthly tests for six months, after which pregnancy is permitted. During the six month follow-up it is important to avoid pregnancy. The use of oral contraceptives is safe.. A rise in the hormone level indicates that the molar pregnancy is malignant GTD (also called gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, GTN). More tests will be done to find out if the cancer has spread from the uterus to ...
Complete information about molar pregnancy, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, what to expect, fertility, link to cancer, when to try for another baby
Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an uncommon complication of pregnancy, worldwide the incidence varying between 0.5 & 0.8 cases per 1000 live births. β-hCG has been used as standard tool for monitoring the biological activity of trophoblastic diseases and as a tumour marker. The abundant vascular supply of the tumour makes Colour Doppler Ultrasound a potentially useful tool to study its clinical behaviour. Objective: To evaluate the role of uterine artery doppler in earlier prediction of resolution in post molar surveillance compared to serial β-hCG follow up. Methods: A longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted in Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai over a period of 12 months from August 2015 to August 2016.40 cases of vesicular molewere studied andassessed before and after suction evacuation by measuring serum β-hCG level and finding its relation with Uterine ArteryResistance Index (RI). Results: Out of the forty patients,36 patients showed resolution of mole ...
MYOMETRIUM. Leiomoyoma and variants, leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma. OVARY: Functional cysts, epithelial ovarian tumors, variants, grading and staging germ cell tumors, tumors of the stroma and sex cords. PLACENTA. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatiform mole, complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, trophoblastic tumor of the implantation site. Placental diseases: infections, twin gestations, placental malformations, vascular disorders. BREAST. Infections, ductal ectasia, fibro-cystic changes, non prliferative, proliferative and atypical. Tumors: fibroadenoma, papilloma, filloid tumor, carcinoma insitu and invasive, variants, grading and staging. Male breast: gynecomastia and carcinoma. KIDNEY: primary epithelial tumors, variants, grading and staging, pediatric tumors including Wilms tumor, angiomyolipoma, metastases. URINARY TRACT: litiasis, inflammations, urothelial tumors and precancers, variants, grading and staging. PROSTATE: prostatitis, nodular ...