Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) are an important component of the breeding programs of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). CIMMYT germplasm is the most important source of genetic resources for wheat breeding programs in Iran, but their utilization has to be examined prior to their incorporation into breeding programs. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 128 CIMMYT SHWs to septoria tritici blotch (STB), a destructive wheat disease caused by Zymoseptoria tritici. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with Z. tritici spores in the greenhouse, kept at 20-22ºC and scored 21 days post inoculation by estimating the percentage of necrotic lesions bearing pycnidia. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers revealed that 11 Z. tritici isolates had high genetic variability. The isolates varied in their virulence towards SHWs. Among all interactions (n=1408), 304 resistance responses were identified. Of 128 genotypes, 60 synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes showed no
Emmer wheat as the progenitor of common wheat, holds the genetic potentiality for improvement of wheat yield, quality and stress tolerance such as drought and salt. To comprehensively evaluate the salt tolerance of emmer wheat, a total of 30 traits including growth, physiology and photosynthesis related as well as K+ and Na+ content of 30 wild emmer and 14 durum wheat accessions were systematically investigated and compared between normal and saline conditions. Salt tolerance index (STI) based on multiple regression analysis of these traits was calculated and five wild emmer accessions showed high salt tolerance, which could be used as valuable resource for wheat salt tolerance improvement. Furthermore, wild emmer genotypes showed wider trait performance variation compared to durum wheat, indicating the higher genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat. Then, shoot Na+ content, shoot K+/Na+ ratio, root length and root surface area were identified as suitable indexes for salt tolerance evaluation. Na+
Background: Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings: The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ~90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ~95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ~77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ~85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. ...
Background: Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings: The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ~90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ~95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ~77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ~85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. ...
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms.This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within
THE EFFECT OF APPLIED NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY
Key Results Recombination in the gametes of the F₁ hybrids was at a level where it was possible to generate a genetic linkage map of Ae. speltoides. This was used to identify 294 wheat/Ae. speltoides introgressions. Introgressions from all seven linkage groups of Ae. speltoides were found, including both large and small segments. Comparative analysis showed that overall macro-synteny is conserved between Ae. speltoides and T. aestivum, but that Ae. speltoides does not contain the 4A/5A/7B translocations present in wheat. Aegilops speltoides has been reported to carry gametocidal genes, i.e. genes that ensure their transmission through the gametes to the next generation. Transmission rates of the seven Ae. speltoides linkage groups introgressed into wheat varied. A 100 % transmission rate of linkage group 2 demonstrates the presence of the gametocidal genes on this chromosome ...
An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide. ...
[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the regulation action of La3+ in rare earth on the antioxidant enzyme activity of winter wheat seedlings under low-temperature stress.[Method] With the winter wheat variety Yongliang 4 as the tested material,5 concn.grads of La3+ at 5,10,20,30 and 40 mg/kg were set up to spray the wheat seedlings.The test method of simulating the low temperature chilling injury was used to study the regulatory effects of La3+ on SOD,POD and CAT activities in the leaves of winter wheat seedlings.[Result] In the 7 d of La3+ treatment and in the treatment with low temperature at 0,5 and 10 ℃,SOD activity in winter wheat was increased remarkably with the decrease of temperature and showed a trend of first rising and then falling with the La3+ treatment days.CAT and POD activities also showed a trend of first rising and then falling with the decrease of stress temperature and the increase of La3+ treatment days.After the winter wheat was treated with La3+ at 20 mg/kg under low
TY - JOUR. T1 - Triticum durum (Desf.) genotípusok fagyállóságának tesztelése a martonvásári fitotronban. AU - Szucs, Péter. AU - Veisz, O.. AU - Bedő, Z.. AU - Szunics, LáSzló. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - In the experiments the frost resistance of eight T. durum wheat varieties of various origins and of sixteen T. durum genotypes bred in Martonvásár was evaluated in the phytotron after freezing at -13°C and -15°C. In order to determine the degree of frost resistance the number of plants surviving freezing was recorded and each plant was scored on a 0-5 scale. For some of the T. durum genotypes tested in the freezing experiment the grain yield was also determined in field experiments. The bread wheat variety Mv 15, which has excellent frost resistance and was used as the control, exhibited approx. 94% survival at both freezing temperatures. When frozen at -15°C the varieties Odmadur 1, Odmadur 2 and Martondur 1 and many of the T. durum lines bred in Martonvásár showed ...
As with many grasses, polyploidy is common in wheat.[9] There are two wild diploid (non-polyploid) wheats, T. boeoticum and T. urartu. T. boeoticum is the wild ancestor of domesticated einkorn, T. monococcum.[10] Cells of the diploid wheats each contain 2 complements of 7 chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father (2n=2x=14, where 2n is the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell, and x is the basic chromosome number). The polyploid wheats are tetraploid (4 sets of chromosomes, 2n=4x=28), or hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes, 2n=6x=42). The tetraploid wild wheats are wild emmer, T. dicoccoides, and T. araraticum. Wild emmer is the ancestor of all the domesticated tetraploid wheats, with one exception: T. araraticum is the wild ancestor of T. timopheevi.[11] There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found. Hexaploid wheats developed under domestication. Genetic analysis has shown that the original hexaploid wheats were the result of a ...
Growth and morphology of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culms and their association with lodging: effects of genotypes, N levels and ...
Experiments were conducted to compare differences in P uptake characteristics between two winter wheat cultivars Stephens and Yamhill (Triticum aestivum L) as related to root morphologies. Root length, root surface area and mean root radius were compared. Plant roots and shoots were separately analyzed for P content. The cultivars were grown in a growth chamber with a 16 hour light period at 22° C and an 8 hour darkness at 16° C for approximately three weeks. A growth medium deficient only in P and with a pH high enough (6.4 to 6.6) to prevent Al toxicity was prepared by mixing a silt loam and a sand. Soil P variables were established by adding phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) to the soil at rates of 0, 25 and 100 ug P g⁻¹ soil. The root growth rates of the cultivars were exponential with time. Stephens had more rapid root growth rate, greater root length and root surface area than Yamhill. There were no significant cultivar differences in root radius. Stephens had higher root to shoot ratio ...
Lehnherr, B.; Maechler, F.; Grandjean, A.; Fuhrer, J., 1988: The regulation of photosynthesis in leaves of field grown spring wheat triticum aestivum l. cultivar albis at different levels of ozone in ambient air
The symptoms of tan spot of wheat, caused by Pyrenophora triticirepentis, include a tan necrosis component and an extensive chlorosis component. Since tan spot has become the major component of the leafspotting disease complex of wheat in western Canada, the need for resistant cultivars has increased. This study was conducted to determine whether the resistance to tan spot found in a diverse set of spring and winter wheat genotypes was due to resistance genes not previously reported. The genetic control of resistance to necrosis induced by P. triticirepentis race 1 and race 2 was determined, under controlled environmental conditions, for spring wheat genotypes Erik and 86ISMN 2137 and winter wheat genotypes Hadden, Red Chief, and 6B-365. Plants were inoculated at the two-leaf stage and disease reaction was assessed based on lesion type. Tests of the F1 and F2 generations, and of F2:3 and F2:8 families, indicated that one recessive gene controlled resistance to the necrosis component of tan spot ...
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) a principal traditional cereal crop in the highlands of Ethiopia and is produced exclusively under rain fed conditions at altitudes ranging from 1500 to 3000 m.a.s.l.. The field trial was conducted at farmers field at Kokate Mara Chare Kebele, Sodo Zuria Woreda, Wolaita Zone of South Ethiopia in the main rainy season of 2014. Five levels of nitrogen (0, 46, 69, 92 and 115 kg ha-1) and phosphorous (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha-1) were used to evaluate productivity of wheat in response to NP fertilizers and to identify the most suitable NP rates for production of wheat of wheat under participatory approach by using Farmers Research Group (FRG). Wheat variety "Digalo" was used for the experiment in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer had very highly significantly influenced total biomass, grain and straw yields of wheat but the effect of P and its interaction with N were not significant on ...
Read "Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A new gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace PI 374670 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing PI 374670 and the susceptible line LMPG-6. The parents and progeny were evaluated for seedling resistance to Pgt races TTKSK, MCCFC, and TPMKC. The DH lines were tested in field stem rust nurseries in Kenya and Ethiopia. The DH lines were genotyped with the 90K wheat iSelect SNP genotyping platform. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in PI 374670 conditioned seedling resistance to the three Pgt races. The seedling resistance locus mapped to the long arm of chromosome 7A and this result was verified in the RIL population screened with the flanking SNP markers using
Read "Anther culture as an effective tool in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The uptake of 137Cs and 90Sr by six varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) was compared in field trials on land contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. All the experimental varieties are officially adopted for agricultural use in Belarus and are used in large-scale production. Under identical conditions of nutrition, the productivity of the varieties varied significantly by a factor of 1.3. The extent of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation by wheat grain, quantified as the concentration ratio, differed between the varieties by as much as a factor of 1.6, for both radionuclides. There was a significant linear positive correlation between the 90Sr activity concentration in grain and straw, and the calcium concentration. The correlation between 137Cs and potassium was not significant. The results suggest that certain varieties of spring wheat used in normal agricultural practice accumulate less 137Cs and 90Sr into grain than others. Some spring wheat varieties accumulated relatively less 137Cs, but ...
Why a long slow road? Its your choice but here is a list: (Research and or get help dont eat these things be healthy!) http://www.celiac.com/articles/182/1/Unsafe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-Unsafe-Ingredients/Page1.html Abyssinian Hard (Wheat triticum durum) Alcohol (Spirits - Specific Types) Amp-Isostearoyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein Atta Flour Barley Grass (can contain seeds) Barley Hordeum vulgare Barley Malt Beer (most contain barley or wheat) Bleached Flour Bran bread Flour Brewers Yeast Brown Flour Bulgur (Bulgar Wheat/Nuts) Bulgur Wheat Cereal Binding Chilton Club Wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies compactum) Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) cookie Crumbs Cookie Dough Cookie Dough Pieces Couscous Criped Rice Dinkle (Spelt) Disodium Wheatgermamido Peg-2 Sulfosuccinate Durum wheat (Triticum durum) Edible Coatings Edible Films Edible Starch Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) Emmer (Triticum dicoccon) Enriched Bleached Flour Enriched Bleached Wheat Flour Enriched Flour Farina Farina Graham Farro ...
Wild related species are a useful reservoir of valuable genes for widening the genetic base of wheat and for the reduction of the vulnerability of wheat cultivars to pathogens, fungal diseases and environmental hazards. In this work, the action of prezygotic and postzygotic incrossability barriers was characterized, determining the possibilities of direct introduction of Am - genome from Triticum monococcum and D-genome from Triticum. tauschii into T. aestivum cultivars, with elimination of commonly performed bridging hybridisation with tetraploid wheat. As gene recipient parents, Polish cultivars of hexaploid wheat cv. Omega, cv. Igna (spring) and cv. Tercja (winter) were used. Application of wheat cultivars as female parents in hybridisation with T. tauschii yielded a very low percentage of effective pollination (0-1.2%). In reciprocal crosses prezygotic incompatibility barriers were more weakly expressed, and percentages of effective pollination (i.e. pollination which initiates the first ...
Inherently good. Natures original wheat & the only one never hybridized. First Ever einkorn. Unbleached & unbromated. A healthy alternative to modern wheat. USDA organic. Eat the original wheat, and feel great knowing einkorn wheat has remained as pure as it was over 12,000 years ago. Whether youre baking sweet or savory, you can substitute einkorn for regular wheat in your favorite recipes and get great results - more flavorful bread, and tasty baked goods with a golden color rich with the antioxidant lutein. This pure and nutritious flour is 80% of the whole grain. A part of the germ and the bran have been removed so the flour stays fresh. We work directly with small farmers to grow and maintain the integrity of this most ancient grain so you can feel great about the wheat you bake with. We care from seed to shelf. Scan This: Meet our farmer and learn how einkorn differs from modern wheat. Certified organic by QAI. www.jovialfoods.com. This bag is 100% paper with no plastic lining. Please ...
Aegilops tauschii (2n=2 x=14, DD) is a rich source of genetic variability for hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) improvement. This variability can be accessed through utilizing synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, which contain genomes from Ae. tauschii and T. turgidum (2n=4 x=28, AABB). Numerous desirable characteristics can and have been introgressed into common hexaploid wheat with this germplasm. In this work, the genetic variability in the two puroindoline genes (a and b) contained on the D genome, and the relationship that sequence polymorphisms in these genes have on endosperm texture among a population of 75 CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid accessions is described. Kernel texture was evaluated using the single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Kernel texture differed significantly (P=0.0001) among the synthetic hexaploid accessions (range 2.6 40.9) and the parent types, durum or Ae. tauschii. The interaction term between parent types was also a significant effect ...
Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot.], also known as pasta or macaroni wheat, is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28, AABB genomes) of worldwide economic importance because it is used to make pasta and other semolina-based products. Durum wheat production is affected by numerous diseases. Among some of the most severe are the foliar diseases tan spot and SNB caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogens P. tritici-repentis and Pa. nodorum, respectively. Both pathogens are members of the Pleosporales order of fungi and are known to produce NEs (Oliver et al. 2012; Faris et al. 2013 for reviews). When a specific NE is recognized by the corresponding host gene, a host "defense response" ensues, which leads to programmed cell death allowing these necrotrophs to penetrate, feed, and sporulate. The lack of NE recognition by the host leads to resistance. Therefore, these host-pathogen interactions operate in an inverse gene-for-gene manner (Wolpert et al. 2002; Friesen and Faris 2010; ...
Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotypes that correspond to the key steps in domestication of tetraploid wheat (wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat). Our data show that soil type can dramatically affect the composition of root exudates in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the composition of the rhizosphere metabolites is associated with differences among the genotypes of the wheat domestication groups, as seen by the high heritability of some of the metabolites. Overall, we show that domestication and breeding have had major effects on root exudates in the
Common bunt (CB) (Tilletia laevis and T. tritici) is a seed and soil borne disease that can cause significant quality and yield losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum). One of the most effective ways to control CB is with host resistance. To date, 15 resistance genes have been identified (Bt1 to Bt15). This study was conducted to evaluate previously identified molecular markers associated with Bt8, Bt10, Bt11, and Bt12 in 74 wheat genotypes of diverse origin. These lines included 15 isogenic CB differential lines, 24 lines with known Bt genes and the remaining lines were a mix of CB resistant and susceptible lines with unknown Bt genes. DNA was extracted from seed of each genotype and used for marker evaluation. A total of eight markers were evaluated for their association with Bt8, Bt10, Bt11, and Bt12, including four SSR markers Xgwm264, Xgwm374, and Xbarc128 for Bt12, three RAPD markers 372, 196, and FDS-RSA for Bt10, one SSR marker Xgwm114 for Bt11, and one RAPD marker Psg3 for Bt8. Xbarc128 was ...
Citation: Sood, S., Kuraparthy, V., Bai, G., Gill, B.S. 2009. The Major Threshability Genes Soft Glume (sog) and Tenacious Glume (Tg), of Diploid and Polyploid Wheat, Trace Their Origin to Independent Mutations at Non-Orthogous Loci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 119:341-351 Interpretive Summary: Wilde wheat species are difficult to thresh whereas our modern cultivated wheat varieties are easy to thresh. It is thought that threshability was an important trait for wheat to become a major grain crop for human consumption. The floret of wild wheat is enclosed by tough glumes that make spikes difficult to thresh, whereas cultivated wheat has soft glumes and is free-threshing. In this report, we identified the chromosome locations of the soft glume (sog)gene of a diploid wheat relative, Triticum monococcum and tenacious glume (Tg) gene of common wheat using chromosome-specific molecular markers. The sog gene was located close to the centromere on chromosome 2AS of T., monococcum whereas Tg was ...
A field experiment was conducted at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Research Field Station in Karaj, Iran, during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons to estimate genetic progress and the variation in penological and agronomic characteristics in 13 irrigated facultative/winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in Iran between 1943 and 2011. Trends of temporal variation of the traits measured revealed that grain yield and some related phonological and agronomic traits have increased in the more recently released cultivars. Thousand grain weight decreased slightly compared to older cultivars. Number of days to heading and anthesis decreased in new cultivars, butgrain-filling period and days to physiological maturity did not change. Spike length also increased but plant height decreased in more recently released cultivars. These changes may explain the increase in grain yield of newly released facultative/winter bread wheat cultivars.
Two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars (Simeto and Ofanto) were grown in field trials in Foggia (Southern Italy), under two water regimes and in three cropping seasons, to evaluate the influence of water regime on grain protein composition in relation to technological quality. On grain samples, the following quality analyses were performed: protein and gluten content, gluten index and SDS test. Furthermore, different protein fractions were evaluated: gliadins; glutenins, high molecular weight subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight subunits (LMW-GS) of the larger glutenin polymers; percentage of unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D) of glutenins was also performed on selected samples. A year-on-year variation in gluten index was observed and its values were positively correlated (r = 0.71**) with the number of days with maximum temperature ranging from 30 to 35 ◦C during grain filling. This was consistent with an increase in glutenin ...
The new virulent strain of the wheat stem rust disease (Ug99) is now confirmed to occur in Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Yemen and Iran. The regions of the Near East, Eastern Africa and Central and South Asia are at immediate risk and they account for some 37% of global wheat production. In most countries of these regions, wheat is the staple food crop, providing on average some 40% of the per capita calorie supply, and is especially important in the diets of the poorest. This new rust strain is highly virulent to almost all wheat varieties grown in these regions and most wheat varieties around the world. The risk of it causing global epidemics is very real and could result in devastating yield losses. Fortunately, from the results of coordinated and harmonized wheat rust field surveys undertaken in several countries and reported in late 2008, there are no indication of further movement of Ug99 to new countries, probably due to the droughts occurring in wheat-growing areas in Iran and some ...
DDC classification: 633.1194 Summary: Study of partial resistance components could produce useful information to develop better resistance to Septoria tritici in wheat (Triticurm aestivum). Inheritance of four partial resistance components: incubation period, latent period, leaf necrosis, and pycnidial density, was studied. Testing of Parent-l, Parent-2, F1, B1CFX, B2CF1, and F2 generations of six wheat crosses against two isolates of S. tritici indicated simple Mendelian inheritance of all components. Long incubation period seemed to be controlled by two complementary genes. Long latent period and low pycnidial density were each controlled by a single dominant gene. However, low leaf necrosis was controlled by one dominant gene in the genotype Vees/Snbs, by two dominant genes in the genotype Nasma*2/14-2, and by one dominant and one recessive gene in the genotype Saada. Phenotypic correlations among the four components of partial resistance indicated that leaf necrosis and pycnidial density ...
Recently, the wheat disease resistance gene Lr34 was cloned. Lr34 is a putative ABC transporter and provides non-specific, adult plant resistance to Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Krattinger et al, 2009. Science 323:1360). There is strong evidence that Lr34 enhances single resistance gene effects in wheat seedlings, and now that Lr34 has been cloned, this can be verified genetically. A cross between the isogenic wheat lines Thatcher Lr16 X Thatcher Lr16,34 was made, and 98 F2:6 near isogenic lines were evaluated for their response to Race 1 (BBBDB) of P. triticina in both seedlings and adult plants. Lines were scored for the presence or absence of Lr34 enhancement in seedlings and evaluated for adult plant resistance and leaf tip necrosis. Lr16 only lines had infection types of 2C while Lr16,34 lines had infection types of ;, 1. There are three known alleles of Lr34 and polymerase chain reaction primers are available for each. PCR reactions on the 98 NILs are in process, and the results will be ...
Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to study the nature of homoeologous chiasma formation in crosses between Triticum durum cv. Creso, homozygous for the ph1c mutation and Thinopyrum bessarabicum. The relative frequencies of wheat/wheat and wheat/Th. bessarabicum chiasma formation were determined. Pairing between apparently non-homologous Th. bessarabicum chromosomes was also observed. The potential of GISH as a tool for analysing homoeologous chiasma formation in wheat/alien hybrids is discussed. ...
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey. (Manuscript received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 24 January 2019). Abstract. Various environmental conditions can cause some biotic and abiotic stress factors and reduce yield and quality of wheat. This research was carried out to determine the effect of the environmental conditions on yield, some agronomic, and leaf rust disease of the bread wheat genotypes in four different locations in Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was established with 25 genotypes in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in 2008-2009 cycles. Grain yield, days to heading and maturity, plant height, lodging resistance, leaf rust and relationship among characters were investigated. The temperature and rainfall were scored at GS24-33, GS34-43, GS45-75 and GS77-89 growth stages and compared with the investigated traits. According to the results, significant differences among locations and some ...
A sophisticated sequencing study reveals genetic changes that emerged in wheat as it became domesticated by agricultural societies in the Fertile Crescent, roughly 10,000 years ago. The findings provide scientists with a better understanding of traits in modern wheat - the variety used to make bread and pasta - and could inform efforts to improve the yield and quality of this key food source. The domestication of wild wheat caused a shift in traits, which mostly relate to seed dormancy, spike morphology, and grain development. For example, while the spikes of wild wheat shatter at maturity, all domesticated wheat spikes remain intact, which enables easier harvest. Here, Raz Avni and colleagues used 3-D genetic sequencing data and software to reconstruct the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum. The team then compared genes responsible for shattering in domesticated wheat to the corresponding genes in wild wheat, in order to understand genetic changes underlying the ...
Triticum monococcum aegilopoides is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Wheat is the third most-important cereal crop in the world, with a total production of 704 million tons annually (FAOSTAT, 2011). To meet future market demands, some of the most important breeding objectives include increasing total yields and the rate at which wheat breeding programs adapt to new and changing environments.. New genomic tools in wheat breeding have allowed the incorporation of new allelic variants into adapted germplasm. Strategies like quantitative trait loci and association mapping have aided in identifying genes or genomic regions responsible for traits of interest (Lander and Botstein 1989; Jansen 1993; Tanksley 1993; Risch and Merikangas 1996; Pritchard et al. 2000; Kraakman et al. 2004; Kirigwi et al. 2007; Neumann et al. 2010; Le Gouis et al. 2012; Yu et al. 2012). Trait-associated markers then become selection targets to assist in molecular breeding programs (Collard et al. 2005; Landjeva et al. 2007; Collard and Mackill 2008; Buerstymayr et al. 2009). However, these ...
Genetic Variability and Relative Importance of Nine Phenological and Physiological Characters Studied in Spring Wheat Triticum aestivum L.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index-PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative
Fulltext - Seed Germination of Populations of Wild Wheat Species, Aegilops biuncialis and Ae. triuncialis: Effects of Salinity, Temperature and Photoperiod
Mori, N.; Liu, Y.G.; Nakamura, C.; Tsunewaki, K., 1991: Genetic differentiation between two wild tetraploid wheats, Triticum dicoccoides and T. araraticum as revealed by RFLP analysis of organellar and nuclear DNA
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The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
Water deficiency during the critical growth stages is one major concern affecting successful wheat production in the rainfed agriculture systems used in Australia and other semi-arid regions of the world. Bypassing the sensitive growth phases from a water stress period can result in higher grain yields in water limited environments. Therefore, this study was concentrated on the adjustment of phenology genes to synchronize the critical growth phases with the rainfall pattern or water availability of target environments. Vernalization (Vrn), photoperiod (Ppd) and earliness per se are the three major components of flowering pathway in wheat. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the role of allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod genes in heading and subsequent grain production. The first experiment with double haploid (DH) lines differing for winter/spring alleles of Vrn-1 loci (vrn-A1, vrn-B1 and vrn-D1) revealed that combination of all three spring alleles confers the ...
Photo/image Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Family: Poaceae. Location Hobro, Jylland, Danmark. Photographer: JC Schou, Photoid 25561
We describe the results of four laboratory studies designed to measure the effect of temperature and wireworm appetence, weight, and degree of Metarhizium infection on their ability to damage wheat seedlings. Wireworm activity, measured from wireworm speed, increased linearly from 6 to 18 °C and leveled off thereafter. Plant emergence and growth increased exponentially from 6 to 22 °C for wheat cultivars AC Barrie and AC Unity VB. Plant root:shoot ratio at Zadoks 13 was highest at 14 °C and lowest at 22 °C for AC Barrie. Wireworm weight and degree of infection with Metarhizium did not affect their ability to kill wheat seedlings, but wireworms in a feeding state caused significantly more damage than those in a non-feeding state when wheat was grown at 10, 14, 18, and 22 °C. Wireworms (ww) in a feeding state destroyed 1.8 seedlings/ww in 14 days at 22 °C if there were 1 or 2 wireworms in a pot, and 1.5 seedlings/ww if there were 4 wireworms in a pot. If 5 wireworms were placed in a pot, ...
Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession
To understand the genetic control of grain filling duration (GFD), i.e., the number of days from anthesis to physiological maturity, we studied the $F_1,\;F_2,\;BC_1\; and\;BC_2$ generations of six spring wheat crosses from nine varieties/genotypes. Generation mean analysis for gene effects indica...
African Journal of Plant Breeding ISSN: 2375-074X Vol. 4 (1), pp. 172-182, January, 2017. © International Scholars Journals. Full Length Research Paper. A study of genetic variation and grain quality traits in bread wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) genotypes. James Ganno1*, Dawit Alemu2 and Gidada Ayalew3. 1Plant Breeding Department, Axum Agricultural Research Center, Axum, Ethiopia.. 2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.. 3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Mekelle University, Mekele, Ethiopia.. *Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] Accepted 22 January, 2017. Abstract. Forty-nine bread wheat genotypes were tested at Axum, Northern Ethiopia in 2016/17, with the objective of assessing the extent of genetic variation, correlation and path analysis of wheat genotypes in yield and grain quality traits using 7 x 7 triple lattice design. Data were collected for 17 agronomic and grain quality characters. For each of the test entries, ...