The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM) was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM) together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly encountered in human cereal foods throughout the world as a result of infestation of grains in the field and in storage by the fungus Fusarium. Significant questions remain regarding the risks posed to humans from acute and chronic DON ingestion, and how to manage these risks without imperiling access to nutritionally important food commodities. Modulation of the innate immune system appears particularly critical to DONs toxic effects. Specifically, DON induces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in macrophages and monocytes, which mediate robust induction of proinflammatory gene expression-effects that can be recapitulated in intact animals. The initiating mechanisms for DON-induced ribotoxic stress response appear to involve the (1) activation of constitutive protein kinases on the damaged ribosome and (2) autophagy of the chaperone GRP78 with consequent activation of the ER stress response. Pathological sequelae
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microbial metabolism and intestinal absorption of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its metabolites in humans. AU - Gratz, SW.. AU - Duncan, G.. AU - Richardson, A J. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Abstract: Background and objectives: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a potent mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moulds and affects nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function. Free DON and the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) are frequently found in cereals including wheat and maize. Aim of this work is to assess the metabolism of DON and D3G by human faecal microbiota and to study the intestinal absorption of DON metabolites in humans using urinary exposure biomarkers. Method: Fresh faecal samples from ten volunteers were prepared into faecal slurries using M2 culture medium, spiked with DON or D3G and incubated anaerobically for up to 7 days. Mycotoxins were extracted into acetonitrile and detected using LC-MS/MS. Spot urine samples were collected from the same volunteers, cleaned ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18:1318-1324...Marc Lemmens , 1 Uwe Scholz , 1 Franz Berthiller , 2 Chiara DallAsta , 2 Andrea Koutnik , 1 Rainer Schuhmacher , 2 Gerhard Adam , 3 Hermann Buerstmayr , 1 ákos Mesterházy , 4 Rudolf Krska , 2 and Peter Ruckenbauer...
Deoxynivalenol belongs to the trichothecene group which contains over 150 mycotoxins produced by primarily by Fusarium species. Other important toxins in this group include T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscripenol (DAS) and nivalenol.. Deoxynivalenol is one of the most common Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxins and is the most commonly encountered trichothecene worldwide. Deoxynivalenol is considered to be a major cause of economic loss due to reduced performance. Food concentrations as low as 0.5 to 1ppm have been associated in the field with feed refusal and reduced feed intake in pigs (Smith et al., 2005). Typically, concentrations above 2 to 5ppm are required for decreased feed intake and reduced weight gain and concentration of over 20ppm for vomiting and complete feed refusal (Haschek et al., 2002; Trenholm et al., 1988).. Feed refusal and emesis appear to be due to neurochemical imbalances in the brain, which have been shown to not be due to taste or learned responses (Prelusky, 1997). ...
Cereal commodities are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins produced by the secondary metabolism of fungal infection. Among these contaminants, deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs are very sensitive to the toxic effects of DON and are frequently exposed to naturally contaminated feed. Recently, DON naturally contaminated feed has been shown to decrease porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) specific antibody responses following experimental infection. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on the immune response generated following vaccination with PRRSV live attenuated vaccine. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 6 animals based on DON content of the diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5 mg DON/kg). They were fed these rations one week prior to the vaccination and for all the duration of the immune response evaluation. All ...
Nivalenol is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species. The European Commission (EC) asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for a scientific opinion on the risk to human and animal health related to the presence of nivalenol in food and feed. A total of 13 164 results for nivalenol in food, feed and unprocessed grains, collected in 2001-2011 from 18 European countries, were available for the evaluation. The highest mean concentrations for nivalenol were observed in oats, maize, barley and wheat and products thereof. Grains and grain-based foods, in particular bread and rolls, grain milling products, pasta, fine bakery wares and breakfast cereals, made the largest contribution to nivalenol exposure for humans. Animal exposure to nivalenol is primarily from consuming cereal grains and cereal by-products. The available information on the toxicokinetics of nivalenol is incomplete. Evidence exists for metabolic de-epoxidation in some species. Based on the data available, the Panel on ...
Trichothecenes - Instruments Consumables Reagents Advanced BioMatrix,RANDOX,RANDOX ELISA,Biomedical, biochemical reagents, laboratory supplies, equipment, antibodies, ELISA kits, diagnostic reagents, methods of experimental techniques, general analytical instruments, material testing instruments and equipment, used laboratory equipment, instruments and equipment, life sciences, environmental monitoring equipment , measurement, measuring instruments, rotating wall bioreactor, three-dimensional tissue / stem cell culture system; microcapsule
Title:Dietary Baicalin Zinc Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Enhances Nutrition Absorption in Deoxynivalenol Challenged Pigs. VOLUME: 21 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Andong Zha, Zhijuan Cui, Ming Qi, simeng Liao, Lixin Chen, Peng Liao* and Bie Tan*. Affiliation:Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125, Shaodong Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Bureau, Hunan, 422800, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125. Keywords:Piglets, baicalin zinc, deoxynivalenol, growth performance, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, nutrition absorption.. Abstract:Background: Deoxynivalenol contamination ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Trichothecenes are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety and are produced by at least two lineages of Fusarium: F. sambucinum (FSAMSC) and F. incarnatum-equiseti (FIESC) species complexes. Trichothecene biosynthesis begins with the formation of a cyclic sesquiterpene followed by up to eight oxygenation and four acylation reactions. Most trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI) are co-regulated and located in a cluster. All Fusarium TRI cluster homologs characterized to date include two regulatory genes that encode a C2H2 zinc finger (TRI6) and a fungal transcription factor domain (TRI10). Functional analysis of FSAMSC members indicate that TRI6 regulates expression of structural genes in the TRI cluster, while TRI10 regulates TRI6 expression. Here, we characterized a novel gene, TRI21, located in the TRI cluster of FIESC but not FSAMSC, which encodes a Zn2Cys6 transcription factor. Gene deletion and precursor feeding analyses ...
There is crucial concern about the presence of molds in indoor environments and their adverse effects on human health. The indoor molds, omnipresent in 60% of the dwellings, have indeed the potential to produce extremely dangerous toxins called mycotoxins. Exposure to these factors has been associated to several severe human health problems like allergic hypersensitivity responses, symptoms of asthma, pulmonary haemorrhage, potentially mortal. The most dangerous mycotoxins responsible for these concerned results belong to the family of trichothecenes. To date, studies have mostly focused on detecting these mycotoxins on bulk materials or in settle dust but there is an urgent need, driven by the guidelines of Public Health policy, to develop specific and sensitive tests to measure airborne macrocyclic trichothecenes mycotoxins in indoor environments, for which no specific nor enough sensitive detection method exists ...
The trichothecenes, a group of sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins commonly encountered as food contaminants worldwide, have been etiologically linked to human and anima...
Activation of the Ribotoxic Stress Response in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and HepG2 Cells Exposed to the Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindropsermopsin ...
The gastrointestinal tract can be exposed to high concentrations of mycotoxins after ingestion of mycotoxin contaminated food or feed. Since swine are the most sensitive domestic animal species to mycotoxins [24], this study aimed to investigate the toxic effect of four common Fusarium toxins, T-2, DON, ZEA and FB1 on IPEC-J2 cells. Studies concerning the effects of mycotoxins on IPEC-J2 cells are limited. The concentrations of the mycotoxins tested in this study are the result of several optimization experiments performed to refine the concentration range to be used for these in vitro experiments. According to Sergent et al.[14] DON concentrations in human intestine are estimated between 0.16 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml depending on the contamination level of the feed, including thus our tested range. Mycotoxin concentrations in the test solutions are not based on levels known to cause problems in pigs, but are based on the cytotoxicity results of the flow cytometer experiments, the solubility of the ...
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Description: Disease caused by the trichothecene mycotoxins, poisons produced by several species of fungi. Most are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis and respiration. The toxins most frequently isolated from agricultural products, and likewise mentioned most often in the context of belligerent use, include diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), Nivalenol, 4-Deoxynivalenol (DON), and especially T-2. T-2, one of the most stable types, is perhaps the most likely to be employed in terrorism or warfare. Intentional use of T-2 by belligerents might involve aerosolization or contamination of food.. Symptoms: Skin exposure leads to symptoms within minutes, including redness of the skin, pain, and a burning sensation. Blisters form and progress to necrosis with a leathery blackening of the skin. Inhalational exposure produces a rapid onset of nose and throat pain, with nasal discharge, cough, labored breathing, wheezing, chest pain, and coughing up of blood. Eyes are likewise affected with intense burning. GI ...
Monomeric phenolic acids, potent effectors of trichothecene biosynthesis.. Concentrated in the outer coats of grains, phenolic acids in a monomeric form are also present at the initiation of toxin production by Fusarium, and some of them (particularly ferulic acid) at high concentrations. Studies performed by the MycSA Unit have demonstrated that ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, sinapic and chlorogenic acids very efficiently inhibited the production of trichothecenes at concentrations similar to those present in cereals. This inhibition appeared to be closely correlated to the antioxidant potential of these compounds. Phenolic acids thus blocked toxin synthesis by reducing the expression of the principal genes coding for enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways. Individually, phenolic acids act as anti-toxin compounds. The efficacy of mixtures of phenolic acids, as they are found in grains, is currently being assessed by the MycSA Unit ...
The Fusariummycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity...
(2013) Mishra et al. Food Control. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic fungal metabolite that frequently contaminates cereal crops. The occurrence of DON in hundred samples of wheat, maize and barley collected from different districts o...
T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as Tee-Two) is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is a naturally occurring mold byproduct of Fusarium spp. fungus which is toxic to humans and animals ...
The publication provides information for commonly asked questions on DON/VOM found in small grains. Additional information is provided on management of DON/VOM.
BIOMIN receives positive EFSA opinion for mycotoxin biotransformation. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has adopted a positive scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Biomin® BBSH 797. Part of the well-established Mycofix® product line, this microorganism is capable of biotransforming trichothecenes into harmless metabolites.
T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 (HT2) toxin are trichothecenes, which form part of the group of Fusarium mycotoxins. Food and feed samples used to estimate human dietary and animal exposure were reported either as the individual results for T2 and/or, HT2, and/o .... ...
Upon challenging the birds with a fixed amount of DON after week 5 of exposure, higher (P=0.033) amounts of DON and the detoxification metabolite (de-epoxy-DON) were found at five hours post-challenge in the guts of birds raised on the DON diets. The increasing level of previous exposure to DON linearly (P=0.040) decreased the plasma level of DON in the birds at one hour post-challenge ...
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T-2 toxin is known to induce apoptosis in mammalian cells. pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is usually the first to show that JunD is usually down-regulated in T-2 toxin induced apoptosis. By construction of an over-expression vector for the JunD gene, we observed that the survival 3685-84-5 IC50 ratio of JunD over-expressed cells obviously increased under T-2 toxin 3685-84-5 IC50 stress. These results suggested that the mechanism of T-2 induced cell death was closely connected with oxidative stress, and that JunD plays an important role in the defensive process against T-2 toxin stress. Introduction T-2 toxin, a fungal secondary metabolite, is usually one of the type A Trichothecenes [1], [2]. Ingestion by humans or livestock of cereals contaminated by T-2 toxin can cause adverse reactions, such as vomit, diarrhea, and even death [3], [4]. Alimentary harmful aleukia (ATA), mainly due to ingestion of cereal made up of large amounts of T-2 toxin has been reported to cause ...
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on the performance of broilers, organ weights, and intestinal histology and to evaluate the efficacy of a probiotic feed additive (PB, Eubacterium sp.) with the ability to deepoxidize DON. Two hundred seventy-seven 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 dietary treatments for 6 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets plus probiotic feed additive (DON-PB). The BW and the efficiency of feed utilization were not adversely affected (P > 0.05) by the inclusion of DON in the diets. A slight improvement in feed intake and BW gain over the course of the experiment was observed in broilers fed DON-PB with no change in feed efficiency. The absolute or relative organ weights were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls and the DON-PB group. The absolute liver weights were ...
1. This study was part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX); a series of identical 15NH4 tracer additions to streams throughout North America. 15NH4Cl was added at tracer levels to a Puerto Rican stream for 42 days. Throughout the addition, and for several weeks afterwards, samples were collected to determine the uptake, retention and transformation pathways of nitrogen in the stream. 2. Ammonium uptake was very rapid. Nitrification was immediate, and was a very significant transformation pathway, accounting for over 50% of total NH4 uptake. The large fraction of NH4 uptake accounted for by nitrification (a process that provides energy to the microbes involved) suggests that energy limitation of net primary production, rather than N limitation, drives N dynamics in this stream. 3. There was a slightly increased 15N label in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) the day after the 15NH4 addition was stopped. This DO15N was , 0.02% of DON concentration in the stream water at the time, ...
Anguidine, a protein synthesis inhibitor, has been shown to induce a reversible cell cycle arrest in exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary cells. The effect of pretreatment with anguidine on the cytotoxicity of subsequently administered various chemotherapeutic agents, hyperthermia, and radiation was investigated. We found that anguidine greatly potentiated the cytotoxic activity of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) and melphalan by abolishing the initial shoulder and steepenìng the subsequent exponential portion of the survival curves. Bleomycin-induced cell kill was also potentiated by anguidine pretreatment but to a lesser extent. However, anguidine pretreatment did not substantially alter radiation cytotoxicity. In contrast, anguidine markedly reduced the lethal effect of hydroxyurea, 5-fluorouracil, and hyperthermia, three modalities with S-phase activity. To investigate whether both anguidine-induced potentiation and protection of cells by different antitumor agents were due to its ...
Reveal Q+ for DON is a lateral flow test strip intended for the quantitative testing of deoxynivalenol in corn, barley, DDGS, malted barley, oats and wheat products.
This study was designed to determine the effect of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated wheat to growing pigs on growth performance, digestibility and retention of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca). Secondly, we wished to evaluate the potential of four commercial anti-mycotoxin additives in preventing the adverse effects of DON. Sixty piglets (6.0 kg body weight) were assigned to six different corn-soybean meal-wheat diets (control diet: ,0.5 mg kg-1 DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated): 4 mg kg-1; and four contaminated diets supplemented with a different anti-mycotoxin additive: DON+GLUC (glucomannan), DON+YBP (yeast, live bacteria, enzymes, plant extracts), DON+ALU (aluminosilicate) and DON+PC (preservation components). Piglets were housed individually in pens for 7 d and then transferred to metabolic crates for urine and feces collection for 7 d. At the end of these 2 wk, mannitol and lactulose doses were given by oral administration. Urine was collected for 24 h for an ...
DGAP-News: CO.DON AG / Key word(s): Market launch05.06.2019 / 10:00 The issuer is solely responsible for the content of this announcement.CO.DON AG signs term sheet with BIOVIIIx for the distribution of Spherox in ItalyBerlin/Teltow, 05 June 2019 - CO.DON AG is in advanced talks with BIOVIIIx SRL concerning the dist...
Daily News columnist Mike Lupica remembers Don Imus: "For 40 years, people have asked me what Don Imus was really like. And I would ask them if they listened to his show. And if they did I would say, Then you know what hes really like.
We kept wondering: Why are Ron & Don (KIROFM m-f, 3-7p) the highest-rated talk hosts in Seattle? They are after all, really stoopid. Don ONeill plays a crude, agrammatical Tom Smothers to Ron Upshaws dithering, ever-explaining Dickie. They rarely do...
Aloha, Don Blanding Collectors Society Fans of vagabond poet-illustrator Don Blanding (1894-1957) gather to exchange information and share their collections.
Don McKellar, Actor: Last Night. Don McKellar was born on August 17, 1963 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He is an actor and director, known for Last Night (1998), Blindness (2008) and The Red Violin (1998). He was previously married to Tracy Wright.
TRI J Group Inc., USA was established in 2008. TRI J Group is a International health medical investment and services system in the USA. TRI J Group , since its establishment, has been committed to the communications and cooperation in trade between the USA and China, bringing the advanced medical care technology, equipment and managerial…
Hey gang! (Yes, were morphing into Larry King.) Remember when Don Perata quietly moved $1.5 million ostensibly raised to fight the redistricting measure into his...
Raynham Selectman Don McKinnon, a pillar in the towns government for nearly four decades, announced Tuesday he will not run again for office after 13 consecutive terms in his position.
i don t want to go to rehab, ... go to rehab? How can I help my loved one? Does my insurance cover treatment? Should I go ... you are afraid to talk with someone about your problems, you dont have to be. First and foremost, the person who answers ...
When Psycho was released in 1960, novelist Don DeLillo was a Mad Man for Ogilvy & Mather, had just published his first story and was six years away from his first novel.
Case opinion for US Federal Circuit Don Alford, Jefferey St. Amant, Counterclaim Defendants-Cross-Appellants v. Elliott Moorhead, NanoVapor Fuels Group, Inc., Bryant Hickman, Defendants-Appellants. Read the Courts full decision on FindLaw.
Breadsticks are pencil-sized sticks of dry bread widely consumed as a pre-meal appetiser. They are basically wheat-based snacks, which makes them a good matrix to evaluate mycotoxin contamination, since wheat is very susceptible to fungal attack. In this sense, the fast, selective and sensitive gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GCQqQ- MS/MS) method proposed here allows simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin in breadsticks after QuEChERS extraction and clean-up. The performance of the method was assessed with respect to European Commission Regulations by studying the selectivity and specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, matrix effect, accuracy, precision and trueness. Satisfactory results in terms of validation parameters were obtained for all selected mycotoxins (recovery range of 70,br,110%, RSD , 10%, LOQ ,40 μg ...
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Article Response of oat genotypes to fusarium head blight in eastern Canada. Recent investigations in northern Europe and western Canada suggested that mycotoxins caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB) could be a potential problem for oat (Avena sativa...
Mold growing in homes and buildings, whether it is Stachybotrys chartarum (Stachybotrys atra) or other molds, indicates that there is a problem with water or moisture. This is the first problem that needs to be addressed. Mold growth can be removed from hard surfaces with commercial products, soap and water, or a bleach solution(http://www.cdc.gov/mold/stachy.htm#note) of no more than 1 cup of bleach in 1 gallon of water. Mold in or under carpets typically requires that the carpets be removed. Once mold starts to grow in insulation or wallboard, the only way to deal with the problem is by removal and replacement. We do not believe that one needs to take any different precautions with Stachybotrys chartarum (Stachybotrys atra), than with other molds. In areas where flooding has occurred, prompt drying out of materials and cleaning of walls and other flood-damaged items with commercial products, soap and water, or a bleach solution(http://www.cdc.gov/mold/stachy.htm#note) of no more than 1 cup of ...
Sean is a PhD student in the Department of Plant Biology. He graduated from Lake Superior State University in 2011 with a Bachelors in Biology, and received a Masters of Environmental Science from Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi in 2014. Sean joined the Department of Plant Biology in the fall of 2014 and is co-advised by Dr. H. Corby Kistler and Dr. Kathryn Bushley. Currently, Sean is investigating the role of cellular membrane-bound transporters in the transport and efflux of the Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, commonly referred to as vomitoxin. His work will also seek to verify recent findings which suggest the widely used bio-control fungus Beauveria bassiana has the potential to produce deoxynivalenol. Sean joined the Mycology Club in 2015 and holds the position of Communications Director.. Email: [email protected] ...
MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF FUSARIUM SIBIRICUM ISOLATED FROM IRANIAN GRAINS. Shirzad, Omid; Kachuei, Reza; Afshari, Mohamad Ali; Rezaie, Sasan; Yadegari, Mohamad Hossein; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir // Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology;2013 Special Edition, p15 Introduction and Objectives: The type A trichothecenes, in particular T-2 toxin, is the most toxic metabolite produced by Fusarium species. These mycotoxins are certainly produced from Fusarium sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. In previous studies, isolate of Fusarium genus were isolated from... ...
This study is one of the first to attempt to relate phenotypic mycotoxin production to key TRI cluster gene expression in relation to a matrix of interacting environmental factors for strains of mycotoxigenic fungi. The growth of both strains was shown to be optimum at 30°C and between 0.98 and 0.995 aw. However, DON production was optimum at 20-25°C over the 9 day experimental period. This is consistent with some of the previous studies relating aw × temperature effects to growth and DON production for F. culmorum and F. graminearum strains from Europe and Argentina [3,4,17]. Marin et al. [18] showed that the temperature × aw profiles for germination, growth and phenotypic fumonisin production by strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were also different. Similarly, for mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus carbonarius, ochratoxin A production differences were observed with optimum growth at 30-35°C and 0.98 aw while toxin production was optimum at 15-20°C and 0.98-0.95 aw ...
Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the tri ...
National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Hyatt Regency St. Louis at the Arch St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. December 4 - December 6, 2016.
Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum threatens world-wide wheat production, resulting in both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. We reconstructed the global F. graminearum gene regulatory network (GRN) from a large collection of transcriptomic data using Bayesian network inference, a machine-learning algorithm. This GRN reveals connectivity between key regulators and their target genes. Focusing on key regulators, this network contains eight distinct but interwoven modules. Enriched for unique functions, such as cell cycle, DNA replication, transcription, translation and stress responses, each module exhibits distinct expression profiles. Evolutionarily, the F. graminearum genome can be divided into core regions shared with closely related species and variable regions harboring genes that are unique to F. graminearum and perform species-specific functions. Interestingly, the inferred top regulators regulate genes that are significantly enriched from the same genomic regions (P | 0.05),
Stachybotrys sp.: Aw (water activity) - 0.94, optimum Aw (water activity) - ,0.98. Several strains of this fungus (S. atra, S. chartarum and S. alternans are synonymous) may produce a trichothecene mycotoxin - Satratoxin H - which is poisonous by inhalation. The toxins are present on the fungal spores. This is a slow growing fungus on media. It does not compete well with other rapidly growing fungi. The dark colored fungi grows on building material with a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. Areas with relative humidity above 55% and are subject to temperature fluctuations are ideal for toxin production. Individuals with chronic exposure to the toxin produced by this fungus reported cold and flu symptoms, sore throats, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, dermatitis, intermittent local hair loss, and generalized malaise. The toxins produced by this fungus will suppress the immune system affecting the lymphoid tissue and the bone marrow. Animals injected with the toxin from this fungus ...
Can produce trichothecenes (type B); T-2 toxin; zearalenone (F-2 toxin), vomitoxin, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisin. Zearalenone is not acutely toxic, and actually may have positive effects with controlled ingestion.. ...
Fusarium graminearum is a broad host pathogen threatening cereal crops in temperate regions around the world. To better understand how F. graminearum adapts to different hosts, we have performed a comparison of the transcriptome of a single strain of F. graminearum during early infection (up to 4 d post-inoculation) of barley, maize, and wheat using custom oligomer microarrays. Our results showed high similarity between F. graminearum transcriptomes in infected wheat and barley spike tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the gene expression profiles of 24 genes. Host-specific expression of genes was observed in each of the three hosts. This included expression of distinct sets of genes associated with transport and secondary metabolism in each of the three crops, as well as host-specific patterns for particular gene categories such as sugar transporters, integral membrane protein PTH11-like proteins, and chitinases. This study identified 69 F. graminearum genes as preferentially ...
Abraham Z. Joffe (1909-2000) was Professor of Mycology and Mycotoxicology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Joffes professional interests were centered primarily in toxigenic fungi associated with production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, and other toxins); ecology and environmental factors favoring formation and distribution of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains, feeds and foods; and phytotoxic action of Fusarium strains, and their toxicity in animals and humans. Joffe is the author of over 130 scientific papers, reviews and monographs. He was a member of several professional associations, a participant in numerous International Conferences and Symposia, and holds two Certificates of Merit from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health of the USSR. Joffe received his PhD in Mycology and Mycotoxicology at the Institute of Botany, U.S.S.R Academy of Science in Leningrad (1950). Joffe A. Z. (1947a). The mycoflora of normal and overwintered cereals in ...
Vet Corner Mycotoxins in Poultry Dr. Kayla Price and Dr. Alexandra Weaver What are mycotoxins? Feedstuffs are often contaminated with multiple mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by moulds during times of stress whether due to disease or, most importantly, due to the surrounding environment. Moulds can produce mycotoxins in the field due to different growth conditions. For example, wet or drought conditions may encourage different mycotoxin production. Alternatively, moulds can produce mycotoxins during sto
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereals caused by Fusarium fungi. The disease is of great economic importance especially owing to reduced grain quality due to contamination by a range of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. Disease control and prediction is difficult because of the many Fusarium species associated with FHB. Different species may respond differently to control methods and can have both competitive and synergistic interactions. Therefore, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect Fusarium at the community level. Lower levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of organically produced cereals compared with conventionally produced have been reported, but the causes of these differences are not well understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of agricultural factors on Fusarium abundance and community composition in different cropping systems. Winter wheat kernels were collected from 18 organically and conventionally ...
Overview Trichothecene mycotoxins are low molecular weight (250-500 Daltons) nonvolatile compounds produced by more than 350 species of fungi. While the toxin confers survival advantage to the fungi, it is pathogenic to animals and humans.
RIDASCREEN® DON [R5906] - Intended use: RIDASCREEN® DON is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of DON in cereals, malt, feed, beer and wort.General information: Deoxynivalenol belongs to the trichothecene group of mycotoxins and is formed by fungi of the genus Fusarium. Deoxynivalenol often occurs in plant products particularly in cereals. More
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spore swelling and germination in Fusarium culmorum.. AU - Marchant, R. AU - White, MF. PY - 1967. Y1 - 1967. M3 - Article. VL - 42. SP - 237. EP - 244. JO - Journal of General Microbiology. JF - Journal of General Microbiology. SN - 0022-1287. ER - ...
Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation. We have comprehensively completed the genomic 36,563,796 bp sequence by replacing unknown bases, placing supercontigs within their correct loci, correcting assembly errors, and inserting new sequences which include for the first time complete AT rich sequences such as centromere sequences, subtelomeric
Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation. We have comprehensively completed the genomic 36,563,796 bp sequence by replacing unknown bases, placing supercontigs within their correct loci, correcting assembly errors, and inserting new sequences which include for the first time complete AT rich sequences such as centromere sequences, subtelomeric
A little over 20 percent of the wheat samples from the UK and Ireland are contaminated with the mycotoxin DON. This was shown by a survey from Belgium based feed additives supplier Nutriad, covering 55 samples across all regions of UK and Ireland.
DON je jedan od najčešćih trihotecena u hrani, koje uglavnom proizvodi plijesan Fusarium graminearum. Cilj istraživanja bio je odrediti ukupnu izloženost DON-u i derivatima na temelju podataka o konzumaciji namirnica i rezultatima LC-MS/MS analiza ključnih proizvoda. Analizirane su i koncentracije nepromijenjenog DON-a i glukuronidnih metabolita u uzorcima urina prikupljenim od 49 ispitanika. Svrha je bila odrediti utjecaj tipa prehrane (veganskog, lakotoovovegetarijanskog i omnivorskog) na metabolizam i izlučivanje DON-a. Istraživanje je provedeno tijekom tri uzastopna dana, pri čemu su prva dva dana bila pripremni period uz isključivanje hrane koja može sadržavati DON. Trećeg dana konzumirani su proizvodi od žitarica s poznatim razinama DON-a. DON-15-GlcA detektiran je u svim uzorcima urina, koncentracije DON-a su bile ispod LOD-a u 14 % uzoraka, dok su koncentracije DON-3-GlcA prelazile LOD vrijednost u samo dva uzorka. Prosječne koncentracije DON-3-GlcA, DON-15-GlcA i DON ...
Fusarium head blight continues to be the biggest emphasis. Yield loss due to head blight in Minnesota was 33, 18, 5-8, and 5% in 1993, 94, 95, and 96, respectively. The decrease is partly due to a change in weather. There also has been a very rapid change towards less susceptible cultivars, especially 2375, which occupied 70% of the acreage in 1994. 2375 becomes infected, but fills kernels rapidly and in the presence of the toxin. The resistance in 2375 is not a Chinese source. 2375 is now declining in popularity due to agronomic problems. There are many resistant lines in the pipeline for release, with most carrying resistances from Chinese material. Head blight is more severe on durum wheat, and production of durum is now moving to the west in an attempt to escape the disease. All of resistance screening is being done with Fusarium graminearum. Seed treatments have been found to be effective in preventing the seedling blight phase of the disease. UM is hiring a molecular biologist in the ...
The occurrence resistance to methyl benzimidazole carbamates (MBC)-fungicides in the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is becoming a serious problem in the control of Fusarium head blight in China. The resistance is caused by point mutations in the β2-tubulingene. So far, five resistant genotypes (F167Y, E198Q, E198L, E198K and F200Y) have been reported in the field. To establish a high-throughput method for rapid detection of all the five mutations simultaneously, an efficient single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based genotyping method was developed based on the Luminex xMAP system. One pair of amplification primers and five allele specific primer extension probes were designed and optimized to specially distinguish the different genotypes within one single reaction. This method has good extensibility and can be combined with previous reported probes to form a highly integrated tool for species, trichothecene chemotype and MBC resistance detection. Using this method, carbendazim resistant FGSC
1. Introduction Deoxynivalenol (DON), commonly known as vomitoxin, is a potent mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, and its presence in ...
Mycotoxins are chemicals produced by fungi that are harmful to humans and domestic animals. These chemicals may contaminate staple foods and feeds worldwide, posing a number of significant food safety concerns [Figure 1]. Mycotoxins may be fatal or cause severe illness at very small concentrations, often measured in parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). There may be thousands of mycotoxins on the planet earth, but only a small fraction of these toxic chemicals have the potential to cause plant and animal diseases. In nature, mycotoxins may act to disable host defense responses or to defend the fungus against other microorganisms ...
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Waters Corporation have announced that Vicam, a Waters Business, introduced the Don-Niv(tm) WB Immunoaffinity (IA) column, the only IA column on the market to simultaneously screen for deoxynivalenol (Don) and nivalenol (Niv). Coupled with liquid chromatography analysis, the Don-Niv WB column provides over 90% recovery of both Don and Niv and doubles the productivity of commercial, government, and food safety research laboratories.
Waters Corporation have announced that VICAM has introduced the DON-NIV™ WB Immunoaffinity (IA) column, which simultaneously screens for deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Coupled with liquid chromatography analysis, the DON-NIV WB column provides over 90% recovery of both DON and NIV and doubles the productivity of commercial, government, and food safety research laboratories.
The mycotoxin survey report for the year 2018 includes 18,424 raw commodity and finished feed samples from 79 countries. To test for different mycotoxin contamination, a total of 81,936 analyses were performed. Based on this broad dataset, we present the main dangers for feed quality and animal production from the most important mycotoxins. These results provide also some insight into the mycotoxin threat in 2019. An overview of the different world regions is presented.
The mycotoxin survey report for the year 2018 includes 18,424 raw commodity and finished feed samples from 79 countries. To test for different mycotoxin contamination, a total of 81,936 analyses were performed. Based on this broad dataset, we present the main dangers for feed quality and animal production from the most important mycotoxins. These results provide also some insight into the mycotoxin threat in 2019. An overview of the different world regions is presented.
Abstract: Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in various foods and are estimated to affect as much as 25% of the world`s crop each year. Most of these mytocoxins belong to the three genera of fungi: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Although over 300 mytocoxins are known, those of most concern based on their toxicity and occurrence, are aflatoxin, vomitoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, fumonisin and T-2 toxin. They are produced in cereal grains as well as forages before, during and after harvest in various environmental conditions. The presence of mycotoxins in feeds may decrease feed intake and affect animal performance. In addition, the possible presence of toxic residues in edible animal product such as milk, meat and eggs may have some detrimental effects on human health. Fungal contamination affects both the organoleptic characteristics and the alimentary value of feeds and entails a risk of toxicosis. The biological effects of mycotoxin depend on the ingested amounts, ...
Our September update from the annual Biomin® PROcheck mycotoxin survey in corn harvested in 2018 includes 725 samples from 32 states. Of the sample pool 67% are corn samples (487 samples), 21% are corn silage (153 samples), and 12% are corn by-product (85). Of the total sample pool 97% tested positive for at least one mycotoxin vs. 91% in 2017, while 74% of samples had more than one mycotoxin compared to 47% in 2017. Below we discuss trends of each of these feed ingredients regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. ...
The intestinal epithelium has many different functions. One is the absorption of nutrients. It is also the first protective barrier between the gut lumen and the animals blood stream. Several studies have shown that mycotoxins such as DON and OTA reduce the protective function of the gut wall. A meta-analysis published by Grenier and Applegate (2013) reviews how mycotoxins can modulate intestinal functions. In terms of morphology of the intestinal villi, studies show that feeding poultry low or moderate levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) alone or combined with other fusariotoxins leads to a reduction in villi height in both the duodenum and jejunum. Practical implications can range from diarrhoea, inflammation and fever to reduced feed efficiency. In a series of trials, the plant based ingredients in Anta®Ferm MT FlavoMax have shown to act as an anti-inflammatory agent along the digestive tract, having a positive effect on the integrity of the intestinal epithelium resulting in an improved feed ...
With its high binding capacity against mycotoxins such as, Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisin B1, Zearalenone, Vomitoxin, Aflatoxines (B1, B2, G1, G2), Ochratoxine A and T-2, Fusion® protects and strengthens the immune system. Thus, the animals immune system is able to function normally and defend against various respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. This enables proper growth and development of bone tissue and structure and minimises the risk of secondary bacterial invaders such as E. coli and Salmonella spp ...
Interview with Don Gray Interviewee: Don Gray Camera operator: Cindy Samples Interviewer: Bob INT: Well Don, one of the things we wanted to do was to pick your brain about what you remember about the National Wildlife Refuge Association. And I know that we have a couple of questions here...specifically Ed Trotion was the one who contacted us about interviewing you. Ed was interested in some of the people who were involved early on in setting up the NWRA. DON: Well, Ive got a couple of pictures here of our board meetings and Ill try to remember... INT: When was this picture taken? DON: I dont have any idea. INT: Probably in the early 80s? That other one you had 1980 on that one....so..looks like a lot of the same people here. CINDY: We can make copies of these pictures INT: And Dons got the names written on the back of the people who are in the picture. CINDY: And that is the National Wildlife Refuge Association? DON: Right. INT: Can you just go around here Don, and uh.. DON: ...
04/24/17 12:08 Basic Info: Don Gato A1109871 is a neutered male gray & white DSH who was taken in from the street after the previous owner left him outside 5months ago. Don Gato is being surrendered due to the landlord not wanting him in the home. Don Gato hasnt been seen by a vet as of 5mnths ago and currently has some ocular discharge. Socialization: Don Gato is friendly/outgoing with strangers. He hasnt been around other animals in the home (but is an indoor/outdoor cat however the owner doesnt know how he is with animals outside). Don Gato was gentle, playful, relaxed/affectionate with the adults and children ages 4, 7 & 10yrs old. Don Gato hasnt bitten/scratched any person or animal. Behavior: Don Gato isnt bothered by the following: being brushed or being put into a carrier. He hasnt been disturbed while sleeping/resting, had his nails trimmed or been bathed. It wasnt noticed if Don Gato scratched on items in the home. For a New Family to Know: Don Gato is described as friendly, ...
While there has been a great reduction in the percentage of stunted children from 44% in 1996 to the latest statistics of 35% in 2010 due to improvements in the health of mothers. We are still far from achieving our Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to halve stunting by 2015, and one of the key factors we need to address is to reduce mycotoxins in staple foods he said ...