Trichoderma longibrachiatum is a fungus in the genus Trichoderma. In addition to being a distinct species, T. longibrachiatum also typifies one of several clades within Trichoderma which comprises 21 different species. Trichoderma longibrachiatum is a soil fungus which is found all over the world but mainly in warmer climates. Many species from this clade have been adopted in various industries because of their ability to secrete large amounts of protein and metabolites. Trichoderma is a diverse genus with other 135 species in Europe alone. This species was first characterized by Mien Rifai in 1969. It is an exclusively anamorphic species complex allied with the sexual species, Hypocrea schweinitzii. Evolutionarily T. longibrachiatum is the youngest clade of Trichoderma. Trichoderma longibrachiatum is a fast-growing fungus. It typically produces off-white colonies that change to greyish green with age. This species is able to grow over a wide range of temperature; however the optimal temperature ...
Fungos da microbiota ruminal apresentam potencial biotecnológico auxiliando e promovendo hidrólise da fibra vegetal. A vegetação fibrosa é a base da dieta dos ruminantes e a degradação das paredes celulares é fundamental para o sistema digestivo dos ruminantes.. Nesta pesquisa, avaliou-se a produção de celulases por Trichoderma longibrachiatum, proveniente do fluído ruminal de bovinos, em fermentação submersa de Brachiaria decumbens ou bagaço de cana. Avaliou-se o crescimento desse fungo com duas fontes de nitrogênio e o efeito do pH inicial sobre a produção enzimática de T. longibrachiatum. Posteriormente comparou-se o potencial do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e da B. decumbens para a produção de celulases pelo fungo. As fermentações foram conduzidas em tubos de ensaio, em meio fermentativo contendo caldo Sabouraud, a fonte de nitrogênio e a fonte de carbono acondicionada em saquinhos de TNT. Os tubos foram incubados em Shaker de bancada com agitação de 120 rpm, a 39 ºC ...
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing dose of a microbial inoculant alone or in combination with a Trichoderma longibrachiatum extract with xylanase activity on total losses, chemical composition, fermentative profile, microbiological quality and aerobic...
A fungivorous nematode, Aphelenchoides sp., was isolated from field soil by baiting with mycelium of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1, and subsequently was maintained on agar cultures of the fungus. Interactions between the nematode and the green fluorescent protein-producing transformant, T. harzianum ThzID1-M3, were investigated in both heat-treated (80°C, 30 min) and untreated field soil. ThzID1-M3 was identified in soil by epifluorescence microscopy. When ThzID1-M3 was added to soil as an alginate pellet formulation, addition of the nematode (10 per gram of soil) significantly reduced radial growth and recoverable populations of the fungus, and the effect was greater in heat-treated soil than in untreated soil. Addition of ThzID1-M3 to soil pretreated with the nematode (10 per gram of soil) stimulated nematode population growth for approximately 10 to 20 days, whereas nematode populations decreased in the absence of added Trichoderma sp. When sclerotia of Sclerotinia ...
Cellobiohydrolase I (T. longibrachiatum) [ME-CBHI] - High purity Cellobiohydrolase I (T. longibrachiatum) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitrodiagnostic analysis. EC 3.2.1.176 From Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Electrophoretically homogeneous (MW 65,000). In 3.2M ammonium sulphate. Specific activity: ~ 0.1 U/mg (40oC, pH 4.5, CM-cellulose 4M as substrate). Active on p-nitrophenyl-β-lactoside. Stable at 4oC for | 4 years.
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) displays increased cellulase expression while growing on inducers such as lactose or cellulose. However, the mechanism of cellulase induction in T. reesei is not yet completely characterized. Here, a protein annotated as β-glucosidase (BGL3I) was found to be involved in cellulase induction in T. reesei. The effects of BGL3I on cellulase production have not yet been fully understood. Deletion of the bgl3i gene had no influence on the growth of T. reesei, but significantly increased its cellulase activities. Deletion of bgl3i also resulted in decreased extracellular galactosidase activity, but significantly increased transcription of lactose permeases, which might be involved in lactose transport. Furthermore, deletion of bgl3i enhanced the transcription levels of intracellular β-glucosidases cel1a, cel1b and the regulator xyr1, which are all essential for lactose induction in T. reesei. BGL3I was found to have a relatively high
The consequence of simultaneous and sequential inoculation of T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens cultures with respect to growth rate, differential expression of vital genes and metabolites were examined. The competition was observed between T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens under co-cultivation. The proliferation of Trichoderma was reduced in the simultaneous inoculation (TB1) method, possibly due to the fastest growth of Bacillus. Both T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens were proliferated in sequential inoculation method (TB2). The sequential inoculation method (TB2) upregulated the expression of metabolites and vital genes (sporulation, secondary metabolites, mycoparasitism enzymes and antioxidants) in Trichoderma and downregulated in Bacillus and vice versa in co-inoculation method (TB1). The metabolic changes in the co-culture promoted the maize plant growth and defense potential under normal and biotic stress conditions. The metabolites produced by the co-culture of T. asperellum and B
endo-1,3-β-D-Glucanase (Trichoderma sp.) [ME-LAMSE] - High purity endo-1,3-beta-Glucanase (Trichoderma sp.) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitrodiagnostic analysis. EC 3.2.1.39 From Trichoderma sp. Highly purified. In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate. Specific Activity: ~ 15 U/mg (40oC, pH 4.5, CM-Curdlan as substrate). Stable at 4oC for | 4 years.
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is one of the main sources for cellulose degrading enzymes. We study the enzyme profile produced during the fungal growth on cellulosic and lignocellulosic substrates and their capacity to hydrolyze cellulosic and lignocellulosic substrates with different chemical and physical properties. The results will bring insight into the bottlenecks of enzymatic hydrolysis. During the enzyme production study, we grew T. reesei strain Rut C-30 in submerged fermentations on Avicel PH101, commercial cellulose, and industrial-like lignocellulosic substrates from spruce. These substrates were produced during the process of sodium hydroxide cooking, used in pulp and paper industry. Additionally we altered the chemical and physical properties of those substrates by drying and rewetting, treatment of sodium hydroxide and sodium chlorite in order to decrease or increase the surface area and delignify, respectively. We measured cellulolytic enzyme activity by enzymatic assays.
Trichoderma reesei is a key fungus for industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The genome sequences of the T. reesei hyper-cellulolytic strain RUT-C30 and its parental strain QM6a were compared at the nucleotide level. Approximately 97% of the 87 genomic-sequence scaffolds of T. reesei QM6a (33Mb) were found to have the corresponding nucleotide in the 182 genome-sequence scaffolds of RUT-C30 (32Mb). There are 455 loci within the QM6 sequence not detected in the RUT-C30 sequence. Regions at the termini of QM6a scaffolds as well as 14 small scaffolds do not have corresponding regions in RUT-C30 genomic scaffolds. Seventy-eight protein-encoding genes are included within these regions. Mutated nucleotide(s) in 2,371 positions, including short insertion/deletions (indels), were detected in the aligned regions. The predicted protein-coding regions of 97 gene models contain mutations, 34 of which were not previously described. Twenty-seven out of 34 newly discovered genes were found to have ...
Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The ability to uncover the structure and function of biosystems at the nanoscale, stimulates research leading to improvement in biology, biotechnology, medicine and healthcare. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Therefore, this work aimed to isolate fungal strains from Taif soil samples, which have the ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum, when challenged with silver nitrate solution, accumulated silver nanoparticles (AgNBs) on the surface of its cell wall in 72 h. These nanoparticles, dislodged by ultrasonication, showed an absorption
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of Trichoderma reesei ß-xylosidase and its use in the hydrolysis of solubilized xylans. AU - Poutanen, Kaisa. AU - Puls, Jurgen. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) of Trichoderma reesei was purified and its characteristics and use in the hydrolysis of steamed birch xylan were studied. The enzyme was a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 100000 as determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis and its isoelectric point was 4.7. The pH optimum was 4.0 and temperature optimum 60°C. β-Xylosidase was competitively inhibited by xylose and the inhibition constant was 2.3 mM. The purified enzyme also showed α-arabinofuranosidase activity.. AB - The β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) of Trichoderma reesei was purified and its characteristics and use in the hydrolysis of steamed birch xylan were studied. The enzyme was a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 100000 as determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis and its isoelectric point was 4.7. The pH optimum ...
This study tested the effectiveness of single and combined applications of Trichoderma and rhizobacterial strains to control white root rot (WRR) caused by Rosellinia necatrix in avocado plants. Three Trichoderma, two T. atroviride and one T. virens monoconidal strains and four bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and two P. chlororaphis) were assayed to determine their compatibilities in vitro. In addition, the effects of the bacterial filtrates were evaluated against the Trichoderma strains and reciprocally; these filtrates were applied alone or in combination to determine their effectiveness against R. necatrix. Individual control agents or combinations of them were applied to avocado plants that were artificially inoculated with a virulent R. necatrix strain. Compatibility between the combined Trichoderma applications and the bacterial strains was observed and these combinations significantly improved the control of R. necatrix during the in vitro experiments. ...
Hydrophobins are small surface active proteins that are produced by filamentous fungi. The surface activity of hydrophobin proteins leads to the formation of a film at the air-water interface and adsorption to surfaces. The formation of these hydrophobin films and coatings is important in many stages of fungal development. Furthermore, these properties make hydrophobins interesting for potential use in technical applications. The surfactant-like properties of hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei were studied at the air-water interface, at solid surfaces, and in solution. The hydrophobin HFBI was observed to spontaneously form a cohesive film on a water drop. The film was imaged using atomic force microscopy from both sides, revealing a monomolecular film with a defined molecular structure. The use of hydrophobins as surface immobilization carriers for enzymes was studied using fusion proteins of HFBI or HFBII and an enzyme. Furthermore, sitespecifically modified variants of HFBI were shown to ...
The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of tested pathogens but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a positive correlation between the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma isolates towards fungal pathogens and their lytic enzyme production. The Trichoderma isolates were initially sorted according to morphology and based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence similarity, the isolates were
Five Iranian Trichoderma isolates from species T. viride, T. viridescens, T. asperellum, T. longibrachiatum and T. citrinoviride-selected from the Fungal Collection of the Bu Ali Sina University,...
Trichoderma harzianum QID74 protein: inducible cell wall protein isolated from Trichoderma harzianum; 25.3% identical to BR3 protein; amino acid sequence in first source
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Soil fungus condiophore and conidia (Trichoderma sp.). Trichoderma is a mould that is a widespread saprobe in temperate to tropical areas commonly found in soil and wood. This soil fungus is involved in decomposition of plant material and readily degrades cellulose. Inhalation of the conidia or the microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOC) may cause symptoms similar to those of Stachybotrys reactions. It has been know to cause lung infections and peritonitis. Some species are considered to be parasitic on other fungi; they can grow towards hyphae of other fungi, coil about them in a lectin-mediated reaction and degrade cell walls of the target fungi. This process (mycoparasitism) limits growth and activity of plant pathogenic fungi. This antagonistic behaviour has led to their use as agents of biological control of some fungi causing plant disease. Magnification: x1,400 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/3107
Mycoparasitism is considered a major contributor to fungus-fungus antagonism. The necrotrophs, primarily Trichoderma species, have a wider host range and less-specific mode of action, and perhaps for this reason more field and greenhouse trials have made use of these. Trichoderma species are focused in this chapter, because they have been the focus of the most work at the molecular and cellular levels. The interaction of Trichoderma with soilborne pathogenic fungi is an excellent example of necrotrophic mycoparasitism. Drastic reduction of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by knockout of adenylate cyclase leads to slow growth and loss of mycoparasitism in T. virens. In T. atroviride, mutants in the ortholog of the same mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene, tmk1, showed increased coiling but reduced mycoparasitism in confrontation assays. A potentiation in the gene expression enables Trichoderma-treated plants to be more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Chytrids parasitizing vesicular
Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the major yield limiting factors of melons in tropical and subtropical regions. For eco-friendly and effective management of the disease, 24 gamma induced mutants from Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated against three isolates of the pathogen representing three geographically different regions viz. Khorasan (isolate 1), Garmsar (isolate 2) and Khuzestan (isolate 3). The isolates of Trichoderma (mutants and wild type) were evaluated against the pathogen in dual culture and through production of volatile and non-volatile inhibitors. Maximum growth inhibition was observed in Th1, Th4, Th15, Th9 and Th22 mutants after three days. In greenhouse evaluation against M. phaseolina (isolate 1) among the inoculated treatments minimum plant infection was observed in Th9 treatment (28% disease reduction) as compared to infected control and among the uninoculated treatments Th1and Th9 mutants resulted in maximum growth of roots and shoots of melon plants as compared to uninfected
Clear differences in the number and nature of GH proteins secreted by S4F8 and Rut C30 were evident, with S4F8 expressing a larger range of GH families (32 versus 24 GH families in S4F8 and Rut C30, respectively), and more protein representatives per GH family (Figure 3). More proteins belonging to GH families 3 (β-glucosidase/β-xylosidase), 5 (various), 11 (endoxylanase), 16 (transglycosylase and glucanosyltransferase), 28 (polygalacturonase), 31 (α-glucosidase/α-xylosidase), 62 (α-L/N-arabinofuranosidase), 72 (glucanosyltransglycosylase) and 92 (mannosidase) were detected for S4F8. Representatives of GH families 10 (endoxylanase), 12 (endoglucanase), 15 (starch-related), 17 (glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase), 18 (chitinase), 43 (xylosidase), 47 (α-mannosidase), 79 (glucoronidase), 93 (exo-arabinase) and 95 (fucosidase) were unique to S4F8, whereas only representatives of GH families 30 (β-glucocerebrosidase) and 61 (endoglucanases, recently reclassified as copper-dependent lytic monooxygenases ...
In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the total content of the CAZymes in T. harzianum T6776, which is widely used in biologic control and has recently been the focus of studies related to enzymes involved in the degradation of vegetal biomass. Furthermore, we performed a comparison with other Trichoderma spp. (T. reesei, T atroviride and T. virens), completed an expression analysis via RNA-Seq and explored functional diversity through a phylogenetic analysis. Thus, we present the most complete report on the total CAZymes annotated for the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum.. Until recently, most studies involving T. harzianum were restricted to investigating its high biocontrol capacity [5, 34]. However, our research group has performed many studies evaluating the biotechnological potential of this species. Horta et al. (2014) [19] determined the transcriptome profile of this fungus during biomass degradation and delimited groups of overexpressed genes. Crucello et al. (2015) ...
A novel type of model substrates, i.e. immobilized p-aminophenyl-β-D-cellooligosaccharides, was developed and used in the study of exocellulases. The two major cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma reesei, CBH I and CBH II were used as representative enzymes. p-Aminophenyl derivatives of cellobiose (PAPG₂), cellotriose (PAPG₃), and cellotetraose (PAPG₄) were synthesized from the reaction of p-nitrophenol and peracetylated glycosyl bromide of the corresponding cellooligosaccharides under the phase-transfer catalyzed conditions, followed by deacetylation and catalytic hydrogenation. p-Aminophenyl cellooligosaccharides were then tethered via their amino functional groups to N-hydroxy succinimide-activated agarose. The ability of CBH I and CBH II to associate with and catalyze the hydrolysis of reducing end tethered cellooligosaccharides was tested. CBH I catalyzed the hydrolysis of free PAPG₂ but CBH II did not. Both CBH I and CBH II reversibly bound, but did not hydrolyze, immobilized ...
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Aceptado 10 Marzo 2010.. Resumen. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss) y Sclerotinia minor (Sm) afectan severamente más de 400 especies de plantas, y pueden causar reducciones en rendimiento por arriba del 50%. Con el propósito de obtener microorganismos potenciales para el control de ambos patógenos, se realizó el aislamiento de cepas de Trichoderma a partir de muestras de suelo con diferente uso agrícola y forestal. Setenta y un aislados fúngicos de Trichoderma (IBA) fueron obtenidos a través de técnica de trampas con esclerocios. Subsecuentemente, se evaluó su capacidad micoparasítica sobre micelio y esclerocios de ambos fitopatógenos mediante cultivos duales in vitro. Los más altos porcentajes de colonización (,90%) de las cepas de Trichoderma sobre Ss y Sm fueron observados para los aislamientos IBA 3, IBA 4, IBA 38, e IBA 54. En general, la habilidad de los aislamientos de Trichoderma para parasitar y degradar esclerocios fue agresiva en los aislamientos IBA 3, IBA 4, IBA 23, IBA 38, ...
Cellulolytic enzymes capable of efficiently degrading crystalline cellulose are a complex mixture of endo- (endoglucanases) and exo-acting (cellobiohydrolases) enzymes. One approach to separating these enzymes is affinity chromatography. A new ligand, p-aminophenyl l-thio-β-D-cellobioside (APTC), is introduced for this purpose. The property of APTC in affinity chromatography is demonstrated using Trichoderma reesei cellulases. The behavior of these enzymes on APTC-affinity column was essentially equivalent to that reported for the same enzymes on p-aminobenzyl 1-thio-β- D-cellobioside (ABTC)-columns; ABTC being the traditional ligand for affinity chromatography of exocellulases. The primary advantage of the APTC ligand is its ease of preparation. The affinity between CBHs and APTC may be considerably affected by nonspecific interactions. In this study, the significance of nonspecific protein/matrix interactions in affinity chromatography of cellulolytic enzymes is evaluated. The role of pH, ...
Effect of Natural and Pretreated Soybean Hulls on Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei. (A. M. Coffman, Q. Li, L.-K. Ju) Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 91 (8), 1331-1338 (2014). View Article. Promoting Pellet Growth of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 by Surfactants for Easy Separation and Enhanced Cellulase Production. (N.V. Callow and L.-K. Ju) Enzyme and Microbial Technology 50(6-7), 311-317 (2012). View Article. Cellulase production by continuous culture of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 using acid hydrolysate prepared to retain more oligosaccharides for induction. (C.-M. Lo, Q. Zhang, N. V. Callow and L.-K. Ju) Bioresource Technology. 101(2), 717-23 (2010). View Article. Cell immobilization with polyurethane foam for retaining Trichoderma reesei cells during foam fractionation for cellulase collection. (Q. Zhang, C.-M. Lo, and L.-K. Ju) Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 156, 12-23 (2009). View Article. Cellulase production by cocultures of Hypocrea jecorina Rut C30 and Candida ...
Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we ...
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phdthesis{a42f4c58-3e50-41b9-87ac-a3c37465f8bc, abstract = {The enzymatic degradation of wood polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose is an important process in nature. In addition, cellulases and hemicellulases can be used in industrial applications. Fuel ethanol can potentially be produced from wood by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose followed by yeast fermentation of the formed sugars.,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, In this thesis, fungal glycoside hydrolases, cellulases and hemicellulases were studied with the aim of increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and lignocellulose. The focus was mainly on cellulases from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. However, lignocellulose also contains hemicellulose and studies of hemicellulases are included,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, In Paper I-IV the mechanisms involved in cellulose degradation were investigated. Features of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis such as synergism, decreasing hydrolysis rate ...
Information about the open-access article Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.) in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
Information about the open-access article Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.) in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
Abstract: Background and Objective: Olive trees by products (OTB) as agro-waste not efficiently used and left it without treatment may cause serious economical, social and environmental problems. Biological treatments for such wastes can upgrade their nutritive values to be used as alternative feeds for ruminants. Investigate if their synergism between T. viride and S. cerevisiae and impact of each of them or their mixture on OTB digestibility and lactating Barki ewes productivity are the main objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: Early lactating Barki ewes were randomly assigned into four groups of seven animals each using complete random design. Ewes were fed (4% of their body weight DM), 70% concentrate feed mixture (CFM)+30% untreated OTB (control group), 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with Trichoderma viride (R1), 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (R2) and 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with T. viride+S. cerevisiae (R3). Results: No synergism was noted between T. viride ...
Author summary Fungal pathogens pose an emerging threat in crop production and thus human health. Trichoderma atroviride is considered a potential biocontrol agent against a broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Cell wall chitin was identified as promising target to combat fungal diseases. Here we uncovered the regulation of chitin and chitosan synthesis and their contribution to dynamic cell wall remodeling as protective components in self-defense reactions during the mycoparasitic attack of Trichoderma. The systematic evaluation of the newly identified chitin-modifying enzymes confirmed their concerted interplay and their essential contribution to a successful mycoparasitic invasion. These findings provide further valuable, more specific information on targeting critical factors in the fungal cell wall adaptation process for therapeutic purposes as well as improved biocontrol applications.
A 1,4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.91) was purified from the culture liquid of Trichoderma reesei by using biospecific sorption on amorphous cellulose and immunoaffinity chromatography. A single protein band in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and one arc in immunoelectrophoresis corresponded to the enzyme activity. The Mr was 65 000. The pI was 4.2-3.6. The purified enzyme contained about 10% hexose. The enzyme differs from previously described cellobiohydrolases in being more effective in the hydrolysis of cellulose. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatially segregated SNARE protein interactions in living fungal cells. AU - Valkonen, Mari. AU - Kalkman, Eric R.. AU - Saloheimo, Markku. AU - Penttilä, Merja. AU - Read, Nick D.. AU - Duncan, Rory R.. N1 - CA2: TK402 ISI: BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. PY - 2007/8/3. Y1 - 2007/8/3. N2 - The machinery for trafficking proteins through the secretory pathway is well conserved in eukaryotes, from fungi to mammals. We describe the isolation of the snc1, sso1, and sso2 genes encoding exocytic SNARE proteins from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The localization and interactions of the T. reesei SNARE proteins were studied with advanced fluorescence imaging methods. The SSOI and SNCI proteins co-localized in sterol-independent clusters on the plasma membrane in subapical but not apical hyphal regions. The vesicle SNARE SNCI also localized to the apical vesicle cluster within the Spitzenkörper of the growing hyphal tips. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and ...
The ability of a local isolate fungus Trichoderma harzianum to produce the enzyme complex cellulase in a solid medium was investigated. It was observed that this fungus had intermediate activity to produce this enzyme and the activity ratio was 3.875. This isolate gave highest production of β-glucosidase on the basis of each ml of nutrient medium and each gram of biomass (3.366 unit/ml and 734.93 unit/gram) respectively after eight days of incubation. Sucrose as a carbon source gave highest production of β-glucosidase (3.316 unit/ml). Carboxymethyl cellulose gave highest production of β-glucosidase on the basis of biomass ( 13486.3 nit/gram).. ...
Great research paper on Trichoderma Abstract: Nature Reviews Microbiology 2, 43-56 (January 2004) | doi:10.1038/nrmicro797 Trichoderma species -
Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable ...
The purpose of this Application is to seek approval to permit the use of the enzyme Triacylglycerol lipase from Trichoderma reesei as a processing aid in the manufacturing of cereal-based products.. Approval Report - 21 March 2019 (pdf 887 kb) , (word 144 kb). ...
Trichoderma-derived secondary metabolites comprise non-ribosomal peptides such as peptaibiotics, siderophores and diketopiperazines-like gliotoxin and gliovirin, polyketides, terpenes, pyrones (such as 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone, 6-PP), and isocyane metabolites. However, it has to be borne in mind that the production of these substances is species- and even strain-dependent and not the whole repertoire will be biosynthesized by a given fungus under laboratory conditions as specific triggering stimuli may be required. In this project, we functionally characterize selected genes and gene clusters involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and assess their contribution to the antagonistic activity of Trichoderma mycoparasites. Furthermore, the chemical cross-talk by small molecules during the fungus-fungus interaction will be exploited for triggering metabolite production ...
An enzyme feed additive is provided comprising a xylanase, a protease, and optionally a β-glucanase. The ratio of the units of xylanase activity per unit amount of the feed additive to the units of β-glucanase activity per same unit amount of the feed additive is 1:0-0.25. Preferably, the xylanase is the low pI xylanase and/or the high pI xylanase obtained from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Preferably, the protease is a mutant subtilisin comprising a substitution at the amino acid residue position equivalent to tyr+217 of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subtilisin with leucine.
Digestive enzyme blend Ingredients: MEDICINAL INGREDIENTS: Amylase (Aspergillus oryzae) 5 000 DU Lipase (Rhizopus oryzae) 150 FCC LU Glucoamylase (Aspergillus niger) 4.5 AGU Malt diastase (Hordeum vulgare) 270 DPå¡ Invertase (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 100 SU Cellulase (Trichoderma longibrachiatum) 400 CU Pectinase (Asp
Biological control agents are alternatives to chemical pesticides in the management of plant diseases. Currently, hundreds of bioproducts are commercially available in international market varying mainly in antagonistic microorganisms and formulation. We screened four Trichoderma-based products as to their efficacy in controlling Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) under protected and field environments and their effect on soybean seeds sanity and physiological qualities. We also tested application technologies through seed microbiolization and foliar spraying to deliver the microorganisms, and their compatibility with chemical fungicides. In vitro assays showed that all Trichoderma strains were antagonistic to S. sclerotiorum evidencing hyperparasitic activity. Moreover, the bioproducts reduced fungi incidence on soybean seeds, promoted faster seedling emergence and did not hamper seeds vigor. Increases of 14 and 37% were registered for root length and shoot fresh weight over that of the untreated control
Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are among the most successful bio-fungicides in todayâ s agriculture although our understanding of th...
Various enzymatic cocktails were produced from two Trichoderma reesei strains, a cellulase hyperproducer strain and a strain with β-glucosidase activity overexpression. By using various carbon sources (lactose, glucose, xylose, hemicellulosic hydrolysate) for strains growth, contrasted enzymatic activities were obtained. The enzymatic cocktails presented various levels of efficiency for the hydrolysis of cellulose Avicel into glucose, in presence of xylans, or not. These latter were also hydrolyzed with different extents according to cocktails. The most efficient cocktails (TR1 and TR3) on Avicel were richer in filter paper activity (FPU) and presented a low ratio FPU/β-glucosidase activity. Cocktails TR2 and TR5 which were produced on the higher amount of hemicellulosic hydrolysate, possess both high xylanase and β-xylosidase activities, and were the most efficient for xylans hydrolysis. When hydrolysis of Avicel was conducted in presence of xylans, a decrease of glucose release occurred for all
IgE-mediated reactions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that T. viride may induce symptoms of asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in sensitised individuals. (17) However, few studies have been reported to date; it is possible that the allergy occurs more frequently than has been reported.. The closely related genus member T. citrinoviride may play a role in the aetiology of adult-onset asthma, or serve as an indicator of other causal factors. (18). A 54-year-old woman presented with dyspnoea, cough, chest pain, and fever. A diagnosis of HP was made by a combination of clinical, radiologic, physiologic, and immunologic studies. T. viride was isolated in cultures of water samples from an ultrasonic humidifier installed in the patients home a year earlier. Precipitating immunoglobulin G antibodies to T viride were detected in the patients serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patient remained symptom-free after the humidifier was removed from her home. (17). A 34-year-old sawmill ...
Two parts of xylanases(Part A and Part B) were separated and purified from a culture filtrate of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 by ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by DEAESephadex A50 and SPSephadex C50 column chromatography.Part A and Part B were further purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G100 column chromatography.The molecular weights of Part A and Part B were estimated to be 20 300 and 13 500 by SDSPAGE chromatography.The optimal reaction conditions for Part A and Part B were at 45 ℃,pH 4.5,and at 55 ℃,pH 5.5,respectively.Part A was stable in a pH range from 3.0 to 5.5,while Part B was stable in a pH range from 3.5 to 7.5.The major products of enzymatic hydrolysis with Part A were xylooligosacchrides,with a small amount of xylose,while that with Part B were merely xylooligosacchrides.
The food enzyme cellulase (4‐(1,3;1,4)‐beta‐D‐glucan 4‐glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.4) is produced with the genetically modified Trichoderma reesei strain DP‐Nzc36 by Danisco US Inc. The genetic modifications do not give rise to safety concerns. The food en .... ...
The food enzyme cellulase (4‐(1,3;1,4)‐beta‐D‐glucan 4‐glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.4) is produced with the genetically modified Trichoderma reesei strain DP‐Nzc36 by Danisco US Inc. The genetic modifications do not give rise to safety concerns. The food en .... ...