Abstract. To contribute to a better understanding of the molecular bases of the circadian biological rhythms in Chagas disease vectors, in this work we identified functional domains in the sequences of the clock protein PERIOD (PER) in Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans and analyzed the expression of the PER gene at mRNA level in T. infestans. The PER protein sequences comparison among these species and those from other insects revealed that the most similar regions are the PAS domains and the most variable is the COOH-terminal. On the other hand, the per gene expression in nervous tissue of adult T. infestans varies with a daily canonical rhythm in groups of individuals maintained under photoperiod (light/dark, LD) and constant dark (DD), showing a significant peak of expression at sunset. The pattern of expression detected in LD persists under the DD condition. As expected, in the group maintained in constant light (LL), no daily increase was detected in per transcript level. Besides, the
To follow the developmental effects of feeding of the insect host after long starvation periods, the population density and composition of an established infection of Trypanosoma cruzi in the rectum of Triatoma infestans were determined 60 days after the last feeding (daf) and then at different intervals after feeding. The original population decreased and then increased up to the 10th daf. In starved bugs, about 30% were spheromastigotes (including intermediate forms), 20% epimastigotes, and 50% trypomastigotes, but one daf, these forms represented 2%, 70%, and 10%, respectively. In addition, one daf there were about 10% giant cells, i.e., a multiple division stage. In the following two days, this form represented on average 30-50% of the total population, but it then disappeared nearly completely. Thus, giant cells evidently develop by rapid growth of epimastigotes, if conditions become optimal after long starvation periods of the vector.
ABSTRACT. In search of a suitable vector species for xenodiagnosis of humans and animals with chronic Chagas disease we first investigated the reactions of different vector species to acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Vector species utilized in this study were: Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata, all well adapted to human habitats; Triatoma rubrovaria and Rhodnius neglectus both considered totally wild species; Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma pseudomaculata and Triatoma brasiliensis, all essentially sylvatic but some with domiciliary tendencies and others restricted to peridomestic biotopes with incipient colonization of human houses after successful eradication of T. infestans. Results summarized in Table IV suggest the following order of infectivity among the 9 studied vector species: P. megistus with 97.8% of infected bugs, T. rubrovaria with 95% of positive bugs a close second followed by T. Pseudomaculata with 94.3% and R. neglectus with ...
INTRODUCTION. Eye color in Triatoma infestans is genetically controlled at a single autosomal locus in such a way that black eyes are produced by the dominant gene (wild) and red eyes by the homozygous recessive gene (mutant) (Wygodzinsky & Briones, 1954; Dujardin & Bermúdez, 1986). No significant differences in oviposition or egg hatching rates have been associated with the parental eye-color phenotypes in this species (Pires et al., 2002). Although no impairment of mating attractiveness or mating success has been related to the red-eyed color, it has been suggested that sperm cells from red-eyed males have a lower viability compared to those of black-eyed specimens, thus explaining why red-eyed mutants of T. infestans are uncommon in natural populations (Pires et al., 2002).. At the cellular level, nuclear phenotypes in the Malpighian tubules of red-eyed T. infestans do not differ from those of black-eyed individuals, at least under full nourishment conditions (Gonçalves et al., ...
Triatoma indictiva is an arthropod in the assassin bug family of Reduviidae, and is an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is the protozoan that causes Chagas Disease, which affects approximately eight million people a year in the western hemisphere alone. Triatoma indictiva is found in Mexico and throughout the southern United States, including Arizona and Texas. Triatoma indictiva is between 20 and 30 millimetres (0.79 and 1.18 in) long when fully developed and can be identified taxonomically by their pear shape, tapered beak, observing the length of the scape and the red vestiges on its side. T. inductiva are paurometabolous and undergo 3 life stages including: egg, nymph and adult. The head and thorax of T. inductiva are black except for the red markings of its side and the slightly lighter colored third section of the leg. T. indictiva has a narrow head and tri-segmented antennae, with black forewings that cover the abdomen. Triatoma indictiva are generally nidicolous (born ...
Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources. In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources. Fourteen vertebrate species
Author Summary The Chagas disease parasite, transmitted to humans by triatomine bugs, remains a leading cause of heart and digestive disease in Latin America. Pesticide spraying has effectively halted transmission in most of southern South America, especially where the bugs live exclusively inside houses. In Mesoamerica, bugs living in the forest readily reinfest treated houses. In addition, one of the main species of insect that transmits Chagas in Mesoamerica, Triatoma dimidiata, although it looks similar in different localities, may consist of genetically distinct populations, even different species, which differ in how efficiently they transmit the parasite: characteristics which confound control efforts. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA were analyzed to characterize different populations of T. dimidiata from Mexico and Central America. Both the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA show that there is a very distinct population of T. dimidiata, perhaps even a different species, that lives in very close
Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Using an experimental set-up mimicking rural mud-and-thatch houses, we evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars on the feeding success and survival of Triatoma infestans, the main T. cruzi vector in Latin America. Seven collared and three uncollared control dogs were exposed to colonized T. infestans at day 0 (i.e. before attachment of collars), at 15 days, and then monthly for 3 months post collar attachment. Following overnight exposure to uncollared dogs, 96% (1473/1538) of bugs fed, of which 51% (746/1473) fully engorged. Feeding rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs for up to 1 month post collar attachment with the lowest rates of 91% (551/604) observed at day 30 (P,0.05). Amongst those bugs that fed, engorgement rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs throughout the trial, during which average rates were 31% (543/1768) (P,0.001). No collar effect on ...
The blood intake of Triatoma infestans (Klug 1834) and its relationship with the temperature (T) of the food source has been analyzed. The experimental device allows to change independently T of the feeder surface and of the blood contained. Rostral reflex and bite are evoked by the T of the feeder surface. Blood T influences the number of feeding insects. On the other hand, crop filling is independent of blood T, and is not an all-or-none process. ...
Introduction. In Northeast Brazil, the main vectors for American trypanosomiasis are currently Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, two widely distributed native species. They are captured in domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas which they reinvade from natural ecotopes 1. The potential for re-infestation of peridomiciliary annexes is high 2. Both of these vectors lodge in corral fences, chicken coops, and piles of various materials found in and around numerous buildings in this farming and livestock area 3,4,5. However, the joint effects of peridomiciliary structural features, the number of synanthropic animals, and sociological factors on domiciliary infestation are still not well known.. In order to broaden the knowledge on risk factors for peridomiciliary re-infestation by sylvatic triatomines, the objective of this study was to assess the main characteristics of dwellings (environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors are the independent variables) associated with T. ...
To evaluate human risk for Chagas disease, we molecularly identified blood meal sources and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among 49 Triatoma sanguisuga kissing bugs in Louisiana, USA. Humans accounted for the second most frequent blood source. Of the bugs that fed on humans, ≈40% were infected with T. cruzi, revealing transmission potential ...
We analyzed the main karyologic changes that have occurred during the dispersion of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. We identified two allopatric groups, named Andean and non-Andean. The Andean specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. These heterochromatin differences are the likely cause of a striking DNA content variation (approximately 30%) between Andean and non-Andean insects. Our study, together with previous historical and genetic data, suggests that T. infestans was originally a sylvatic species, with large quantities of DNA and heterochromatin, inhabiting the Andean region of Bolivia. However, the spread of domestic T. infestans throughout the non-Andean regions only involved insects with an important reduction of heterochromatin and DNA amounts. We propose that heterochromatin and DNA variation mainly reflected adaptive genomic changes that contribute to the ability of
We analyzed the main karyologic changes that have occurred during the dispersion of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. We identified two allopatric groups, named Andean and non-Andean. The Andean specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. These heterochromatin differences are the likely cause of a striking DNA content variation (approximately 30%) between Andean and non-Andean insects. Our study, together with previous historical and genetic data, suggests that T. infestans was originally a sylvatic species, with large quantities of DNA and heterochromatin, inhabiting the Andean region of Bolivia. However, the spread of domestic T. infestans throughout the non-Andean regions only involved insects with an important reduction of heterochromatin and DNA amounts. We propose that heterochromatin and DNA variation mainly reflected adaptive genomic changes that contribute to the ability of
Bautista, Norma et al. Comportamiento biol gico de Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) en el estado de Morelos, M xico. Bol. chil. parasitol., Jul 2001, vol.56, no.3-4, p.54-58. ISSN 0365- ...
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Triatoma sordida is a peridomestic Triatominae that could play an important role in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, although its vectorial competence is not well known. The aim of this work was to evaluate two aspects of the vectorial competence: the feeding behaviour and defaecation patterns, and to compare them with T.infestans. The feeding and defaecation patterns were studied in adults and fifth instar nymphs of T. sordida fed ad libitum on a restrained pigeon. The results showed how the blood meal size controls excretion behaviour. Blood intake and time to first defaecation showed a significant negative correlation. Adults and nymphs frequently defaecated during the blood meal, reaching the maximum frequency within the first 10 minutes ...
Blanchard began his service with Synovus Financial Corp. in June 1970 and served as CEO of Synovus from 1971 until being named Chairman of the Board in July 2005. Blanchard retired from Synovus in October 2006. In 2011, he partnered with the Jordan Company, a Columbus-based real estate and investment firm, to create Jordan-Blanchard Capital.
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Dear all, I am new here and I was wondering whether there are related spirits in the net. I am studying the host finding behavior of a South American bug called Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Triatominae). The insect is an important vector of Chagas disease, a relative of the sleeping sickness. So far, I looked into attractive odors, but I want to be more general in the future, and want to learn about the role of other stimuli as well. I would be interested to exchange views and knowledge with people studying similar topics in arthropod pests and disease vectors. I am especially interested in the application of this research in their biological control, as well as the biological control of parasites in general. And because I need a break from all those mammalian host odors every once and a while, I am also interested the application of essential oils from aromatic plants (not only) in pest and parasite control. Andreas --,[email protected] Andreas Rose Lehrstuhl Boeckh Institut fuer Zoologie Universitaet ...
This species is often confused with B. krataios in the aquarium trade, with the latter also having been known as B. sp. Kapuas prior to description.. The two can easily be told apart as the caudal-fin is rounded in B. krataios but spade-shaped and more-extended in adult B. dimidiata.. B. dimidiata also differs from B. krataois in the following characters: opercular scales gold in life (vs. turquoise in B. krataios); body reddish-brown (vs. yellowish-brown); fins reddish (vs. yellowish); 29-30 lateral scales (vs. 30-32); 17-18 predorsal scales (vs. 20-21); caudal peduncle depth 11.8-14.5 % SL (vs. 15.3-17.0 %); 12-14 lateral scales below dorsal-fin origin (vs. 14-16); 6-7 lateral scales above the anal-fin origin (vs. 7-8); orbit diameter 27.2-30.6 % HL (vs. 22.6-24.6 %); interorbital width 22.2-25.0 % HL (vs. 27.5-30.7 %); snout length 14.8-19.6 % HL (vs. 20.8-22.6 %).. Together these two comprise the B. dimidiata group of closely-related species within the genus, members of which can be ...
Loza, Ariel, Talaga, Adrianna, Herbas, Gladys, Canaviri, Ruben Jair, Cahuasiri, Thalia, Luck, Laura, Guibarra, Alvaro, Goncalves, Raquel, Pereira, Juan Antonio, Gomez, Sonia A., Picado, Albert, Messenger, Louisa Alexandra, Bern, Caryn and Courtenay, Orin. (2017) Systemic insecticide treatment of the canine reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi induces high levels of lethality in Triatoma infestans, a principal vector of Chagas disease. Parasites & Vectors, 10 (1). 344. ISSN 1756-3305 Lythgoe, Katrina A., Pellis, Lorenzo and Fraser, Christophe. (2013) Is HIV short-sighted? Insights from a multistrain nested model. Evolution, Volume 67 (Number 10). pp. 2769-2782. ISSN 0014-3820 ...
Bridge-like connections between axoneme and mitochondrial derivatives of Triatoma infestans are identical to those of other Heteropterans where they have been identified as a typical characteristic of the spermatozoa of this group of insects. Whole-mount preparations revealed bridge localization in the grooves between mitochondrial cristae. Bridges occur regularly along the axoneme with a spacing of approximately 52 nm and are not in horizontal register on opposite sides of the axoneme. Shearing of flagellar organelles demonstrated strong attachment of bridges directly to the mitochondrial derivatives at one extremity, while at the other, bridges pull out connecting fibers from the axoneme (after sodium citrate treatment). © 1988 ...
Most of the population is characterised by living in unsecure housing, leading to an absence of healthy home habits which, together with poor environmental conditions, favour the vectors (Triatoma infestans) spread. The regions health services face technical and equipment limitations when it comes to diagnosing, treating and following-up patients. This is aggravated by low community participation in health management ...
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Ms. Bhatt - Good morning, everyone. Welcome to the press conference on the latest World Economic Outlook, one of the IMFs flagship publications. Im Gita Bhatt, from the External Relations Department. This is a live, on-the-record press briefing. Let me introduce the panel. We have today with us Mr. Olivier Blanchard, Economic Counselor and Director of the Research Department. Next to me is Jörg Decressin, Deputy Director of the Research Department. Next to Mr. Blanchard is Mr. Thomas Helbling, Chief of the World Economic Studies Division. And next to him is Mr. Abdul de Guia Abiad of the World Economic Studies Division. Without much ado, I hand over to Mr. Blanchard who will give some opening remarks, and then well open the floor to questions.. MR BLANCHARD: Thank you, and good morning to all of you. I hope my voice will last for the duration of the this press conference. I apologize to you if it doesnt.. For the last six months the world economy has been on what is best described as a ...
Cultural Competence Case Presentation Chest Pain (Cultural, Race) Janice Blanchard MD PhD Case Scenario/History A 50 year old African American woman presents with chest pain. She states that the pain has
Connect with Dr. Richard Mcgee, MD, Hematology and Oncology, Blanchard, ID. Video chat, send a message, ask a text question, or make a virtual appointment on the doctors Virtual Practice on HealthTap.
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Even though Chagas Disease currently infects an estimated 300,000 to 1,000,000 people in the United States, very few people, including doctors would recognize this disease if they saw it. Its a vector-borne illness carried by the Kissing Bug, an insect that looks a little bit like a leaf bug (except without the flared legs…kissing bugs have straight, smooth legs ...
The Colors of Feelings from Thomas Blanchard on Vimeo.. Blanchards most recent film "Memories of Paintings" is an experimental dream-like video, where the compositions have been created out of paint, oil, milk and soap liquid. Though the result is a complex visual, the process Blanchard used to create it is relatively simple: First, he would pour milk onto a plate, and then draw shapes through the use of a syringe; planetoid-like balls are created with paint which is injected into a concoction of grapeseed oil and soap liquid. Blanchard then blows over the mixture to create movement and captures it with a macro lens.. ...
Because there appears to be so many full-timers around the campfire, both new faces and veteran RVers, it seems proper to readdress the basics of domicile: what is domicile; why is domicile an issue and what are some domicile factors?
Downloadable! The subject of this paper is to formulate an approach of determining dependencies between socio-economic aspects and migration phenomena and also make an attempt to apply it for the analysis of internal migration in Poland in 2004-2011. A construction of econometric gravity model with using of taxonomical measure was presented and also a significance, intensity and impact direction of selected socio-economic aspects on domestic migration flows was identified. Inhabitants of economically better developed voivodships are much more mobile territorially; a poor situation of a region is an impeding factor of migratory movement. Regional labour market situation constitutes a deciding reason of population inflow, while living situation plays a negligible role. Migration scope is relatively slight in Poland, significant population flows take place between neighbouring regions. Economic cycle affects an intensity of domestic population flows.
Editors note: This letter was submitted to the Journal after Blanchards reply to the other letters about the Blanchard et al. (2008) article was in production; hence, the reply by Blanchard (2008) does not refer to the content of this letter. ...
Evano, G.; Blanchard, N. Preface, p xix, in Copper-Mediated Cross-coupling Reactions, Eds. Evano, G. and Blanchard, N.; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, ISBN: 978-1-118-06045-2, November 2013 ...
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Heres a high-five to my awesome sponsors (I personally raised $600), the 500 racers, the 40 volunteers, the race coordinators, Chris, Missy and Bali Klug, Warren and Kathy Klug and all of the CKF team. If you ever doubt that a small group of committed people can make a difference, join me next time for…
Our Ireland funds industry panel talks about the countrys role as a domicile and how it is adopting to regulatory changes, such as Fatca.
Genera: Ammostyphrus - Aphelosternus - Axelinus - Baeckmanniolus - Chalcionellus - Chelyoxenus - Chivaenius - Ctenophilothis - Dahlgrenius - Eopachylopus - Eremosaprinus - Euspilotus - Exaesiopus - Geomysaprinus - Gnathoncus - Hypocacculus - Hypocaccus - Microsaprinus - Monachister - Myrmetes - Neopachylopus - Notosaprinus - Pachylopus - Parahypocaccus - Paramyrmetes - Paraphilothis - Paravolvulus - Philothis - Philoxenus - Pholioxenus - Phoxonotus - Reichardtia - Reichardtiolus - Saprinillus - Saprinodes - Saprinus - Sartrapister - Styphrus - Terametopon - Tomogenius - Xenonychus - Xenophilothis - Xerosaprinus - Zorius. Name. Saprininae Blanchard, 1845. References. Lackner, T. 2010: Review of the Palaearctic genera of Saprininae (Coleoptera: Histeridae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 50(supplementum): 1-254. ISSN: 0374-1036 ...
S.C.BLANCHARD,J.D.PUGLISI. SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE A LOOP OF 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA.. PROC.NATL.ACAD.SCI.USA V. 98 3720 2001 ASTM PNASA6 US ISSN 0027-8424 ...
Directed by Dan Ireland. With Harry Connick Jr., Tammy Blanchard, Amanda Bynes, Jennifer Coolidge. A doctor devotes his lifes work to finding a cure for breast cancer.
Baldwin, Beck, Bénassy-Quéré, Blanchard, Corsetti, De Grauwe, den Haan, Giavazzi, Gros, Kalemli-Ozcan, Micossi, Papaioannou, Pesenti, Pissarides , Tabellini, Weder di ...
Shawn Blanchard wasnt always the man he is today. From selling drugs as a teen to working in mayors office, hes using his journey to inspire others.
Casas Louzao C. (1), Sergeant N. (2), Itier J. M. (3), Blanchard V. (4), Vingtdeux V. (2), Ret G. (3), Canton T. (4), Ghestem A. (2), Clark A. (5), Bonici B. (4), Tremp G. (3), Delacourte A. (2), Benoit P. (4) & Pradier L. (4) ...
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This thesis analyses several factors affecting the control of triatomines in Guatemala. There are three synantropic triatomines in Guatemala, i.e., Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata and T. nitida. Their distibution is mainly at an altitude between 800 and 1500 m a.s.l. R. prolixus and T. nitida have localized but scaterred distibution while T. dimidiata is present in 21 of the 22 departments in the country. Several investigations have shown that R. prolixus could be relatively easily eradicated while T. dimidiata may be more difficult to control, since it is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments showing high diversity and a variety of epidemiological characteristics. Based on the incidence of Trypanosma cruzi infection in humans in the distributional areas of the triatomines, R. prolixus appear to be a more competent vector than T. dimidiata. This is despite the fact that these vectors have similar infection rates. Inside houses, R. prolixus and T. dimidiata and in ...
Triatoma dimidiata is currently the main vector of Chagas disease in Mexico, most Central American countries and several zones of Ecuador and Colombia. Although this species has been the subject of several recent phylogeographic studies, the relationship among different populations within the species remains unclear. To elucidate the population genetic structure of T. dimidiata in Colombia, we analyzed individuals from distinct geographical locations using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and 7 microsatellite loci. A clear genetic differentiation was observed among specimens from three Colombian eco-geographical regions: Inter Andean Valleys, Caribbean Plains and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain (SNSM). Additionally, evidence of genetic subdivision was found within the Caribbean Plains region as well as moderate gene flow between the populations from the Caribbean Plains and SNSM regions. The genetic differentiation found among Colombian populations correlates, albeit weakly, with an ...
Abstract. In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at ≤ 3% and peridomestic infestation at ≤ 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions.. ...
El 49 (Ojo de Agua, Santiago del Estero, Argentina) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.