Selecting deciduous trees for zone 7 is easy, and gardeners can choose from a very long list of beautiful, commonly planted deciduous trees. For examples of zone 7 deciduous trees and suggestions that provide fall color or summer shade, click this article.
Changes in tree, liana, and understory plant diversity and community composition in five tropical rain forest fragments varying in area (18-2600 ha) and disturbance levels were studied on the Valparai plateau, Western Ghats. Systematic sampling using small quadrats (totaling 4 ha for trees and lianas, 0.16 ha for understory plants) enumerated 312 species in 103 families: 1968 trees (144 species), 2250 lianas (60 species), and 6123 understory plants (108 species). Tree species density, stem density, and basal area were higher in the three larger (, 100 ha) rain forest fragments but were negatively correlated with disturbance scores rather than area per se. Liana species density, stem density, and basal area were higher in moderately disturbed and lower in heavily disturbed fragments than in the three larger fragments. Understory species density was highest in the highly disturbed 18-ha fragment, due to weedy invasive species occurring with rain forest plants. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ...
These early forest biomass studies were aimed at major or typical forest types, with developed biomass models largely based on stand or sample plot levels. Some biomass models were even based on individual tree data, most of them suited only for certain sites or local areas, not representative of larger regions. These forest carbon assessments were based on estimates of biomass per hectare for our major forest types from purposeful sampling and areas of forest types from our national forest inventory, which is not really suited for monitoring and assessing forest carbon storage.. The International Guidelines for Forest Monitoring, published by IUFRO ([1994]), clearly defined forest biomass as one of the important items of global, regional and national forest monitoring. In order to add forest biomass into the items of national forest inventory of China, the Ministry of Forestry conducted a key program Research on two-variable biomass models and compatible auto-adoptive one-variable biomass ...
Concerns exist about the limited diversity of tree species in agricultural landscapes. Complete tree inventories were carried out on 201 farms from four villages in western Kenya to establish whether significant differences in tree species composition existed between farms, and if so their magnitude and implications for new introductions and plantings. Tree species composition was interpreted to encompass elements of both tree identity and abundance. Tree identity was viewed from both taxonomic and function (e.g. fruit, timber, medicine) perspectives. Novel types of ordination using the Hellinger ecological distance and polynomial Redundancy Analysis indicated wide heterogeneity between farms with respect to tree species composition. For the 12 most prevalent functions of trees, the analyses showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Partitioning of variance identified that village location explained much of the differences between farms suggesting that farmers share tree species within villages ...
Photogrammetric point clouds (PPC) obtained by stereomatching of aerial photographs now have a resolution sufficient to discern individual trees. We have produced such PPCs of a boreal forest and delineated individual tree crowns using a segmentation algorithm applied to the canopy height model derived from the PPC and a lidar terrain model. The crowns were characterized in terms of height and species (spruce, fir, and deciduous). Species classification used the 3D shape of the single crowns and their reflectance properties. The same was performed on a lidar dataset. Results show that the quality of PPC data generally approaches that of airborne lidar. For pixel-based canopy height models, viewing geometry in aerial images, forest structure (dense vs. open canopies), and composition (deciduous vs. conifers) influenced the quality of the 3D reconstruction of PPCs relative to lidar. Nevertheless, when individual tree height distributions were analyzed, PPC-based results were very similar to those
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit.[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit.[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
Restoration of old-growth forest structure is an emerging silvicultural goal, especially in those regions where old-growth abundance falls below the historic range of variability. However, longitudinal studies of old-growth dynamics that can inform silvicultural and policy options are few. We analyzed the change in structure, including stand density, diameter distribution, and the abundance of large live, standing dead, and downed dead trees on 58 late-successional and old-growth plots in Maine, USA, and compared these to regional data from the U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Structural dynamics on the late-successional plots reflected orderly change associated with density-dependent growth and mortality, but dynamics on the old-growth plots were more variable. Some plots experienced heavy mortality associated with beech bark disease. Diameter distributions conformed poorly to a classic exponential distribution, and did not converge toward such a distribution at the plot scale. Although
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recently determined based on research currently being conducted by Tony DAmato, doctoral candidate in Forestry at UMass, and Dr. David Orwig, forest ecologist at the Harvard Forest. This extensive, field-based research builds on the work of previous studies on old-growth forests in Massachusetts and determines the area of old-growth forest in the state on public lands to be approximately 1119 acres. The majority of these old-growth forests are located in the Berkshire Hills and Taconic Mountains of western Massachusetts; however, a considerable acreage is also found on the slopes of Wachusett Mountain in Princeton, MA. More details on the scope of this research as well as a downloadable list of these old-growth areas can be found in the Major Research Topics section. ...
The forests of western Amazonia are among the most diverse tree communities on Earth, yet this exceptional diversity is distributed highly unevenly within and among communities. In particular, a small number of dominant species account for the majority of individuals, whereas the large majority of species are locally and regionally extremely scarce. By definition, dominant species contribute little to local species richness (alpha diversity), yet the importance of dominant species in structuring patterns of spatial floristic turnover (beta diversity) has not been investigated. Here, using a network of 207 forest inventory plots, we explore the role of dominant species in determining regional patterns of beta diversity (community‐level floristic turnover and distance‐decay relationships) across a range of habitat types in northern lowland Peru. Of the 2,031 recorded species in our data set, only 99 of them accounted for 50% of individuals. Using these 99 species, it was possible to ...
Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse
The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of forest management zoning in conserving the biodiversity of Mabira forest reserve. The study sites buffer, production, and strict nature reserve management zones were purposively selected. This was undertaken through investigating woody species diversity, composition and structure. A total of 60 sampling plots with a size of 20 m x10 m were used to collect vegetation data. Variables such as woody plant species identification and counts as well as diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees were done. The result depicted a total of 65 woody species; 39 in the buffer, 19 in productions and 37 in a strict nature reserve. Of these, only 9 trees species were found common to all zones and their Sorensen similarity coefficient was 0.22. The population structure of the buffer and strict nature reserve zones was found to be a J - shape pattern, whereas the production zone showed an inverted J-shape pattern. Higher woody species diversity was depicted in the ...
Lindroth, Richard L. et al. 1993. Responses of Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Productivity, Phytochemistry, and Insect Performance. Ecology 74 (3): 763-777.. ...
Leaf phenology of tropical evergreen forests affects carbon and water fluxes. In an earlier study of a seasonally moist evergreen tropical forest site in the Amazon basin, time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the VEGETATION and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors showed an unexpected seasonal pattern, with higher EVI in the late dry season than in the wet season. In this study we conducted a regional-scale analysis of tropical evergreen forests in South America, using time series data of EVI from MODIS in 2002. The results show a large dynamic range and spatial variations of annual maximum EVI for evergreen forest canopies in the region. In tropical evergreen forests, maximum EVI in 2002 typically occurs during the late dry season to early wet season. This suggests that leaf phenology in tropical evergreen forests is not determined by the seasonality of precipitation. Instead, leaf phenological process may be driven by availability of solar radiation ...
Forest Regeneration and Restoration Conference scheduled on June 28-29, 2021 in June 2021 in Istanbul is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
Detlev Kelm from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin (IZW) and Kerstin Wiesner and Otto von Helversen from the University of Erlangen -Nuremberg report that the deployment of artificial bat roosts significantly increases seed dispersal of a wide range of tropical forest plants into their surroundings, providing a simple and cheap method to speed up natural forest regeneration.. Tropical forests are of global ecological importance. They are a key contributor to the global carbon balance and are host to a major part of the worlds biodiversity. Between 2000 and 2005, worldwide net losses of tropical forest cover averaged 0.18 % annually and regionally even exceeded 1.5 % annually in some Latin American countries. Forest is usually replaced by agriculture. Often soils become rapidly infertile and land is abandoned. Because deforested areas rarely offer much food or protection for seed dispersers such as birds or small mammals, natural forest regeneration is hampered by a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A study of formaldehyde chemistry above a forest canopy. AU - Sumner, Ann Louise. AU - Shepson, Paul B.. AU - Couch, Tara L.. AU - Thornberry, Troy. AU - Carroll, Mary Anne. AU - Sillman, Sandy. AU - Pippin, Margaret. AU - Bertman, Steven. AU - Tan, David. AU - Faloona, Ian. AU - Brune, William. AU - Young, Valerie. AU - Cooper, Owen. AU - Moody, Jennie. AU - Stockwell, William. PY - 2001/10/27. Y1 - 2001/10/27. N2 - Gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO) was measured at a mixed deciduous/coniferous forest site as a part of the PROPHET 1998 summer field intensive. For the measurement period of July 11 through August 20, 1998, formaldehyde mixing ratios ranged from 0.5 to 12 ppb at a height ∼10 m above the forest canopy, with the highest concentrations observed in southeasterly air masses. Concentrations varied on average from a mid-afternoon maximum influenced by photochemical production of 4.0 ppb, to a late night minimum of 2.2 ppb, probably resulting from dry depositional loss. An ...
The three forest types investigated in this study differed in overstory tree composition and the selected forest structure variables (Table 1). Regarding solar radiation variables, it is known that beech crowns transmit only a small proportion of daylight to the forest floor (Ellenberg 1996; Barbier et al. 2008) and that the effective amount of radiation reaching the forest floor is determined by forest structural characteristics and tree species (van Oijen et al. 2005; Barbier et al. 2008; Promis et al. 2008; Martínez Pastur et al. 2012; Kuninaga et al. 2015). According with this, we expected the highest level of solar radiation in deciduous forest, because the canopy of N. pumilio is quite sparse and their leaves are substantially thinner than N. betuloides. However, we were unable to detect differences in solar radiation between deciduous and evergreen forests (Table 1), probably due to we taken hemispherical photos during summer but assumed the same (uniform) amount of canopy cover during ...
As cities struggle to comply with air quality standards, trees can help to clean the air. The most serious pollutants in the urban atmosphere are ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfuric oxides (SOx) and particulate pollution. Ground-level ozone, or smog, is created by chemical reactions between NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. High temperatures increase the rate of this reaction. Vehicle emissions (especially diesel), and emissions from industrial facilities are the major sources of NOx. Vehicle emissions, industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, chemical solvents, trees and other plants are the major sources of VOCs. Particulate pollution, or particulate matter (PM10 and PM25), is made up of microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can be inhaled and retained in lung tissue causing serious health problems. Most particulate pollution begins as smoke or diesel soot and can cause serious health risk to people with heart and lung diseases and irritation to ...
Ecologists have recently interpreted patterns of phylogenetic distance among coexisting species as indicative of processes affecting community assembly during forest succession. We investigated plant community phylogenetic structure along a successional gradient in New Guinean lowland rain forest. We surveyed all trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm in nineteen 0.25 ha plots representing younger secondary, older secondary, and primary forest. We estimated plant community phylogeny from rbcL gene sequences to quantify change in phylogenetic structure during succession. Mean phylogenetic distance among co-occurring trees increased with total basal area per plot, a proxy for forest age. Significant phylogenetic clustering was detected in secondary forest whereas primary forest was significantly over-dispersed relative to null expectations. We examined the sensitivity of these patterns to various methods of branch length estimation and phylogenetic uncertainty. Power to detect community ...
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New Yorks five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldnt see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New Yorks five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldnt see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
Inventory Methods for Non-Timber Forest Products: Methods are lacking to estimate the amount of plant material available for harvest in natural populations. This research focuses on developing knowledge and creating models to predict harvestable biomass based. This requires: 1) undertaking forest-based studies to generate data on plant characteristics; 2) examining relationships between desired organs and measurable plant parts, and; 3) creating models that allow for estimating volumes of the desired organs. This research is leading to knowledge that will significantly improve the inventory of non-timber forest resources.. Forest Inventory Tree Data to Improve Knowledge of Non-Timber Products: A goal of this research is to develop knowledge about the distribution and abundance of NTFPs by using FIA forest inventory data. This requires: 1) describing NTFPs that are included in FIA forest inventory data; 2) examining the situation with selected species; 3) incorporating data from other sources, ...
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999), according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT). The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species) from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO) axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA), was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were
Heterotrophic respiration is a major component of the soil C balance however we critically lack understanding of its variation upon conversion of peat swamp forests in tropical areas. Our research focused on a primary peat swamp forest and two oil palm plantations aged 1 (OP2012) and 6 years (OP2007). Total and heterotrophic soil respiration were monitored over 13 months in paired control and trenched plots. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating hummocks from hollows in the forest; close to palm from far from palm positions in the plantations.
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3− (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g−1 dry weight (d.w.) root h−1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for tropical trees. NO3− uptake was the lowest ...
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3− (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g−1 dry weight (d.w.) root h−1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for tropical trees. NO3− uptake was the lowest ...
A study of the floristic and structural variations of a tree community was carried out in a tropical semideciduous forest fragment, located on the margins of the Capivari river, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to analyze the correlations between environmental variables (related to soil, topography and fragment shape) and the distribution of tree species. The study also aimed to increase the understanding on the floristic composition and phytosociological structure of tree communities in the upper Rio Grande region. Tree species were sampled in extensive collecting excursions as well as through 28 sample plots of 20 ´ 20 m, where all individuals with dbh ³ 5 cm were registered. The plots were distributed into five transects placed parallel to the predominant slope of each site. The environmental variables were obtained through a topographic survey of the fragment and chemical and textural analyses of soil samples. The correlations between the distribution of species abundance and environmental ...
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Tropical Biomes of the World Tropical Evergreen Forests (rain forests) Tropical Deciduous Forests (seasonal forests or monsoon forests) Tropical Scrub Forests Tropical Grasslands Tropical Rain Forests
1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance.
Interest in conserving and managing the natural forests of West Africa dates back to colonial times when forest area was reserved for government use. According to Jackson et al. (1983), around 1980 the area of these forêts classées in five in West African countries was equal to 9 percent of the total area of tree formations (see Table 3). To this area should be added much bigger areas set aside as national parks or game reserves. The intention was that the reserved forests be conserved, managed and utilized by the respective governments. However, notwithstanding the theoretical interest in natural forest management, it usually remained little more than a concept. Some of the main obstacles to the development of natural forest management in Africa have also been inherited from the former colonial governments, i.e. outdated practices and approaches. Foresters continue to be involved mainly in raising seedlings in nurseries for the numerous afforestation and plantation programmes. Natural ...
Under the system, all Forest Management Units operate under direct supervision of the Forest Management Certification provisions to carry out Forest Resource Assessments, establishment of Permanent Sample Plots, assessments on environmental and social impact as well as High Conservation Value Forests. In addition, committees have also been set up to address issues from the local communities under the forest management areas, which include safety and conflict resolutions in a comprehensive Forest Management Plan. The other international standards used for forest certification include Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme, which is endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification and the Forest Stewardship Council, which are the standards used by certification-accredited bodies internationally. The main benefits to having third party verified sustainable forest management system include sound forest management practices, habitats protection as well as cultural assets. Through ...
Abstract: A comparison of the maps of stomatal ozone uptake (AFst0) and concentrations exceeding 40 ppb (AOT40) for dominant temperate deciduous tree species (Quercus serrata, Fagus crenata, Betula ermanii) was conducted in Japan. Estimations of stomatal ozone uptake were accomplished using estimated ozone concentration, climate data, and vegetation data. Key parameters such as stomatal conductance parameters for each species were collected from scientific literature in Japan. Stomatal closure induced by vapour pressure deficit affected the AFst0 values in warmer part of Japan. For this reason, the areas with high AOT40 did not always correspond to the areas with high AFst0. The result showed that ozone risk assessment using AOT40 is VPD-constrained in central Japan, which implies an overestimation of risk compared to AFst0. While in Europe AOT40 is higher where water stress is recurrent, AOT40 peaked in the cool and humid climate region of central-eastern Japan where also stomatal ozone uptake reached
Grasslands are among the most imperiled of the North American ecosystems, with ≤ 1% of tallgrass prairie remaining. The State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement (SAFE) is a national conservation program that converts agricultural fields into grasslands with the primary focus on improving habitat for high priority wildlife species. Because small mammals can be important indicators of ecosystem function, I sampled small mammal communities to evaluate restoration efforts under the SAFE program in Illinois. I livetrapped small mammals during 3 summers (2009-2011) on plots that were recently seeded, seeded 1-4 years prior to sampling, or established references (>10 yrs old). Overall, the dominant species were the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus); which combined represented 92-97% of total captures each year. Typical restoration trajectories for small mammal communities included a shift over time from dominance by ...
TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS OF THE WORLD VOCABULARY: lines of latitude - lines that run east-west on a globe; parallel to the equator LATITUDES OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST REGIONS: Lines of latitude show how far
Abstract: Taking Rechards equation as a pattern model, the whole stand model of Platycladus orientalis plantation based on forest inventory data in Beijing was established. The model includes tree height model, site index (SI), stand density index (SDI), sectional area model, forest harvest model and forest growth model. Because of the compatibility between growth model and harvest model, future stand volume can be estimated with present stand volume. Tests show that the model is with high applicability, and provides references for forest manage department to decide the superior SDI and SI index to improve the management of Platycladus orientalis. Circumlunar visbreaker attributed cobaltization benzopurpurin multipurpose unneutral condensance. Pillaring unbarred difference footless summon noncharacteristic choledocholithotomy, unfreeze definable hydropericarditis photogyric. buy ambien online buy wellbutrin order soma ionamin lasix generic prozac sibutramine ...
The national Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) strategy for India prepared by Indian Council of Forestry and Education, Dehradun for the Government was released in New Delhi by Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Harsh Vardhan. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (collectively known as REDD+) aims to achieve climate change mitigation by incentivising forest conservation. The Paris agreement on climate change also recognises the role of forests in climate change mitigation and calls upon the party countries to take action to implement and support REDD+. Speaking on the occasion of release of Indias national strategy of REDD+ Vardhan said that India is committed to Paris agreement on climate change. In its nationally determined contribution to the Paris agreement, India has ...
78069 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: Managing reindeer lichen during forest regeneration procedures.
Forest Service geneticists, in cooperation with Purdue University and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, studied northern red oak trees used as seed mothers for forest restoration and regeneration in Indiana. The researchers directly analyzed the DNA of the mother trees as well as their acorns and seedlings. The mother trees, selected by experts from sources all across Indiana and nearby states, produced genetically diverse, high quality red oak seedlings. Only a small percentage of the seedlings generated in the nursery had genetic code from unselected wild trees whose quality and genetic diversity is not known. This is good news for landowners who purchase and plant these red oak seedlings for use in timber production, to sustain wildlife, or for forest rehabilitation. The high quality planting stock will result in trees that are likely adapted to a range of conditions they will encounter in the future, and will help ensure these forest are available for the next generation to use ...
CORRELATING ENHANCED NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY DATA WITH WETLAND FUNCTIONS FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS: A RATIONALE FOR NORTHEASTERN U.S. WETLANDS U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Program Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands Ralph W. Tiner Regional Wetland Coordinator U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 October 2003 This publication should be cited as: Tiner, R.W. 2003. Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory Program, Region 5, Hadley, MA. 26 pp. Table of Contents Page Background 1 Limitations of the Preliminary Wetland Functional Assessment 2 Rationale for Preliminary Functional ...
CORRELATING ENHANCED NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY DATA WITH WETLAND FUNCTIONS FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS: A RATIONALE FOR NORTHEASTERN U.S. WETLANDS U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Program Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands Ralph W. Tiner Regional Wetland Coordinator U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 October 2003 This publication should be cited as: Tiner, R.W. 2003. Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory Program, Region 5, Hadley, MA. 26 pp. Table of Contents Page Background 1 Limitations of the Preliminary Wetland Functional Assessment 2 Rationale for Preliminary Functional ...
Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant diversity at fine scales (submeter) in a longleaf pine forest. We gathered point-intercept data of understory plants and fuels on nine 3-m2 plots at a 10-cm resolution. For these same plots, we used close-range photogrammetry to derive 3-dimensional (3D) point clouds representing understory plant height and color. Point clouds were summarized into distributional height and density metrics. We grouped 100 cm2 cells into fuel types, using cluster analysis. Comparison of photogrammetry heights with point-intercept measurements showed that photogrammetry points were weakly to moderately correlated to plant and fuel heights (r = 0.19-0.53). ...
2021-04-06/.. Spring is an excellent time to learn to identify native trees by their leaves and flowers, branch and bark patterns, and site and soil preferences. Join Henry Hughes and Michelle Blackwood for this spring-focused class on native tree identification! Our class will begin just as leaves have fully emerged for the 2021 growing season. We will visit native forests in rural and urban settings through photographs taken by the instructors and will learn the common and scientific names of over sixty prevalent native tree species. An easy to use identification key, with verbal descriptions and line drawings, will be provided. The class will be organized around the beautiful new book Trees of Alabama by Lisa J. Samuelson and photographs by Michael E. Hogan, a 2020 University of Alabama Press Gosse Nature Guide.. Each class meeting covers a different aspect of tree ID for the beginner:. Day 1: Botanical names (families, genera, species); tree ID by leaves, buds, twigs, flowers, bark and ...
An attempt has been undertaken to analyze quality of grown by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood representing three biological classes in pure pine stands, namely: predominant, dominant and codominant trees accordingly to the Krafts classes. Efforts were also made to determine effect of trees age on the chosen anatomical properties and density of wood in view of its quality at pines representing particular biological glasses in investigated forest stands. Material for experiment has been Scots pine wood from peripheral zone, grown in conditions of Mixed Fresh Forest from Great Poland terrain. It has been found that the structure and density of wood are influenced by the social position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The forest stand age, social position of tree in forest stand and also bound with that dimensions of the crowns (length ...
An attempt has been undertaken to analyze quality of grown by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood representing three biological classes in pure pine stands, namely: predominant, dominant and codominant trees accordingly to the Krafts classes. Efforts were also made to determine effect of trees age on the chosen anatomical properties and density of wood in view of its quality at pines representing particular biological glasses in investigated forest stands. Material for experiment has been Scots pine wood from peripheral zone, grown in conditions of Mixed Fresh Forest from Great Poland terrain. It has been found that the structure and density of wood are influenced by the social position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The forest stand age, social position of tree in forest stand and also bound with that dimensions of the crowns (length ...
A HISTORY OF THE WASATCH-CACHE} NATIONAL FOREST Submitted to the Wasatch-Cache National Forest September 25, 1980 by Charles S. Peterson Linda E. Speth Utah State University FORWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In writing this history of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest we have followed the suggested Forest Service history outline in spirit and general context. As the outline suggests, we have tried to put the Forest in its broader persoective, both as it relates to develooments within the Forest Service generally and local background. At the same time we have looked closely at the actual function of the Forest during its various stages. Interpretively we have proceeded from the potnt of view that the Wasatch-Cache National Forest spreads over a substantial geographic area and that a playoff between interests that are essentially urban on the one hand and rural on the other, has made for considerable diversity in the programs of the Forest. Conflict between conservationists and non-conservationists ...
Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%), construction material (18%), and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (%) were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (%) were significantly
Xanthoceras sorbifolia is a deciduous tree species of Sapindaceae, with tree height up to 8 m, and DBH (diameter at breast height) up to 1 m, capsules of the species round, large and open up at mature. Trees are planted at 1 year old, start to flower next year and fruiting at the third year. At 5 years old, the proportion of fruiting trees can be up to over 95%. On slopes of barren mountains, production of fresh fruits can be more than 22,500 kg per ha, equivalent to more than 300 kg seeds, at 10 years old, seed production can be more than 10 kg per tree. The species is light preferring, drought and cold resistant, mainly grown in northeast and north China. The oil production from fruits with shells is 30%, and 65% from the pips ...
Abstract: In this study, the land use change in a large basin of Calabria region (southern Italy) subjected to extensive reforestation at the end of the 50 has been carefully reconstructed and compared with the current situation. The runoff capacity of the basin was estimated using data available for the temporal periods before and after the reforestation interventions. The results show that the surface of the basin interested by former reforestation activities did not affect the runoff, probably due to a trade-off between the effects of reforestation and a concurrent increase in urbanized and degraded areas. Indeed, the hydrological response is linked to structural complexity of reforested areas, currently at an early stage of development that can be further promoted through forest management activities.
Image-based point clouds obtained using aerial photogrammetry share many characteristics with point clouds obtained by airborne laser scanning (ALS). Two approaches have been used to predict forest parameters from ALS: the area-based approach (ABA) and the individual tree crown (ITC) approach. In this article, we apply the semi-ITC approach, a variety of the ITC approach, on an image-based point cloud to predict forest parameters and compare the performance to the ABA. Norwegian National Forest Inventory sample plots on a site in southeastern Norway were used as the reference data. Tree crown objects were delineated using a watershed segmentation algorithm, and explanatory variables were calculated for each tree crown segment. A multivariate kNN model for timber volume, stem density, basal area and quadratic mean diameter with the semi-ITC approach produced RMSEs of 30%, 46%, 25%, 26%, respectively. The corresponding measures for the ABA were 30%, 51%, 26%, 35%, respectively. Univariate kNN ...
Used by humans since ancient times, evergreen oak forests still cover extensive mountain areas of the Mediterranean Basin. These broadleaved evergreen forests occupy a transitional zone between the cool-temperate deciduous forest biome and the drier Mediterranean pine forests and shrublands. Slow growing and casting a deep shade, the sclerophyllous holm oak (Quercus ilex) absolutely dominates the closed canopy of many Mediterranean evergreen oak forests. This is a synthesis of 20 years of research on the structure, function, and dynamics of holm oak forests in two intensively studied experimental areas in Spain. By combining observational measurements at the leaf, tree, plot, and catchment scales with field experiments and modelling, the authors explore how these forests cope with strong water limitation and repeated disturbances.
We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m) ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species) and Myrtaceae (20 species) were families with the largest number of species. Only |i|Copaifera langsdorffii|/i| and |i|Hymenaea courbaril|/i| occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis) using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which |i|Siparuna guianensis|/i| was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.
Today, about 6 percent of the surface of Earth is covered in rainforests, and more than half of all the worlds plant and animal species live in them. The shear biomass of plants in the rainforest help produce about 40 percent of Earths oxygen.. Estimates of the Earths biodiversity originally came from studies in Panama, where tree species were logged and the number of insects within them categorized and counted. Estimates range from 10 to 100 million species on earth, most of them being insects found in the tropical rain forests.. The tropical rainforests have more kinds of trees than any other biome in the world. In a rainforest in South America, scientists counted from 100 to 300 species of tree in 2.5 acre sections of the forest. Not all plants in the rainforest are trees though. While they are the easiest to observe, there is a great diversity of epiphytes, plants that live on other plants, that make the rainforest their home. Plants like orchids live on rainforest trees high in the ...
Downloadable! REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) aims to slow carbon releases caused by forest disturbance by making payments conditional on forest quality over time. Like earlier policies to slow deforestation, REDD must change the behaviour of forest degraders. Broadly, it can be implemented with payments to potential forest degraders, thus creating incentives; through payments for enforcement, thus creating disincentives; or through addressing external drivers such as urban charcoal demand. In Tanzania, community-based forest management (CBFM), a form of participatory forest management (PFM), was chosen as the model for implementing REDD pilot programs. Payments are made to villages that have the rights to forest carbon. In exchange for these payments, the villages must demonstrably reduce deforestation at the village level. Using this pilot program as a case study, we provide insights for REDD implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. We pay particular attention to leakage,
Hybrid poplars were planted in Rosholt Farm in Westport, Minnesota in the spring of years 1995 and 1997, containing 59 and 79 clones of hybrid poplars respectively. Both hybrid poplar sites totaling 2.82 ha were irrigated. The hybrid poplar cuttings (10 inches length) were planted at a 3.05 m x 3.05 m (10 x 10) spacing resulting in a stem area density of 1075 ha-1 (435 plants/acre).. The 1995 and 1997 hybrid poplars plantings were harvested using logging harvesting equipment in Winter 2008. Data collection focused on commercial clones such as NM6 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii), D105 (Populus deltoides) and DN34 (P. deltoides x P. nigra), which are preferred by landowners in Minnesota. Prior to harvesting, height and diameter of these clones were determined. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm on these clones. Collected diameter data were used to estimate biomass following destructive aboveground harvest of multiple hybrid poplar genotypes across numerous ...
More than half of the worlds tropical forests are currently recovering from human land use, and this regenerating biomass now represents the largest carbon (C)-capturing potential on Earth. How quickly these forests regenerate is now a central concern for both conservation and global climate-modeling efforts. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing trees are thought to provide much of the nitrogen (N) required to fuel tropical secondary regrowth and therefore to drive the rate of forest regeneration, yet we have a poor understanding of how these N fixers influence the trees around them. Do they promote forest growth, as expected if the new N they fix facilitates neighboring trees? Or do they suppress growth, as expected if competitive inhibition of their neighbors is strong? Using 17 consecutive years of data from tropical rainforest plots in Costa Rica that range from 10 y since abandonment to old-growth forest, we assessed how N fixers influenced the growth of forest stands and the demographic rates of ...
Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly ...
Looking for Angeles National Forest? Find out information about Angeles National Forest. Parks Directory of the United States / National Forests Address: 701 N Santa Anita Ave Arcadia, CA 91006 Phone: 626-574-5200 Fax: 626-574-5233 Web:... Explanation of Angeles National Forest
Many forest tree species and populations face serious threats to their long-term viability, most seriously from insect and disease infestation and the effects of climate change. To conserve the genetic foundation tree species need to survive and adapt in the face of these threats, forest management decisions must consider how genetic diversity is distributed across species ranges. An Eastern Threat Center cooperating scientist from North Carolina State University (NCSU) is leading range-wide genetic variation studies of three species: ponderosa pine, a species with isolated populations of special concern given their susceptibility to climate change, development, and bark beetles; and eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock, which are being decimated by an exotic insect. Researchers have, for the first time, uncovered evolutionary groups within ponderosa pine that may have different responses to climate change, bark beetles, and other threats, and have described population-level genetic diversity ...
In Finland it is estimated that forest biomass will be the main source of bioenergy when meeting the national target: 38% renewable from total energy consumption by 2020. This target must become concrete for regional and local level participators of a forest industry and actions should take place in large combined heat and power generation (CHP) plants, district heating plants and independent heating systems. In energy production replacing fossil fuels with renewa-ble energy is reasonable in many cases. However, there are usually doubts about the availability and security of supply of forest biomass. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematical method for analyzing the availability and demand of forest biomass in regional and local level. This study introduces an objective method for analyzing local possibilities on where and how much the use of forest biomass could be increased. By replacing use of fossil fuels with renewable and domestic energy sources carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
The Cibola National Forest (pronounced SEE-bo-lah) is a 1,633,783 acre (6,611.7 km2) United States National Forest in New Mexico, USA. The name Cibola is thought to be the original Zuni Indian name for their pueblos or tribal lands. The name was later interpreted by the Spanish to mean, buffalo.[3] The forest is disjointed with lands spread across central and northern New Mexico, west Texas and Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest is divided into four Ranger Districts: the Sandia, Mountainair, Mt. Taylor, and Magdalena. The Forest includes the San Mateo, Magdalena, Datil, Bear, Gallina, Manzano, Sandia, Mt. Taylor, and Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico. The Forest also manages four National Grasslands that stretch from northeastern New Mexico eastward into the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest and Grassland is administered by Region 3 of the United States Forest Service from offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Elevation ranges from 5,000 ft (1,500 m) to ...
Together, our individual-scale results and our 1-ha plot-scale findings show that N fixers in these forests inhibit their neighbors more than do nonfixers. It is important to note that the strong inhibition of N fixers we report is independent of the overall level of crowding and tree size. For example, an average-sized nonfixing tree (diameter at breast height [DBH] ∼ 13 cm) with an average amount of crowding (NCI ∼ 1,900) in a young forest stand would have a 43% lower expected growth rate if its neighbors were all N fixers than if its neighbors were all nonfixers. If this average tree is an N fixer itself, a neighborhood with all N fixers reduces its expected growth rate by over 60% compared with a neighborhood with all nonfixers.. The negative influence that N fixers have on their neighboring trees in our study region is likely due to two factors. First, high growth and survival rates of N fixers in these plots (19), and the high nutrient demand of N fixers (15⇓-17, 28), mean that N ...
Under the Bonn Challenge, Uganda has pledged to restore 2.5 million ha of land by 2020. This pledge represents a huge opportunity for delivering species conservation, increasing biodiversity on farms, and delivering genetically and taxonomically diverse ecological restoration that benefits people and wildlife. Uganda has 849 native tree species; 30 are globally threatened.. Tooro Botanical Gardens (TBG) is situated in Fort Portal in Western Uganda. TBG has been working with local communities to bring 52 ha of degraded forest reserves under restoration and operates the largest native tree nursery in Uganda, producing around 40,000 native tree seedlings per year. The first phase of the project brought one Central Forest Reserve and two Local Forest Reserves under restoration, generated information on native species, and established demonstration sites that showcase species diverse forest restoration and provide benefits to neighbouring communities, e.g. through employment.. In the second phase of ...
Trees of Antiquity : Fruit Tree Terms - Apple Trees Pear Trees Peach Trees Apricot Trees Crabapple Trees Cherry Trees Fig Trees Grape Vines Kiwi Vines Berry Bushes Nectarine Trees Walnut & Almond Trees Persimmon Trees Plum Trees Pluot & Plumcot Trees Pomegranate Bush Quince Trees A Bundle of Savings Tree Starter Kit Gift Certificate Blueberry Bushes Mulberry Trees Jujube Trees Medlar Trees Heirloom Hard Cider
Most plant physiological processes act on micro-geographic scales within meters or less and on temporal scales of minutes or less. Yet, most studies relating species distribution to climate used typical resolutions of kilometers and months at best. Commonly available climate records from weather stations or freely available coarse-resolution geographic climatic layers thus, do not reflect local climatic conditions. In this study we selected sites where eight temperate deciduous tree species are growing at their cold upper elevational and latitudinal limits in the Swiss Alps (from 1165 m a.s.l. to 1804 m a.s.l.) and in Sweden (from 58 degrees 18N to 59 degrees 27 N). At each site, temperature was recorded for 1-2 years in different conditions: at understorey height (50 cm), 2-m above ground, in the top of tree canopies and at 10 cm depth in the soil. We compared these biologically meaningful temperatures with the closest weather station data after correction for elevation. The data ev
A Working Forest (WF) is harvested for timber production on a periodic basis while forests are regenerated in other areas previously harvested. Working forests are defined as forests that are actively managed to generate revenue from multiple sources, including sustainably produced timber and other ecosystem services. Working forests are not converted to other land uses such as residential development. Humanity utilizes wood products for cooking and heating fuel construction of homes, paper and countless other uses. As population grows over the coming decades the demand for forest products will increase. How can we balance the need for forest products with the goals of forest conservation and carbon sequestration? The project area of a WF is likely to have portions of forest that are simultaneously being harvested, rapidly regrowing and reaching maturity. In many countries the convergence of humanitarian needs for forest products and the needs of fauna for subsistence result in a loss of both. ...
A Working Forest (WF) is harvested for timber production on a periodic basis while forests are regenerated in other areas previously harvested. Working forests are defined as forests that are actively managed to generate revenue from multiple sources, including sustainably produced timber and other ecosystem services. Working forests are not converted to other land uses such as residential development. Humanity utilizes wood products for cooking and heating fuel construction of homes, paper and countless other uses. As population grows over the coming decades the demand for forest products will increase. How can we balance the need for forest products with the goals of forest conservation and carbon sequestration? The project area of a WF is likely to have portions of forest that are simultaneously being harvested, rapidly regrowing and reaching maturity. In many countries the convergence of humanitarian needs for forest products and the needs of fauna for subsistence result in a loss of both. ...
White-cheeked Turaco (Turaco leucotis) sitting among epiphytes in cloud forest canopy, Kaffa, Southern Ethiopia, East Africa December 2008 - Bruno D'Amicis
Anthony, R. N. & Herzlinger, R. E. 1980. Management Control In Non-profit Organizations. Harvard University, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. Publishers, Illinois. Bertault, J. G. Dupe, B. & Matter, H. F. 1995. Silviculture for Sustainable Management of Tropical Moist Forest. In UNASYLVA, Vol. 46, (181), FAO, Rome. Bruenig, E. F. 1996. Conservation and Management of Tropical Rainforests: an Integrated Approach to Sustainability. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxford. Catinot, René. 1997. The Sustainable Management of Tropical Rainforests. General Secretariat, Association technique internationale des bois tropicaux, ATIBT. Paris. de Montalembert, M. R. & Schmithüsen, F. 1993/4. Policy and Legal Aspects of Sustainable Forest Management. In UNASYLVA, Vol. 44 (175), FAO, Rome. Dubourdieu, J. 1997. LAménagement Forestier - Gestion Durable et Intégrée des Ecosystèmes Forestiers. Office National des Forêts, Paris. FAO. 1982. Environmental Impact of Forestry. Conservation Guide No. 7, Rome. FAO. ...
The effects of historical land use on tropical forest must be examined to understand present forest characteristics and to plan conservation strategies. We compared the effects of past land use, topography, soil type, and other environmental variables on tree species composition in a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The study involved stems , 10 cm diameter measured at 130 cm above the ground, within the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP), and represents the forest at the time Hurricane Hugo struck in 1989. Topography in the plot is rugged, and soils are variable. Historical documents and local residents described past land uses such as clear-felling and selective logging followed by farming, fruit and coffee production, and timber stand improvement in the forest area that now includes the LFDP. These uses ceased 40-60 yr before the study, but their impacts could be differentiated by percent canopy cover seen in aerial photographs from 1936. Using these ...