Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the capacity of PCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis for identification of mixed infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains. AU - Ghorashi, Seyed. AU - Kanci, Anna. AU - Noormohammadi, Amir H. N1 - Includes bibliographical references.. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. N2 - Pathogenicity and presentation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection may differ from one strain to another and this may have implications on control measures. Infection of individual birds with more than one MG strain has been reported. A PCR followed by high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis has been developed in our laboratory and routinely used for detection and differentiation of MG strains. However the potential of this test for identification of MG strains in a mixed specimen has not been evaluated. In the present study, the capability of PCR-HRM curve analysis technique, targeting vlhA and pvpA genes was assessed for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed ...
Boiling point cell made of borosilicate glass. PRINCIPLE AND OPERATION :. A liquid (X) is heated up to its boiling point in a micro-boiler; the producing vapours (Y) are in equilibrium with the liquid. At atmospheric pressure, a total condenser flows back the hot condensates into the boiler: The equilibrium between the boiling liquid and its vapour is perfect.. The boiling point cell is equivalent to one perfect theoretical stage; when the liquid - vapour equilibrium is maintained sample can be taken from the liquid and the gas phases using micro-syringes.. ...
The term boiling point elevation refers to solutions having higher boiling points than pure solvents. Boiling point elevation is a colligative property of a...
Volatile organic compounds make up a very large group of chemical substances and are often sub-classified by boiling point temperature ranges which gives an idea of how likely it is to be found in liquid, solid, gaseous forms (or possibly more than one state) at various temperatures. The levels found in breathable air and how they affect air quality are strongly correlated with the boiling points. In general, the lower the boiling point, the higher the concentration that will be present in the air.. VVOC (Very Volatile Organic Compounds) Boiling points: less than 0 C to 100 C. VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) Boiling points: 50 C - 260 C. SVOC (Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds) Boiling points 260 C - 380 C (includes many biocides). POM (Particulate Organic Matter aka Solid Organic Compounds) Boiling points exceeding 380C includes PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds). ...
D7169 - 16 Standard Test Method for Boiling Point Distribution of Samples with Residues Such as Crude Oils and Atmospheric and Vacuum Residues by High Temperature Gas Chromatography , boiling point distribution, crude oils, cut point intervals, distillation residues, lubricants, residues, simulated distillation,,
The chemicals are is various stages of reactions, dilutions, solutions, and combinations. For example, although the boiling point of ethanol is 78.5 degrees C, ethanol will be present below and above that temperature. In fact, even though the boiling point of water is 100 degrees C, there will be a significant amount of water vapor mixed with the ethanol even at 78.5 degrees C. Water mixes well with ethanol and forms bonds ...
When checking your thermometers for accuracy remember that altitude does effect the boiling point of water. The boiling point for water is 212* at sea...
... In dilute solution the elevation of boiling point is very small which necessitates the use of very sensitive thermometers. The Beckmann thermometer, which is most widely used for the purpose, will be described below. Beckmann thermometer: Beckmann thermometer is a
Source:greencamp.com. What exactly are the essential oils that we are extracting from the cannabis plant, and what are their properties?. Here is a nifty list that I scored off ICMag, posted by Spurr, who used /blog-images/http://cannabis-med.org/data/pdf/2001-03-04-7.pdf as his information source:. ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Boiling point: 157C / 315 degree Fahrenheit ( Merck 200C @0.02). Properties: Euphoriant, Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, Antiemetic. Cannabidiol (CBD) Boiling point: 160-180*C / 320-356 degree Fahrenheit Properties: Anxiolytic, Analgesic, Antipsychotic, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic. Cannabinol (CBN) Boiling point: 185*C / 365 degree Fahrenheit Properties: Oxidation, breakdown, product, Sedative, Antibiotic. Cannabichromene (CBC) Boiling point: 220*C / 428 degree Fahrenheit Properties: Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal. Cannabigerol (CBG) Boiling point: MP52 Properties: Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal. ?-8-tetrahydrocannabinol ...
38. A process for separating a feed mixture containing (i) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of an organic substance whose normal boiling point is between 65.degree. F. (18.degree. C.) and the normal boiling point of water and that does not form a maximum boiling azeotrope with water, or whose normal boiling point is above the normal boiling point of water and that forms a minimum boiling azeotrope with water and (ii) from about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of solids with (iii) water as the balance, said process comprising:(a) distilling said feed mixture at a pressure of from about 5 psia (34 KPa) to about 50 psig (446 KPa) and a temperature of from about 50.degree. F. (10.degree. C.) to about 400.degree. F. (204.degree. C.) in a column selected from the group consisting of a plate column and a froth column to produce a first intermediate stream rich in said organic substance relative to said feed mixture and a second intermediate stream that is depleted of said organic substance and rich in ...
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As more carbons are added to a carboxylic acid, the trend indicates that the boiling point increases. The main functional group in a carboxylic acid (COOH) leads to strong bonds to start off with. The functional group (COOH) comes from combines the forces of a carbonyl group (polar covalent bonds, London forces, and
These differences can be very small, as in the case of the boiling point of straight-chain alkenes, such as pent-2-ene, which is 37 °C in the cis isomer and 36 °C in the trans isomer.[4] The differences between cis and trans isomers can be larger if polar bonds are present, as in the 1,2-dichloroethenes. The cis isomer in this case has a boiling point of 60.3 °C, while the trans isomer has a boiling point of 47.5 °C.[5] In the cis isomer the two polar C-Cl bond dipole moments combine to give an overall molecular dipole, so that there are intermolecular dipole-dipole forces (or Keesom forces), which add to the London dispersion forces and raise the boiling point. In the trans isomer on the other hand, this does not occur because the two C−Cl bond moments cancel and the molecule has a net zero dipole (it does however have a non-zero quadrupole).. The two isomers of butenedioic acid have such large differences in properties and reactivities that they were actually given completely different ...
Chemistry: The Molecular Science (5th Edition) answers to Chapter 2 - Chemical Compounds - Exercise 2.12 - Alkane Boiling Points - Page 73 c including work step by step written by community members like you. Textbook Authors: Moore, John W.; Stanitski, Conrad L., ISBN-10: 1285199049, ISBN-13: 978-1-28519-904-7, Publisher: Cengage Learning
View Notes - bp_and_fp_problems_nonelectrolytes from CHEM 1 at Simon Fraser. BOILING POINT ELEVATION PROBLEMS (nonelectrolytes) Table of K b values for solvents Solvent Kb (C/molal) Solvent Kb
ChemicalBook Provide 64665-57-2(Tolytriazole sodium salt)Melting Point Boiling Point Density,64665-57-2(Tolytriazole sodium salt) CAS Chemical Properties MSDS.
The stronger the intermolecular forces, the more energy it takes to overcome these interactions and to cause the substance to boil. Therefore, molecules with strong bonds have high boiling points,...
N,N-dimethyl-7-thiabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-3-en-5-amine 7,7-dioxide - C9H15NO2S, synthesis, structure, density, melting point, boiling point
N-(1-methylethylidene)-6,6a-dihydrocyclopropa[a]inden-1a(1H)-amine - C13H15N, synthesis, structure, density, melting point, boiling point
Boiling point: | | ||| | Boiling water | | |The |boiling... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
View Notes - Lecture_4 from CHEM 6a at UCSB. Lecture 4 A. Awesome, aced it B. Probably managed a B C. Didnt really grasp it too well D. Where am I? Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure Experiment 2
What started as minutes on the phone has quickly turned into hours, between United Healthcare, Wallgreens Specialty Pharmacy, and Nike Human Resources. I have reached the boiling point. All I want is my crizotinib. Ive been on this drug for over 2-years. I understand that it is a costly drug clocking in at over $10,000…
What started as minutes on the phone has quickly turned into hours, between United Healthcare, Wallgreens Specialty Pharmacy, and Nike Human Resources. I have reached the boiling point. All I want is my crizotinib. Ive been on this drug for over 2-years. I understand that it is a costly drug clocking in at over $10,000…
Superheated water is liquid water under pressure at temperatures between the usual boiling point, 100 °C (212 °F) and the critical temperature, 374 °C (705 °F). It is also known as "subcritical water" or "pressurized hot water." Superheated water is stable because of overpressure that raises the boiling point, or by heating it in a sealed vessel with a headspace, where the liquid water is in equilibrium with vapour at the saturated vapor pressure. This is distinct from the use of the term superheating to refer to water at atmospheric pressure above its normal boiling point, which has not boiled due to a lack of nucleation sites (sometimes experienced by heating liquids in a microwave). Many of waters anomalous properties are due to very strong hydrogen bonding. Over the superheated temperature range the hydrogen bonds break, changing the properties more than usually expected by increasing temperature alone. Water becomes less polar and behaves more like an organic solvent such as methanol ...
In accordance with column 2 of REACH Annex VII, the boiling point study does not need to be conducted as the substance decompose before boiling. A study similar to OECD 102 and EU Method A.2 was performed to determine the melting point of the test item using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis was carried out in the DSC 1 STAR SYSTEM by Mettler Toledo. A SWISSI M20 crucible was used for the determination. The measuring range was between 25 °C to 300 °C at a heating rate of 2.0 °C/min. The analysis was performed as a duplicate determination. The decomposition of the test item releases an average energy of 818.5 J/g. The onset temperature of melting is an average 72.5 ° C. The decomposition temperature is at an average of 80.8 °C. As the test item decomposes right after melting, no boiling point could be determined. therefore, no test on boiling point is needed. ...
In 1742, Anders Celsius (1701 - 1744) created a "reversed" version of the modern Celsius temperature scale. In it zero represented the boiling point of water and 100 represented the melting point of ice. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he wrote about his experiments. His could show in his experiments that the melting point of ice was effectively unaffected by pressure. This was not the case for the boiling point of water. It varied as a function of atmospheric pressure. He proposed that zero on his temperature scale (waters boiling point) would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at sea level. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere. In 1954, Resolution 4 of the 10th CGPM (the General Conference on Weights and Measures) established internationally that one standard atmosphere was a pressure equivalent to 1,013,250 dynes per cm2 (101.325 kPa). In 1744, the year Anders Celsius died, the famous Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707 - ...
Figure 5. RT-PCR confirmation of tissue-specificity. A: Gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified, partial-length sequences encoding pgi1 and rhodopsin (rhod). cDNA sample amounts were equivalent across brain (B) and retina (R). The amount of amplified pgi1 product is similar between brain and retina, amplified rhodopsin product is restricted to the retinal sample, and the relative abundance of rhodopsin compared to pgi1 are all consistent with the DNA microarray data (Figure 1, Figure 3). B: Melt curve analysis of the PCR-amplified products shown above. The solid and dotted lines indicate products derived from retinal and brain cDNA, respectively, with green indicating rhodopsin and black indicating pgi1. The melt curve for retina-derived rhodopsin is significantly different from the corresponding melt curve for brain. The latter represents nonspecific amplification products, and is not significantly different from the melt curves observed in the absence of cDNA (data not shown).. ...
Improved performance in high temperature, high vacuum reactors is obtained by quenching alkaline catalyst present in the product a melt polycondensation reaction using a sulfonic acid ester quencher in a carrier. The carrier if formed from a first carrier component effective to solubilize the quencher and having a lower boiling point than the quencher, and a second carrier component soluble in the first carrier component and having a higher boiling point than the quencher. An exemplary carrier composition contains equal parts of diphenylcarbonate and toluene.
Lets say in a large area over the pacific ocean the air temperature in the day time reaches 130 degrees F and the temperature in the night time reaches 60 degrees F. This temperature difference is over a 24 hour period over a body of water. Would the oceans reach boiling point given the atmosphere is reaching above the boiling point for the given atmospheric pressure or will it remain a constant liquid because of the lower temperature ...
Air consists of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide gases. There are also small amounts of other gases such as argon, neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen, xenon, and ozone. To obtain pure nitrogen from air, the gas mixture (state 1) is first cooled to a liquid state (state 2) by refrigerating it to about −400° F (−240° C). The liquids temperature is then allowed to rise slowly. At −320.4° F (−195.8° C) nitrogen passes off as a gas (state 3) and can be collected. The other components pass off as gases at higher temperatures: liquid oxygen at −297.4° F (−183° C) and carbon dioxide at −109.3° F (−78.5° C). Carbon dioxide is a solid below that temperature and sublimes, or passes directly from a solid to a gas, above that temperature.
Note well: This is the wrong question with regard to the body of the question. Ill get to that later. The answer to the question raised in the title of the question is "yes".. Some of the answers have posited that the lid raises the boiling point. This effect is marginal. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation describes the relation between pressure, temperature, and the vaporization pressure of a liquid:. $$\frac{d\ln p}{dT} = \frac {\Delta H_\text{vap}}{RT^2}$$. At sea level, water boils at 373.15 K and has a heat of evaporation of 40.657 kJ/mole at that temperature. Linearizing the Clausius-Clapeyron equation yields a 0.2848 kelvin increase in the boiling point for each one percent increase in pressure. Unless one is using a lid that is held down with clamps, this is a small effect. A hefty lid might raise the pressure inside the pot by a few fractions of a percent. This is at best a small secondary effect of using a lid.. The primary effects of using a lid are to drastically reduce convective heat ...
A process for producing polycarboxylic acids or salts thereof by contacting a polysaccharide with nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide at a charging temperature in the range from the boiling point of nitrogen dioxide under a particular pressure to a temperature which is 50.degree. C. higher than said boiling point, oxidizing the primary alcohol groups of the polysaccharide at a temperature which is at least about 10.degree. C. above said charging temperature to convert the primary alcohol groups into carboxyl groups, and optionally, at least partially neutralizing the carboxylic acid groups formed.
To get a clear idea of the phase state of matter it is necessary to understand the concept of phase. The term phase can be defined structurally and thermodynamically. It is part of a system separated from other parts by interfaces and differing from them in thermodynamic properties. A phase must possess sufficient spatial extension for the concepts of pressure, temperature and other thermodynamic properties to be valid. Structurally, phases differ in the order of mutual arrangement of their molecules. Depending on this order, there are three phase states, namely: crystalline, liquid and gaseous.. Polymer substances possess high molecular mass and hence their boiling points must be very high. They decompose when heated, and their decomposition temperatures are always far below their boiling points. Due to this, polymeric substances cannot be converted to the gaseous state and exist only in the condensed state-liquid or solid. A study of the phase states and ordering of polymers reveals a number ...
In understanding the additional efficiencies provided by micro-powder, it is first necessary to consider the state of water. Water is, perhaps, the most basic compound in chemistry. The structure of water makes it ideal for a type of intramolecular interaction popularly known as "hydrogen bonding". Because of this interaction liquid water exists in a quasi-polymeric state where individual water molecules are linked to form a "cluster". The specific heat, boiling point, freezing point and related physical properties of water show very different values when compared to similarly sized molecules that do not exhibit hydrogen bonding. The boiling point of 100°C is often used for illustration of the hydrogen bond phenomenon. Water vapor, the gaseous stage of water, exists as mono- or di- water molecules. The heat required for vaporization of liquid water represents the overall energy required to move the molecules from polymeric "cluster" state to the vapor state wherein clusters are replaced by ...
The present invention provides a method for preparing a hydrocarbon mixture solvent comprising 1 to 15 wt % of alkyl tetralins and 0 to 10 wt % of aromatic hydrocarbons and having a boiling point of 160.degree. to 300.degree. C., the solvent being substantially free from naphthalene and biphenyl; the method being characterized by comprising the steps of subjecting a kerosene fraction having a boiling point of 150.degree. to 300.degree. C. to a nucleus hydrogenation treatment at a temperature of 100.degree. to 300.degree. C. at a pressure of 30 to 100 kg/cm.sup.2 in the presence of a metallic catalyst for nucleus hydrogenation of aromatic nuclei; separating and removing at least a part of n-paraffins in the kerosene therefrom by the use of a molecular sieve made from a synthesized zeolite having pores of 5 .ANG. in diameter in order to obtain a residual oil; and subjecting the latter to a rectification.
Lets ignore the air, first of all, and put it back later. When you heat the bottom of the saucepan, the first thing that happens to the water at the top is nothing. It stays cold, because water is not very conductive. The next thing that happens is that the water at the bottom becomes so hot that it is less dense than the water above it. The first thing that happens then is that nothing happens; the second thing is that the situation is unstable and the tiniest irregularity in the layers makes a blob of less dense water float upwards. The colder denser water sinks to the bottom to replace it, and then is heated in its turn. (The long thin tube mentioned in the link finds it far harder to convect in this way, which is why the boiling, when it happens, is so explosive).. The rising blob of hotter water can cool by mixing with the water it meets on the way up. Mixing is more or less efficient depending on various things (such as how big the difference of temperature is, and so how buoyant the blob ...
Written by Danny Hillis for Daedalus Sometimes a system with many simple components will exhibit a behavior of the whole that seems more organized than the behavior of the individual parts. Consider the intricate structure of a snowflake. Symmetric shapes within the crystals of ice repeat in threes and sixes, with patterns recurring from place to place and within themselves at different scales. The shapes formed by the ice are consequences of the local rules of interaction that govern the molecules of water, although the connection between the shapes and the rules is far from obvious. Afterall, these are the same rules of interaction that cause water to suddenly turn to steam at its boiling point and cause whirlpools to form in a stream. The rules that govern the forces between water molecules seem much simpler than crystals or whirlpools or boiling points, yet all of these complex phenomena are called emergent behaviors of the system.. It would be very convenient if intelligence were an ...
The Statmost, QSARIS, Excel, and SAS programs were used to model the solubility of gases, alcohols, and halogenated hydrocarbons in water using simple physical and topological descriptors. The alcohols were well-modeled using measures of the number of carbons, terminal methyls, and steric hindrance about the hydroxyl group. Molecular mass, boiling point, and critical volume or critical pressure were the best descriptors for the halogenated hydrocarbons. Critical pressure was the most applicable single descriptor for the gases. Molecular mass and boiling point also yielded good results for the gases and halogenated hydrocarbons when regressed together.
Textbook solution for Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 9th Edition John C. Kotz Chapter 13 Problem 64GQ. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
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Research on compound was conducted by ACD/Labs, US Environmental Protection Agencys EPISuite, and ChemAxon. Properties that were predicted by ACD/Labs showed 2 #H bond acceptors, 6 #Freely rotating bonds, index of refraction at 1.606 with a surface tension of 42.0±7.0 dyne/cm, a flash point of 276.9±23.0 °C and a boiling point of 534.2±23.0 °C at 760 mmHg.. Properties that were predicted by the US Environmental Protection Agencys EPISuite showed the boiling point at 495.43, melting point at 208.22, and the vapor pressure estimations at 4.08E-010. The report also showed water solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L): 0.000698. The removal in wastewater treatment was 93.80 percent for total removal, total biodegradation is 0.78 percent, total sludge adsorption is 93.02 percent, and to air 0.00.. Properties that were predicted by ChemAxon included a topology analysis, which showed an atom count of 49, bond count of 52, cyclomatic number of 4, chain atom count of 7, chain bond count of 8, asymmetric ...
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Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes - Chemistry LibreTexts Straight-chain hydrocarbon , Britannica.com hydrocarbons. in hydrocarbon: Physical properties. For a given number of carbon atoms, an unbranched alkane has a higher boiling point than any of its branchedchain isomers. This effect is evident upon comparing the boiling points (bp) of selected C 8H 18 isomers. Straight-Chain and … ...
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In addtion of increasing the boiling temp., DMSO weaken the douple strand interactions. This should lower the annealing temp. and lower denaturing temp. I would recomend playing with both parammeters if you want to use DMSO in PCR. I have used DMSO before in PCR and was very effective. I found that you need to find the optimum concentration for any DNA/primers combination. DMSO inhibit taq activity at high concentrations. Sameer Masoud Plant Biology Division S. R. Noble Foundation 2510 Sam Noble Parkway Ardmore, OK 73402 Tel (405) 221 7309 FAX (405) 221 7380 ...
The present invention relates to blowing agent compositions that contain at least one hydrofluorocarbon having a boiling point of 30 C. or higher and lower than about 120 C., at least one hydrofluorocarbon having a boiling point lower than 30 C., and at least one component selected from low-boiling alcohols and low-boiling carbonyl compounds. The present invention also relates to processes for preparing polymeric foam using such blowing agent compositions, as well as polymeric foams and foamable polymer compositions containing such blowing agent compositions.