Migration is an important process of change for rural populations in developing countries. Migration is a primary cause of behaviour change - by their very act of migrating, migrants are different from those who do not migrate. The focus of the current study is male rural-urban migration in Tanzania and its interaction with sexual behaviour. The analysis presents results from a comparison with individual-level analyses of two populations, one (composed of recent rural-urban migrants) in an urban area and one in a rural area. Detailed migration histories (n=96 rural-urban migrants) and in-depth interviews (n=96 rural-urban migrants, n=51 rural residents) form the basis of the study. Three key research questions are addressed: How does the sexual behaviour of migrants differ from that of rural residents? How do HIV knowledge levels vary between rural-urban migrants and rural residents? What factors are associated with either intentions of behaviour change or reported behaviour? The results are ...
Our findings provide evidence that rural-to-urban migrants are subjected to a higher risk of STIs and hepatitis than the Chinese population as a whole. Of these, migrant women, construction workers and long-distance truck drivers are migrant subgroups that are the most susceptible to STIs, HBV and HCV infections. Migrant pregnant women demonstrate significantly higher HIV prevalence than pregnant women in the general Chinese population, but the risks of STIs and hepatitis do not differ between MARPs and their corresponding migrant subpopulations.. The risks of STIs and hepatitis are probably related to demographic characteristics and sexual behavior. Migrants who are construction workers and long-distance truck drivers are predominantly male and more likely to solicit commercial sex workers than migrants of other occupations [51]. Frequent sex encounters as well as low perception of risk, low STI knowledge and low rates of condom use were reported among these occupational groups. In particular, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant farmworkers along the US-Mexico border. AU - Oren, E.. AU - Fiero, M. H.. AU - Barrett, E.. AU - Anderson, B.. AU - Nuñez, M.. AU - Gonzalez-Salazar, F.. PY - 2016/11/3. Y1 - 2016/11/3. N2 - Background: Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST). QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT to detect LTBI among migrant farmworkers on the border, as well as to examine the effects of various demographic and clinical factors on test positivity. Methods: Participants were recruited using mobile clinics on the San Luis US-Mexico border and ...
All locatable subjects n=94 for whom tuberculosis prevalence had been determined in an earlier study were tested with purified protein derivative PPD and control antigens, sputum sampling, and chest x-rays. Of the 46 who had been tuberculin negative confirmed with control antigens 3 years earlier, 2 had developed active tuberculosis in the...
The migration pattern of Chinese rural-urban migrants is significantly different from that of other countries where the migrants become new urban citizen.The majority of Chinese rural-urban migrants are in short term migration process called circular migrants,which causes the level of urbanization in our country lagging behind that of industrialization.The trend of semi-urbanization tends to become everlasting and permanent.This is a big challenge to the social development and the transformation of the social structure in China.This paper constructs thc capability development model of the migrants.Firstly,the three-stage theory of urbanization and the capability poverty of migrant are introduced.Based on the foregoing theoretical and empirical analysis,it finally constructs the capability re-creation model of migrant.Based on the reference to relative studies both at home and abroad and a great deal of survey data,this paper constructs a multi-dimensional model of personal capability re-creation.This
The increasing population of marriage-based migrant women is disproportionally affected by AIDS/STDs in China, and social support plays a critical role. This study aims to describe the social support level received by married migrant women in rural areas in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women, identifies the relevant factors of this social support condition among married migrant women, and observes the correlation between social support level and infection status of AIDS and STDs among this group. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the study. A pre-tested field questionnaire was administered to participants through a direct face-to-face interview. Questionnaire contained questions on socio-demographic information, AIDS and STDs prevalence information and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) which measures objective support, subjective support, and utilization of social support. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower
Results For most risk factors, the migrant group had intermediate levels of risk between those observed for the rural and urban groups. Prevalence for rural, migrant and urban groups was 3%, 20% and 33%, respectively, for obesity, and 0.8%, 3% and 6% for type-2 diabetes. This gradient of risk was not observed uniformly across all risk factors. Blood pressure did not show a clear gradient of difference between groups. The migrant group had similar systolic blood pressure but lower diastolic blood pressure than the rural group. The urban group had higher systolic blood pressure but similar diastolic blood pressure than rural group. Hypertension was more prevalent among the urban (29%) than both the rural and migrant groups (11% and 16%, respectively). For HbA1c, although the urban group had higher levels, the migrant and rural groups were similar to each other. No differences were observed in triglycerides between the three groups. Within migrants, those who migrated when aged older than 12 years ...
Study Purpose: This exploratory study sought to examine the convergence of social exclusion, legal marginalization, and crime on undocumented migrant workers (UMWs). UMWs are low-wage laborers performing manual labor in the agriculture, construction, and retail sectors without valid employer-sponsored visas. Specifically using the case of Palisades Park, New Jersey, the purpose of this study was to examine five problem areas: the political economy of migrant labor, prevalence and patterns of criminal victimization against UMWs, prevalence and patterns of violence against women, police-migrant interactions, and criminal offending of UMWs. Study Design: A prospective design using mixed methodology was adopted for this study. The mixed methods study design included survey data generated from a non-random sample, focus groups, and key informant interview in Palisades Park, New Jersey. The study used both convenience and snowball sampling techniques to recruit 160 male day laborers and a 120 female ...
COMMENT , The majority of workers (about 85 percent) in oil palm plantations in Malaysia are migrant workers from neighbouring countries such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, Nepal, Cambodia and India. In some plantations, there are also workers from the refugee Rohingya communities.. Migrant workers carry out typical plantation work such as harvesting of ripe fruits; pruning of oil palms, applying fertiliser to the palms, transporting the fruit bunches to the mills and spraying herbicides. It is very palpable that the industry is heavily dependent on migrant workers without whom essential work such as harvesting, collection and evacuation of fresh fruits would quickly grind to a halt.. This article is from a preliminary report which is a composite of observations from a number of different plantations in Perak, Selangor and Johor where conditions may vary. The purpose of this report is to highlight some areas where plantation companies could make improvements in their continuing quest to make work on ...
More than 70 % of Russians want to see fewer migrants in their country, a public opinion poll suggests.. "Despite the fact that 61% of the polled said they would not mind their children communicating with migrant kids and another 50% came out against creating any special residential areas for labor migrants, most Russians (78%) still want to reduce the migrant influx into Russia," the press service of the Russian Public Opinion Research Center said on Tuesday.. Sixty-three percent of respondents, nearly twice as many in cities than in rural areas (70% and 46%, respectively), said they could feel migrant presence in their populated localities.. Most Russians (67%), according to the pollster, realize that migrants are employed at jobs, which the Russians themselves do not want to do.. As for migrants influence on the socio-economic situation in Russian regions, every third Russian (36%) considers migrants to be a source of additional infusions into the Russian economy (50% of respondents ...
Pediatricians and experts on child trauma are expressing deep concerns regarding the effects of separating migrant children from their parents at the United States borders and what this could bring about in the child as they grow.
Migrant labourer Mahesh Jena pedalled 1,700km across India over seven days to reach home. His biggest challenge: Keeping the wheels moving.
July 21, 1998. KALAMAZOO -- Future health care professionals from Western Michigan University are gaining some real-life experience this summer addressing the health care needs of migrant farm workers in rural Southwestern Michigan.. WMUs Summer Institute on Migrant Farmworker Health is a compressed version of WMUs Rural Health Education program, which encourages students to complete field placements in rural settings and pursue careers in rural communities. The program allows students to gain hands-on knowledge in health care fields, while earning credit. This is the first year an institute giving special attention to the needs of the migrant population has been held.. Students from a variety of health care majors are gaining clinical experience at migrant Head Start centers, community health clinics and immunization clinics in Berrien and Van Buren counties.. Physician assistant students treat patients, while health education and nursing students observe medical exams. Music therapy, ...
Author: Adrian Bishop, OPP.Today (UK). A call has gone out for construction companies operating in the Gulf region to "up their game" and protect migrant workers from abusive working arrangements...Business & Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC), author of the newly-published Wall of Silence, invited 100 construction companies operating in Qatar and the UAE to state the measures they are taking to stop exploitation of migrant workers. Only 22 responded...Despite increasing public pressure for transparency and a requirement under the UKs groundbreaking Modern Slavery Act for UK headquartered businesses to report on their global supply chain operations, many companies involved in the construction of the World Cup stadiums failed to respond to BHRRCs outreach.. Chris McCann, Principal Consultant BSI Supply Chain Services, says, "The role business can play in driving out extreme forms of labour abuse, particularly in extended supply chains, is an invaluable one. A Wall of Silence acknowledges ...
Dietary behaviour varies widely among and within different cultures. When people migrate, dietary practices are often disrupted, so that different types of food are consumed or preparation of food is modified [28]. Of course, migrants also frequently influence the tastes of native populations, increasing the range of foods on offer in host countries.. A systematic mapping of 37 primary studies examining dietary behaviour in minority ethnic groups across Europe found that factors influencing dietary behaviour included cultural identity, religious beliefs and prescribing, and taste preferences [29•]. Specific factors influencing dietary behaviour identified for migrant populations were availability of traditional foods (noting that when these are imported they can be more expensive), competency in new language and perception of host culture (including eating behaviours and food habits) [29•].. A review of dietary habits of minority ethnic groups in Europe reports that the majority of migrants ...
The 4th Union Asia Pacific Region Conference on Lung Health (APRC 2013) opened in Hanoi, Viet Nam, with a powerful and thought-provoking session on TB and migrants. There are scores of known structural drivers that put people at risk of TB such as poverty, but other less-spoken factors, such as immigration laws, International relations between countries, legal status of migrants, labour laws, and politics of borders where some countries deport expats who develop TB, need more attention too. According to International Organization for Migration (IOM), there are 215 million international and 740 million internal migrants. Migrants in many parts of the world are known to have reduced access to TB diagnosis and treatment, affecting the global fight against the disease. A range of policy measures have been taken at different levels including global, yet implementation is indeed lacking in most countries. The countries where migrants originate from, as well as the countries receiving migrants, have ...
In the Post-COVID situation, the issue of migrant workers has come to the forefront. While on the one hand, it provides an opportunity to reflect and correct, on the other hand it also brings out the deeply held biases in Government decisions. While Migrants go on to build a city, they never form part of mental frame of the decision making bodies. Initially, challenges of millions of migrant workers were never taken into account before announcing lockdown. Recently news which also emerged was of builders lobby in Karnataka influencing Government to cancel Shramik Express so that construction workers stay back and construction activities do not get affected. Also in the news was of Chief Ministers of Punjab, Karnataka, Haryana and Gujarat calling counterpart in Uttar Pradesh and expressing concern over the flight of labour which can lead to economic activities coming to a halt. These instances show the political economy factors, where Government becomes active representatives of the interests ...
This study has reviewed the literature on migrant workers for substantive evidence that migrant workers are more susceptible to injury and illness in the workplace. The study has examined the sources of data available to facilitate this type of analysis.
Finding and retaining laborers has become a top challenge for specialty crop growers throughout the country.. A west Michigan man hopes to streamline the recruiting process for growers - as well as provide farmworkers with information about local and regional resources once they do find work.. Feliciano Paredes of Belding, Michigan, is creating an app that is being called the "Yelp" of farmworkers.. Campesino SOS, which translates to Farmworker SOS, helps migrant and seasonal farmworkers connect with farmerswho need help, as well as clinics, legal aid and other services in the area. Paredes is calling the app "Animo!" Its a word used often in farm fields.. "Workers will yell this at each other throughout the day as an encouragement to find the strength, will and energy to finish off the days work," he said.. While a student in 2011 at Grand Valley State University (GVSU), Paredes began working on a prototype that "came about after I grew up as a farmworker myself.". "I grew up in a family of ...
In recent years various EU/EEA countries have experienced an influx of migrants from low and middle-income countries. In 2018, the "Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE)" survey group conducted a survey among 30 EU/EEA countries to investigate immunisation policies and practices targeting irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers (later called "migrants" in this report). Twenty-nine countries participated in the survey. Twenty-eight countries reported having national policies targeting children/adolescent and adult migrants, however vaccinations offered to adult migrants are limited to specific conditions in seven countries. All the vaccinations included in the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) are offered to children/adolescents in 27/28 countries and to adults in 13/28 countries. In the 15 countries offering only certain vaccinations to adults, priority is given to diphtheria-tetanus, measles-mumps-rubella and polio vaccinations. Information about the vaccines ...
Prevalence of diagnosed T2DM in Victoria was 4.1% (n = 98671) in men and 3.5% (n = 87608) in women. Of those with T2DM, over 1 in 5 born in Oceania and in Southern and Central Asia were aged under 50 years. For both men and women, odds of T2DM were higher for all migrant groups than the Australian-born reference population, including, after adjusting for age and SES, 6.3 and 7.2 times higher for men and women born in the Pacific Islands, respectively, and 5.2 and 5.0 times higher for men and women born in Southern and Central Asia, respectively. Effects of SES varied by region of birth ...
A robbers gang struck at Rangilpur village and raped two girls, including a minor, of a migrant family from Bihar on Monday night. The gang also looted Rs 19,000 cash from the family.
In a note to state and district authorities, the Women and Child Development Ministry said that "activities under Poshan Abhiyaan should be promoted in urban areas with an effort to expand the outreach of health and nutrition services among slum-dwellers and migrant population ...
Undocumented immigrants, health care system facecrisis situation over dialysis treatment for kidney patients Harris Countys public health system is overwhelmed treating 200 to 300 undocumented patients like Delgadillo who need dialysis at least several times a month to stay alive. In 2008, Harris County opened a farsighted dialysis clinic for undocumented patients as a means of cutting the cost of emergency services. The clinic provides 50 percent more dialysis treatment per patient at a cost of about $77,000 a year, but it is full, and Harris Health, facing a $70 million deficit, now finds it hard to invest in expanding such alternatives. Even better care and greater savings could be realized, Harris Health physicians say, by performing kidney transplants on undocumented individuals in the Houston area whose relatives could serve as donors. Some of them spend most of their life in the emergency department waiting to qualify for dialysis, said Dr. David Sheikh-Hamad, chief of renal services at
The Government must end the "dreadful uncertainty" of EU migrants living in the UK and tell them that they can continue to live, work and study here after Brexit, Lord Howard has said.
Methods Proportions of migrant workers exposed were estimated using the data available, generally limited, on numbers of non-residents employed, plus estimates of staff and population turnover based on average contract lengths for non-resident workers and working time limits. Life expectancy was based on the host countrys resident rates rather than the local rates in migrants countries of origin. Where available, exposure-response relative risk estimates allowed for migrants shorter exposure durations. The host countrys underlying disease rates were applied to the migrant worker population estimates to give attributable disease numbers. ...
This is as complete a story about what happened to Migrant X that we are aware of. Migrant X is a young migrant women who it emerged was refused an abortion by the Irish state despite apparently meeting the grounds of the X-case legislation and instead forced to carry the pregnancy and agree to a C-section. The pregnanacy itself was the result of rape, Migrant X attempted suicide after being refused the abortion and later went on a hunger and thirst strike. Once what had happened to her became known there were sizeable pro-choice solidarity demonstrations called across Ireland and at Irish embassies overseas. We have been given information that the migrant woman at the centre of the current forced pregnancy was committed to a psychiatric hospital following her initial request for termination. Its already known that the initial request was made when she was 8 weeks pregnant. It was this crucial period in which she was being held incommunicado which led directly to the Caesarian option being ...
The ILO is the only United Nations agency with a constitutional mandate to protect migrant workers, and it does so as part of its overarching goal of achieving decent work for all. In addition to adopting International Labour Standards covering a wide range of employment-related areas (which apply to all persons in their working environment irrespective of their nationality) it has pioneered specific international Conventions to guide migration policy and the protection of migrant workers - including the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97) and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143). All four sections of the ILO - standards, employment, social protection and social dialogue - work on labour migration and the ILO also promotes tripartite participation - the involvement of governments, employers and workers - in the formulation and implementation of migration policies and programmes ...
The Israeli journalist David Sheen has brought the reality of Israels war on African migrants to American audiences over the past three weeks. The details he presents are downright devastating, documenting how a state founded to protect refugees has become a state systematically targeting refugees for indefinite imprisonment and deportation. As Sheen notes, at the root of these policies is the driving ethos in Israel of maintaining Jewish supremacy in the face of so-called demographic threats, whether they be Palestinian or African.
MEXICO CITY: The spread of HIV as a serious aspect of Latin Americas migration crisis -- whether through Venezuelans forced to emigrate to obtain medicine or Central American migrants unaware...
Migrants traversing Mexico by freight train say they've heard it's easier to enter the U.S. now, especially with children.
The most quite a few jobs are in fruit harvesting, common agricultural work equivalent to planting and harvesting, and on tobacco plantations, in keeping with the U.S. Department of Labor.. Migrant employees historically come from Mexican agricultural and border states and their essential locations are agricultural areas the place theres a momentary or everlasting scarcity of labourers.. Jeremy McLean, coverage and advocacy supervisor for the New York-based non-governmental organisation Justice in Motion, expressed concern about the situations in which migrants work.. The method the system works, "its not going to be easy to follow recommendations for social distancing. Hundreds of thousands of people are going to come and wont be able to follow these recommendations, and they will put themselves at risk. It could spell another wave of infection and transmission," he warned IPS.. "This population group has no health services and no medical insurance. If they fall ill in a remote area, what ...
After a prolonged selection process due to new selection criteria, the California Department of Housing and Community Development has announced the 2012 CDBG grant recipients. Among the projects funded is Colusa Countys Wastewater Treatment Pond closure and force main replacement, serving the Migrant Housing Camp located in the City of Williams. Aquality Water Management has been assisting the County with a plan for closing the facility and connecting the Camp to the City of Williams Wastewater Treatment Plant. Aquality assisted the County with its CDBG application, requesting $1.5 million in Community Development funding to facilitate the necessary construction and decommissioning of the ponds. The grant award will allow the Migrant Housing Camp to remain open to serve the community, the County, and the migrant farm workers who are essential to the yearly harvest.. ...
Dr. Julie Linton, co-chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Immigrant Health Special Interest Group, said "access to care is profoundly limited" at the detention facilities on the border.. In 2016, Linton traveled to Texas to visit three of these facilities, including McAllen, the largest processing center, known as "Ursula." She said the conditions and access to health care vary by facility. Some processing centers screen children for obvious diseases, such as lice, chickenpox and scabies. But none of them take medical histories or conduct physical exams.. In the past, delayed access to basic care for viral infections at immigrant facilities has led to pneumonia and hospitalization of children, said Linton, a pediatrician in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Many of the children are weak and malnourished after traveling for several weeks with limited access to food and safe water, said Dr. Omolara Thomas Uwemedimo, director of the global health training program at Cohen Childrens Medical ...
At the end of the winter circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in Asian and Mediterranen immigrants in northwestern European countries are usually very low. This may lead to vitamin D deficiency and eventually to rickets. Children are more prone to develop vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D status of 8-year-old Turkish, Moroccan and Caucasian children was assessed by measuring plasma concentrations of 25-OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and related to the cumulated global sun radiation (CGSR). The study population was selected from school children in The Hague and Rotterdam (The Netherlands). In each city blood samples were examined from 40 migrant children and a Caucasian reference group (n = 40) (matched for age and sex). Children in The Hague were examined at the end of the winter and early spring (February/April) and those in Rotterdam in late spring and early summer (May/June). Mean plasma 25-OHD concentrations for the migrant children in both cities were ...
Undocumented immigrants applying for permission to remain in the United States under President Obamas new deportation policy should beware of scammers.
At least 24 migrant labourers lost their lives and 36 people sustained injuries when a trailer truck carrying them collided with another truck in the early
It has been suggested that migrants are not representative samples of their population of origin. Migrants are likely to be positively selected when they respond to pull factors in the country of destination and negatively selected in respond to push factors in the country of origin (Lee, 1966). With regards to health, this leads to the so called "healthy migrant effect". In general, people that are younger and healthier are more willing and able to migrate (Jasso et al., 2004). The elderly and people that are ill tend to stay in their country of origin. ...
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The move is almost certain to spark a new court fight over the governments ability to hold families until their cases are decided.
[cnn-photo-caption image= http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2010/images/05/20/art.paul.cnn.jpg caption=Rand Paul said he opposes citizenship for U.S. born children of undocumented immigrants.
While migration has been shown to be a risk factor for HIV, variation in HIV prevalence by subgroups of migrants needs further exploration. This paper documents the HIV prevalence and key characteristics among male foreign migrants in Cape Town, South Africa and the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit this population. Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a behavioral risk-factor questionnaire and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated to be 8.7 % (CI 5.4-11.8) but varied dramatically by country of origin. After adjusting for country of origin, HIV sero-positivity was positively associated with older age (p = 0.001), completing high school (p = 0.025), not having enough money for food (p = 0.036), alcohol use (p = 0.049), and engaging in transactional sex (p = 0.022). RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant men. A better understanding of the timing of HIV acquisition is needed to design targeted ...
A group of protesters, some of whom started a hunger strike on July 29, are trying to put pressure on Northwestern Hospital to provide organ transplants for undocumented immigrants. Since they stopped eating eight days ago, the hunger strikers have subsisted on water and Gatorade.
Previous research has produced conflicting findings on the extent to which migrants and ethnic groups experience crime. Johnsons (2005) research based on the 2004 International Crime Victimisation Survey showed that a sample of migrants who were born or whose parents were born in Vietnam or the Middle East experienced lower rates of personal crime (assault/threat, robbery, personal theft) than a community sample. Statistics Canada found that the rate of personal victimisation for migrants was substantially lower than the overall Canadian rate of personal victimisation (Brzozowski and Mihorean 2002). However, the 2004/05 British Crime Survey (Jansson 2006) found that there were no differences in the overall risk of victimisation between ethnic groups, with the exception of people from a mixed ethnic group, who were at a higher risk of victimisation than white people (based on the United Kingdoms 2001 Census classifications). Differences in the rates of victimisation between ethnic groups may ...
Background: There is limited evidence on the knowledge, attitude and risk perception related to HIV/AIDS among the wives of migrant workers in India. Method: We conducte..
An exclusive interview with Google HR director Liane Hornsey on how organisations can inspire staff through office culture - learn tips and advice on how you could change your office culture for the better Singer Liza Minelli was almost refused entry into the UK at Heathrow aiport after her visa application had been delayed at the Border Agency UK. Find out what this means for employers trying to recruit migrant workers. Presenter Louisa Peacock is joined by Greg Pitcher, Guy Logan and John Charlton. Listen to this weeks programme now. Or subscribe to Personnel Today Audio below to get the latest episodes automatically uploaded to your iPod, another MP3 player or through an RSS reader…. ...
Singapore, which has been dealing with an outbreak of coronavirus infections among its migrant workers, is building new dormitories with improved standards.
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A migrant worker strips plastic from wires to extract useful metals. The plastic on the wires is often PVC which contains toxic chemicals and produces large amounts of pollution when disposed, often by burning in the open air.
In some of these areas, these problems are in fact sharpened by the presence of large numbers of recent immigrants, many of them not English speakers. In some cases, migrant groups bring with them nothing but good education and habits of hard work which put our own young people to shame. Many employers sadly complain that our own young, festooned with qualifications lack basic knowledge, common sense or the ability to concentrate - whereas migrant workers make up for their poor English by having all these good qualities.. In some migrant groups, it is not always so. But in many cases, problems with such groups arise not when they first arrive, but when the second generation, born and raised here, confront the problems which arise from our societys failure to integrate their parents properly, sometimes worse than failure, since multiculturalism seems determined to keep them separate for ever. It would be absurd to deny that much of the social decay and chaos, in fact most of it, comes from ...