Background Gamma (γ) oscillations (30-50 Hz) have been shown to be excessive in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) during working memory (WM). WM is a cognitive process that involves the online maintenance and manipulation of information that is mediated largely by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a non-invasive method to stimulate the cortex that has been shown to enhance cognition and γ oscillatory activity during WM. Methodology and Principal Findings We examined the effect of 20 Hz rTMS over the DLPFC on γ oscillatory activity elicited during the N-back task in 24 patients with SCZ compared to 22 healthy subjects. Prior to rTMS, patients with SCZ elicited excessive γ oscillatory activity compared to healthy subjects across WM load. Active rTMS resulted in the reduction of frontal γ oscillatory activity in patients with SCZ, while potentiating activity in healthy subjects in the 3-back, the most difficult condition.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcranial magnetic stimulation potentiates glutamatergic neurotransmission in depressed adolescents. AU - Croarkin, Paul E.. AU - Nakonezny, Paul A.. AU - Wall, Christopher A.. AU - Murphy, Lauren L.. AU - Sampson, Shirlene M.. AU - Frye, Mark A.. AU - Port, John D.. PY - 2016/1/30. Y1 - 2016/1/30. N2 - Abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission may have a role in the pathophysiology of adolescent depression. The present pilot study examined changes in cortical glutamine/glutamate ratios in depressed adolescents receiving high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ten adolescents with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder received up to 30 sessions of 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at 120% motor threshold with 3000 pulses per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans of the anterior cingulate cortex and left dorsolateral ...
We test the emerging hypothesis that prefrontal cortical mechanisms involved in non-veridical decision making do not overlap with those of veridical decision making. Healthy female subjects performed an experimental task assessing free choice, agent-centered decision making (The Cognitive Bias Task) and a veridical control task related to visuospatial working memory (the Moving Spot Task). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using 1 Hz and 10 Hz (intermittent) rTMS and sham protocols. Both 1 Hz and 10 Hz stimulation of the DLPFC triggered a shift towards a more context-independent, internal representations driven non-veridical selection bias. A significantly reduced preference for choosing objects based on similarity was detected, following both 1 Hz and 10 Hz treatment of the right as well as 1 Hz rTMS of the left DLPFC. 1 Hz rTMS treatment of the right DLPFC also triggered a significant improvement in visuospatial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sessions of Prolonged Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation or High-frequency 10 Hz Stimulation to Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for 3 Days Decreased Pain Sensitivity by Modulation of the Efficacy of Conditioned Pain Modulation. AU - De Martino, Enrico. AU - Fernandes, Ana Mércia. AU - Galhardoni, Ricardo. AU - De Oliveira Souza, Carolina. AU - Ciampi De Andrade, Daniel. AU - Graven-Nielsen, Thomas. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - The 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (10 Hz-rTMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces analgesia, probably by activating the pain modulation system. A newer rTMS paradigm, called theta burst stimulation (TBS), has been developed. Unlike 10 Hz-rTMS, prolonged continuous TBS (pcTBS) mimics endogenous theta rhythms, which can improve induction of synaptic long-term potentiation. Therefore, this study investigated whether pcTBS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduced pain sensitivity more efficiently ...
This is the first study of its kind to systematically investigate the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in non-remitters of a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) followed by an serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) trial with the capacity to identify gene variants that predict rTMS response. The study is similar in design to the STAR*D study in that it will be the third treatment stage for a study of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). rTMS is a novel intervention which was FDA approved for treatment of MDD in October 2008 and was not clinically available at the time of the STAR*D study.. The primary aim of this pilot study is to provide 10 Hertz (Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) as adjuvant treatment for depression in individuals who have not had a remission of their depressive symptoms after an 8 week trial of an SSRI (citalopram or escitalopram) ...
Background: chronic tinnitus is a disabling, almost untreatable, condition usually accompanied by psychiatric distress. In patients with complex neuropsychiatric diseases as chronic pain, with whom tinnitus shares pathophysiological similarities, placebo effects may be pronounced. Moreover, it may be difficult to distinguish actual rTMS-induced clinical benefits beyond placebo effects in neuropsychiatric patients. Methods: 16 patients with chronic tinnitus underwent a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of 1 Hz rTMS (120% of motor threshold; 1200 stimuli/day for 5 days) of the left temporoparietal region. Patients were screened for psychiatric comorbidity; additionally, anxiety and depression were monitored throughout the study. Moreover, an original placebo rTMS procedure produced the same activation of ipsilateral face muscles (a condition which may per se change tinnitus subjective rating) of the real rTMS. Results: responders were 8 out of 14. Two patients dropped ...
Background: Prefrontal and temporo-parietal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus have shown significant but only moderate effectiveness with high inter-individual variability in treatment response. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the general feasibility of an individualized fronto-temporal rTMS protocol and to explore what criteria are needed for a more detailed evaluation in randomized clinical studies. Methods: During the first session of a two-week rTMS protocol, we applied different rTMS protocols to the left and right temporo-parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 25 tinnitus patients. Short trains of 1Hz, 5Hz, 10Hz, 20Hz and cTBS (continuous theta burst stimulation) were applied and patients were asked for immediate tinnitus reductions after each train. If a patient reported such improvements rTMS treatment was applied over 9 sessions with a combined protocol consisting of the most effective frontal
This is the first study of its kind to systematically investigate the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in non-remitters of a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) followed by an serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) trial with the capacity to identify gene variants that predict rTMS response. The study is similar in design to the STAR*D study in that it will be the third treatment stage for a study of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). rTMS is a novel intervention which was FDA approved for treatment of MDD in October 2008 and was not clinically available at the time of the STAR*D study.. The primary aim of this pilot study is to provide 10 Hertz (Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) as adjuvant treatment for depression in individuals who have not had a remission of their depressive symptoms after an 8 week trial of an SSRI (citalopram or escitalopram) ...
BACKGROUND: The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning. METHODS: We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate. RESULTS: As predicted, we found that
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. AU - Tanaka, Satoshi. AU - Hanakawa, Takashi. AU - Honda, Manabu. AU - Watanabe, Katsumi. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a procedure to polarize human brain. It has been reported that tDCS over the hand motor cortex transiently improves the performance of hand motor tasks. Here, we investigated whether tDCS could also improve leg motor functions. Ten healthy subjects performed pinch force (PF) and reaction time (RT) tasks using the left leg before, during and after anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS over the leg motor cortex. The anodal tDCS transiently enhanced the maximal leg PF but not RT during its application. Neither cathodal nor sham stimulation changed the performance. None of the interventions affected hand PF or RT, showing the spatial specificity of the effect of tDCS. These results indicate that motor performance of not only ...
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: current perspectives Ana Lusicic,1 Koen RJ Schruers,2 Stefano Pallanti,3,4 David J Castle5,6 1PACE Clinic, Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Research Institute for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 3Institute of Neurosciences, Florence, Italy; 4Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 5St Vincents Hospital, 6University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive neurostimulation technique receiving increasing attention in the treatment of different psychiatric disorders. Evidence for rTMS use in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is accumulating and informing further developments in the neurostimulation field, the latest being deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS). dTMS allows direct stimulation of deeper subcortical structures and larger brain volume than conventional
BACKGROUND:The two human cerebral hemispheres are continuously interacting, through excitatory and inhibitory influences and one critical structure subserving this interhemispheric balance is the corpus callosum. Interhemispheric neurophysiological abnormalities and intrahemispheric behavioral impairments have been reported in individuals lacking the corpus callosum. The aim of this study was to examine intrahemispheric neurophysiological function in primary motor cortex devoid of callosal projections.METHODS:Intracortical excitatory and inhibitory systems were tested in three individuals with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and sixteen healthy individuals. These systems were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols: motor threshold at rest, paired-pulse curve, and cortical silent period.RESULTS:TMS revealed no difference between the patient and control groups on the motor threshold measure, as well as intracortical facilitation and intracortical inhibition ...
Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) represents a promising approach in the treatment of neglect syndrome. However, it is not known whether cTBS in conjunction with another technique may enhance the therapeutic effects. In the present sham-controlled study, we aimed to combine cTBS with smooth pursuit training (SPT), another method known to effectively improve neglect symptoms, and to evaluate whether this combination would result in a stronger effect than SPT alone. Eighteen patients with left spatial neglect after right-hemispheric stroke were included in the study and performed a cancellation task on a large 54.6″ touchscreen monitor. A sequential application of cTBS and SPT induced a significantly greater improvement of neglect than SPT alone. After the combined application of these two methods, patients detected significantly more targets and their cancellation behaviour presented a significantly greater shift towards the contralesional hemispace. We suggest that a combined, sequential
Video articles in JoVE about transcranial magnetic stimulation include Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System, How to Use the H1 Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil for Conditions Other than Depression, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Investigating Causal Brain-behavioral Relationships and their Time Course, Neuronavigation-guided Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Aphasia, Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on the Primary Motor Cortex by Online Combined Approach with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Unilateral Hemisphere of Rat Brain, Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia, Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition, Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov This study will examine the effects of high frequency, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on decision-making and ...
Objective: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of 20 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of either right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as compared to sham rTMS for the relief of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-associated symptoms.. Method: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial conducted between October 2005 and July 2008, 30 patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed PTSD were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following treatments: active 20 Hz rTMS of the right DLPFC, active 20 Hz rTMS of the left DLPFC, or sham rTMS. Treatments were administered in 10 daily sessions over 2 weeks. A blinded rater assessed severity of core PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety before, during, and after completion of the treatment protocol. In addition, a battery of neuropsychological tests was measured before and after treatment.. Results: Results show that both active conditions-20 Hz rTMS of left and right DLPFC-induced a significant decrease in PTSD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcranial direct current stimulation over the opercular somatosensory region does not influence experimentally induced pain. T2 - A triple blind, sham-controlled study. AU - Koyama, Soichiro. AU - Nakagawa, Kei. AU - Tanaka, Satoshi. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the opercular somatosensory region (OP), which includes the secondary somatosensory cortex and the insular cortex, suppresses pain sensation. However, whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP has a similar effect on pain sensation remains unknown. We examined whether pain sensation would be suppressed by tDCS over the OP. Our experiment with a triple-blind, sham-controlled, crossover design involved 12 healthy participants. Participants were asked to rate their subjective pain intensity during and after three types of bihemispheric tDCS: right anodal/left cathodal OP tDCS, left anodal/right cathodal OP tDCS (2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (15 s). Pain ...
Eight randomized placebo-controlled trials provide further evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) may benefit motor function of the paretic upper limb in patients with chronic stroke, say authors of a meta-analysis published online in Journal of Hand Therapy. Prior reviews on the effects of a-tDCS have shown the effectiveness of a-tDCS on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals but nonsignificant effect in participants with stroke. To summarize and evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of a-tDCS in the treatment of upper limb motor impairment after stroke, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared a-tDCS with placebo and change from baseline.. A pooled analysis showed a significant increase in scores in favor of a-tDCS (standard mean difference [SMD]=0.40, compared with baseline). A similar effect was observed between a-tDCS and sham (SMD=0.49). APTA members Margaret Shuster, PT, Kevin Hurley, ...
Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, represents a novel avenue for the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Despite evidence for the effectiveness of rTMS in chronic pain conditions, the clinical upta...
Awareness of self-generated movements arises from comparing motor plans, and the accompanying (hypothetical) efference copy, with the visual and proprioceptive consequences of movement. Here we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of a posterior region in …
Background: Methamphetamine is considered as one of the potent psychological stimuli with high addiction capacity. Drug craving is one of the most critical factors in drug addiction, leading to drug use relapse once withdrawn. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on the drug craving in patients using methamphetamine. Methods: This study was conducted in a double-blind sham-controlled design on 31 patients in Summer 2016. The patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups (each group comprising10 subjects) and rTMS was performed at the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) with frequency of 15Hz and the left Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC) with a frequency of 1 Hz. One day before the onset of the intervention and one week following the completion of it, the subjects were evaluated using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and visual cue-induced craving assessment task. In a 6-month
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perfusion MRI indexes variability in the functional brain effects of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation. AU - Gratton, Caterina. AU - Lee, Taraz G.. AU - Nomura, Emi M.. AU - DEsposito, Mark. PY - 2014/7/3. Y1 - 2014/7/3. N2 - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an important tool for testing causal relationships in cognitive neuroscience research. However, the efficacy of TMS can be variable across individuals and difficult to measure. This variability is especially a challenge when TMS is applied to regions without well-characterized behavioral effects, such as in studies using TMS on multi-modal areas in intrinsic networks. Here, we examined whether perfusion fMRI recordings of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), a quantitative measure sensitive to slow functional changes, reliably index variability in the effects of stimulation. Twenty-seven participants each completed four combined TMS-fMRI sessions during which both resting state Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) ...
Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Title:Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for the Treatment of Addictions: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Ali Yadollahpour* and Tifei Yuan*. Affiliation:Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Golestan Blvd., Ahvaz, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai. Keywords:Transcranial direct current stimulation, addiction, treatment, clinical efficacy, therapeutic efficacy, substance use disorders.. Abstract:Background and Objective: Addiction is one of the main health issues worldwide. Severe side effects and nonspecific actions of conventional medications have necessitated the development of new safe and non-invasive modality for addiction treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential treatment effects in substance use disorder and addiction. The present study aims to ...
Drug and Alcohol Findings Effectiveness Bank analysis titled: Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in alcohol dependence: a sham-controlled study
Saccadic eye movements are driven by motor commands that are continuously modified so that errors created by eye muscle fatigue, injury, or-in humans-wearing spectacles can be corrected. It is possible to rapidly adapt saccades in the laboratory by introducing a discrepancy between the intended and actual saccadic target. Neurophysiological and lesion studies in the non-human primate as well as neuroimaging and patient studies in humans have demonstrated that the oculomotor vermis (lobules VI and VII of the posterior cerebellum) is critical for saccadic adaptation. We studied the effect of transiently disrupting the function of posterior cerebellum with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the ability of healthy human subjects to adapt saccadic eye movements. rTMS significantly impaired the adaptation of the amplitude of saccades, without modulating saccadic amplitude or variability in baseline conditions. Moreover, increasing the intensity of rTMS produced a larger impairment in the
In a randomized study of 41 adult inpatients in suicidal crisis, high-dose repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left prefrontal cortex, applied 3 times daily for 3 consecutive da... more
We explore the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve language abilities in patients with chronic stroke ...
Pain clinical trial. Clinical trial for Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Treatment for Pain in Parkinsons Disease.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Longlasting antalgic effects of daily sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in central and peripheral neuropathic pain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has allowed the non-invasive assessment of cerebellar function in humans. Early studies showed that cerebellar activity, as reflected in the excitability of the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, can be assessed with paired stimulation of the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) (cerebellar inhibition of motor cortex, CBI). Following this, many attempts have been made, using techniques such as repetitive TMS and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), to modulate the activity of the cerebellum and the dentate-thalamo-cortical output, and measure their impact on M1 activity. The present article reviews literature concerned with the impact of non-invasive stimulation of cerebellum on M1 measures of excitability and
In neurology, as in all branches of medicine, symptoms of disease and the resulting burden of illness and disability are not simply the consequence of the injury, inflammation or dysfunction of a given organ; they also reflect the consequences of the nervous systems attempt to adapt to the insult. This plastic response includes compensatory changes that prove adaptive for the individual, as well as changes that contribute to functional disability and are, therefore, maladaptive. In this context, brain stimulation techniques tailored to modulate individual plastic changes associated with neurological diseases might enhance clinical benefits and minimize adverse effects. In this Review, we discuss the use of two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation-to modulate activity in the targeted cortex or in a dysfunctional network, to restore an adaptive equilibrium in a disrupted network for best behavioral outcome, and
Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective alternative for pharmacotherapy in treatment-resistant depressive patients, but the side effects limit its use. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been proposed as a refined alternative, but most studies do not indicate that TMS is as effective as ECT for severe depression. Objective We propose that the limited effectiveness of standard TMS resides in its superficial effect on the cortex, although much of the pathophysiology of depression is associated with deeper and larger brain regions implicated in the reward system. Herein, we tested the effectiveness and safety of a novel TMS coil, the H-coil, which enables direct stimulation of deeper brain regions, at the expense of focality. Methods We have studied the antidepressant and cognitive effects induced by 4 weeks of high-frequency (20 Hz) repeated deep TMS (DTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 65 medication-free depressive patients, who have failed to benefit from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional neuroimaging of the baboon during concurrent image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. AU - Salinas, Felipe S.. AU - Szabó, C. Ákos. AU - Zhang, Wei. AU - Jones, Lisa. AU - Leland, M. Michelle. AU - Wey, Hsiao Ying. AU - Duong, Timothy Q.. AU - Fox, Peter T.. AU - Narayana, Shalini. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has well-established applications in basic neuroscience and promising applications in neurological and psychiatric disorders. However the underlying mechanisms of TMS-induced alterations in brain function are not well understood. As a result, treatment design parameters are determined ad hoc and not informed by any coherent theory or model. Once the mechanisms underlying TMSs modulatory effects on brain systems are better understood and modeled, TMSs potential as a therapeutic and/or investigative tool will be more readily explored and exploited. An animal model is better suited to study different TMS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation in swallowing rehabilitation following stroke - A review of the literature. AU - Doeltgen, Sebastian. AU - Bradnam, Lynley. AU - Young, Jessica. AU - Fong, Eric. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: This descriptive review of the literature outlines the current evidence-base underpinning the potential of transcranial brain stimulation techniques to modulate swallowing function in healthy individuals and in treating post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: Published research was identified by review of scientific databases (Scopus, Medline Ovid, Science Direct, AMED and Google Scholar) using relevant keywords. In addition, the reference lists of identified articles were scrutinized to identify further potentially relevant papers. Studies employing variants of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation for the purpose of modulating swallowing motor cortical excitability in healthy participants or dysphagia following stroke were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of low- and high-frequency repetitive magnetic stimulation on neuronal cell proliferation and growth factor expression. T2 - A preliminary report. AU - Lee, Ji Yong. AU - Park, Hyung Joong. AU - Kim, Ji Hyun. AU - Cho, Byung Pil. AU - Cho, Sung Rae. AU - Kim, Sung Hoon. PY - 2015/9/4. Y1 - 2015/9/4. N2 - Repetitive magnetic stimulation is a neuropsychiatric and neurorehabilitation tool that can be used to investigate the neurobiology of sensory and motor functions. Few studies have examined the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation on the modulation of neurotrophic/growth factors and neuronal cells in vitro. Therefore, the current study examined the differential effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation on neuronal cell proliferation as well as various growth factor expression. Immortalized mouse neuroblastoma cells were used as the cell model in this study. Dishes of cultured cells were randomly divided into control, sham, low-frequency (0.5. Hz, 1. Tesla) and ...
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. Researchers have used single-pulse and repetitive TMS to stimulate the lip representation in the motor cortex. The excitability of the lip motor representation can be investigated by applying single TMS pulses over this cortical area and recording TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) via electrodes attached to the lip muscles (electromyography; EMG). Larger MEPs reflect increased cortical excitability. Studies have shown that excitability increases during listening to speech as well as during viewing speech-related movements. TMS can be used also to disrupt the lip motor representation. A 15-min train of low-frequency sub-threshold repetitive stimulation has been shown to suppress motor excitability for a further 15-20 min. This TMS-induced disruption of the motor lip representation impairs subsequent performance in demanding speech perception
TY - JOUR. T1 - A 2-in-1 single-element coil design for transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging. AU - Lu,Hai. AU - Wang,Shumin. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of turning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil for MRI signal reception. Methods: A critically coupled network was formed by using a resonated turn of TMS coil as the secondary and a regular radiofrequency (RF) coil as the primary. A third coil was positioned between the two coils for detuning during RF transmission. Bench measurement, numerical simulation, and MRI experiment were performed for validation. Results: The signal-to-noise ratio of the proposed 2-in-1 coil is 35% higher in its field of view, compared with a MRI-only reference coil of the same size, made by the same material, and backed up by an untuned TMS coil, but lower than a RF surface coil of the same size without any TMS coil nearby. Spin-echo images of the human brain further validated its ...
As a pertinent addition to the literature, the study highlights several concerns currently facing those in the transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) community. Standing out from the crowdTremblay et al. (2016) investigated modulations of corticospinal excitability within motor cortex as induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Having delivered 1 and 2 mA stimulation for durations of 10 or 20 minutes, they assessed the outcomes by means of motor evoked potentials (MEPs). This may be regarded as business as usual by many researchers. Indeed, there is nothing ground-breaking about the paradigm but therein lies its appeal. The article represents a systematic account of tDCS effects resulting from some of the most commonly used protocols, which in an increasingly discordant field was well overdue.tDCS has become increasingly popular as a result of research by Nitsche and Paulus (2001), which documented the existence of sustained after-effects in humans. However, the explosion of
Background and objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive nerve stimulation technique that has the potential to improve cognitive function. However, there have been few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of rTMS on cognitive function and the relapse in patients with bipolar disorder. Participants and methods: This double-blind parallel RCT will be conducted at The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital), China. A total of 74 bipolar disorder patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to a trial group (n = 37) and control group (n = 37). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation will be applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the trial group and control group, respectively. This trial was designed on March 2, 2017 and was approved by the Ethics Committee of The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou ...
BACKGROUND Experiments in animal models suggest that neuronal plasticity can be enhanced by dopaminergic receptor activation. The present study tested whether stimulation-induced plasticity of human motor cortex after low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could be potentiated by a single oral dose of the combined D1/D2 receptor agonist pergolide. METHODS In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, nine healthy young volunteers received .125 mg pergolide or placebo 2 hours before 1 Hz rTMS was applied for 20 min to the left primary motor cortex. In a control experiment 7 subjects received .125 mg pergolide 2 hours before sham rTMS. We used single-pulse TMS at rest to assess corticospinal excitability before and up to 24 min after rTMS. RESULTS Suppression of corticospinal excitability by 1 Hz rTMS was more pronounced after pergolide intake compared with placebo and lasted approximately 20 min after pergolide but only 5 min after placebo. No change
Deciding which hand to use for an action is one of the most frequent decisions people make in everyday behavior. Using a speeded reaching task, we provide evidence that hand choice entails a competitive decision process between simultaneously activated action plans for each hand. We then show that single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left posterior parietal cortex biases this competitive process, leading to an increase in ipsilateral, left hand reaches. Stimulation of the right posterior parietal cortex did not alter hand choice, suggesting a hemispheric asymmetry in the representations of reach plans. These results are unique in providing causal evidence that the posterior parietal cortex is involved in decisions of hand choice.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the gyral geometry on the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. AU - Thielscher, Axel. AU - Opitz, Alexander. AU - Windhoff, Mirko. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society for the financial support, in particular Heinrich H. Bülthoff for the encouragement of this study. Rolf Pohmann and Alexandra Reichenbach provided valuable feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript. Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The spatial extent of the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on neural tissue is only coarsely understood. One key problem is the realistic calculation of the electric field induced in the brain, which proves difficult due to the complex gyral folding pattern that results in an inhomogeneous conductivity distribution within the skull. We used the finite element method (FEM) together with a high-resolution volume mesh of the ...
Temporomandibular disorders are a group of orofacial pain conditions that are commonly identified in the general population. Like many other chronic pain conditions, they can be associated with anxiety/depression, which can be related to changes in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Some studies have demonstrated clinical improvement in subjects with chronic pain who are given therapeutic neuromodulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of neuronal membranes. This therapy can enhance or inhibit action potential generation in cortical neurons. In some instances, medications acting in the central nervous system may be helpful despite their adverse side effects. It is important to determine if cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an area that modulates emotion and motor cortex excitability, has an analgesic effect on chronic temporomandibular disorders pain.
Neural Plasticity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its functional significance as reflected in behavior and in psychopathology. Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, biological psychology, and biological psychiatry.
Perceiving speech engages parts of the motor system involved in speech production. The role of the motor cortex in speech perception has been demonstrated using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress motor excitability in the lip representation and disrupt discrimination of lip-articulated speech sounds (Möttönen and Watkins, 2009). Another form of rTMS, continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS), can produce longer-lasting disruptive effects following a brief train of stimulation. We investigated the effects of cTBS on motor excitability and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds. cTBS was applied for 40 s over either the hand or the lip representation of motor cortex. Motor-evoked potentials recorded from the lip and hand muscles in response to single pulses of TMS revealed no measurable change in motor excitability due to cTBS. This failure to replicate previous findings may reflect the unreliability of measurements of motor excitability related to
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a newer stimulation technique used for research and in clinical practice in the last 10 to 15 years. It involves the application of strong magnetic field, which penetrates through the skull (hence transcranial) and superficially the brain, producing some local electrical current. These electric currents affect the functioning of neurons. The magnetic fields are the magnitude of 1.5 to 2.5 TESLA and are generated when electrical current is passed through a coil (electromagnetic induction).. The coils currently used for rTMS are usually of 2 types, round and figure 8 (butterfly) shaped. The figure 8 coils seem to be able to produce a stronger and more focal magnetic field compared to the round coil and is becoming more widely used. The stimuli delivered are repetitive and fall into 2 types: (1) low frequency rTMS, which is usually regarded for stimuli at or below 5 Hz. The lower frequency stimuli appear to produce transient reduction in ...
article{8635843, abstract = {The application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to rapidly decrease suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neural working mechanisms behind this prompt attenuation of suicidal thoughts remains to be determined. Here, we examined how placebo-accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) may influence brain perfusion and suicidal thoughts using arterial spin labeling (ASL). In a randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover trial, 45 MDD patients received aiTBS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Trial registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01832805). With each ASL scan measurement, suicidal ideation was assessed with the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI) and depression severity with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Compared with active stimulation, the attenuation of suicidal ideation after 4 days of placebo aiTBS was related to significant frontopolar ...
Researchers will undertake Phase I of a planned two-phase study to ultimately determine whether a non-invasive brain stimulation technique helps schizophrenia patients learn from positive rewards and reduce the negative symptoms that characterize this disease. Schizophrenia is characterized by positive states that are manifested by patients hallucinations and delusions, and by negative states in which patients lack emotion, motivation, and an ability to experience pleasure. These negative symptoms are thought to arise because patients have difficulty learning to repeat actions that are most likely to yield rewarding outcomes. What produces this learning disability? Scientists suspect that it occurs because neurons deep in the brains center (midbrain) dont produce enough of the excitatory neurotransmitter dopamine to successfully send communication signals. If that is the case, midbrain neurons cannot send sufficient signals that reinforce learning from rewarding situations to the part ...
03 April 2013. HELSINKI, Finland-April 3, 2013--New study Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for mapping the motor cortex in patients with rolandic brain tumors on the accuracy and usefulness of the NBS System for mapping the motor cortex in patients with rolandic brain tumors. In the article authored by Takahashi S, Vajkoczy P, Picht T. from the Department of Neurosurgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany, a systematic search was used to retrieve 11 reports published up to October 2012 in which adult patients were examined with the NBS System prior to surgery. The abstract concluded that, nTMS correlated well with the gold standard of DES and that, based on the data obtained in 87 patients in 2 studies, nTMS results changed the surgical strategy based on anatomical imaging alone in 25.3% of all patients. The authors concluded that The nTMS technique spatially correlates well with the gold standard of DES. Its functional information benefits surgical decision making ...
It was not before the development of the figure of eight coil, which induces a more focal electrical field at the junction of the loops than the standard flat circular coil, that made somatotopic mapping of the praecentral gyrus without opening of the skull in awake patients possible.16 The correlation of focused TMS with MR imaging, functional MR imaging, and direct electrical motor cortex stimulation showed, that focused TMS reliably permits the detection of the motor cortex gyral sites of distinct muscles of the arm and leg.17 The stimulation site that allows to elicit muscle action potentials with peak amplitudes indicates the representation of the tested muscle in the primary motor cortex with an inaccuracy of only 0.5 cm.18,19 The threshold for a muscle response is lowest if the stimulation site directly overlies the cortical representation.12,13. MEP after TMS are largely suppressed by most anaesthetics,14,20-22 which might explain that the technique of TMS seldomly has been transferred ...
Details of ALL publications (the full citation) of peer reviewed publications. 2016 -. 1. Kumar N, Srivastava MVP, Verma R, Sharma H, Modak T. Can low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation precipitate a late-onset seizure in a stroke patient? Clinical Neurophysiology 2016;127:1734-6.. 2. Verma R. Advent of rTMS as a neuromodulatory approach for managing neuropsychiatric conditions. Minds Newsletter 2016;6(3):2.. 3. Patil V, Gupta R, Verma R, Balhara YP. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Lithium Toxicity. Oman Medical Journal 2016 Jul;31(4):309-11.. 4. Sood M, Chadda RK, Deb KS, Bhad R, Mahapatra A, Verma R, Mishra AK. Scope of Mobile Phones in Mental Health Care in Low Resource Settings. Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine 2016;5:2:33-37.. 5. Anand KS, Verma R. Parkinsons Disease: Focus on Non Motor Symptoms. Journal of International Medical Sciences Academy 2016;29(1):48-51.. 2015 -. 6. Malhotra M, Shrivastav DK, Verma R. Effect of psychosocial environment in ...
In the present study, we monitored hemodynamic responses in rat brains during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Seven rats received transcranial anodal stimulation with 200 μA direct current (DC) on their right barrel cortex for 10 min. The concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were continuously monitored during stimulation (10 min) and after stimulation (20 min). The trend of hemodynamic response changes was modeled using linear regression, and the relationship between incremental and decremental rates of oxy-Hb was investigated by correlation analysis. Our results showed that the oxy-Hb concentration was almost linearly increased and decreased during and after stimulation, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation (p , 0.05) was found between the rate of increase of oxy-Hb during stimulation and the rate of decrease of oxy-Hb after stimulation, indicating that the recovery time after tDCS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients is associated with immediately increased activity in prefrontal cortical as well as subcortical regions. AU - Li, Xingbao. AU - Nahas, Ziad. AU - Kozel, F. Andrew. AU - Anderson, Berry. AU - Bohning, Daryl E.. AU - George, Mark S.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by grants from the National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression (Independent Investigator Award to MSG), the Borderline Personality Disorder Research Foundation, National Institute of Mental Health Grant No. R01 RR 14080-02 (DEB), the Stanley Foundation (MSG), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant No. 2 P50 AA10761-03 (MSG), National Institute of Mental Health Grant No. R01 RR14080-01 (MSG), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Grant No. R01 NS40956-1 (MSG), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Grant No. DARPA-10536 (MSG). The Brain Stimulation ...
Stimulation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Adaptive Cognitive Control: A High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Study. Conflict adaptation is a hallmark effect of adaptive cognitive control and refers to the adjustment of control to the level of previously experienced conflict. Conflict monitoring theory assumes that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is causally involved in this adjustment. However, to date, evidence in humans is predominantly correlational, and heterogeneous with respect to the lateralization of control in the DLPFC. We used high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), which allows for more focal current delivery than conventional tDCS, to clarify the causal involvement of the DLPFC in conflict adaptation. Specifically, we investigated the regional specificity and lateralization of potential beneficial stimulation effects on conflict adaptation during a visual flanker task. One hundred twenty healthy participants were ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory (WM-CD)
The article below may contain offensive and/or incorrect content.. The role of noninvasive brain stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on amygdala threat reactivity in individuals with trait anxiety was examined ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Representation of body identity and body actions in extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex. AU - Urgesi, Cosimo. AU - Candidi, Matteo. AU - Ionta, Silvio. AU - Aglioti, Salvatore M.. PY - 2007/1. Y1 - 2007/1. N2 - Although inherently linked, body form and body action may be represented in separate neural substrates. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy individuals, we show that interference with the extrastriate body area impairs the discrimination of bodily forms, and interference with the ventral premotor cortex impairs the discrimination of bodily actions. This double dissociation suggests that whereas extrastriate body area mainly processes actors body identity, premotor cortex is crucial for visual discriminations of actions.. AB - Although inherently linked, body form and body action may be represented in separate neural substrates. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy individuals, we show that interference with ...
BACKGROUND:This study was designed to explore the combined effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) transplantation on neural stem cell proliferation in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS:SCI was induced in 90 rats by laminectomy at T10. Fifteen rats each were treated with 0.5 Hz rTMS or 10 Hz rTMS or underwent hUCB-MSC transplantation; 15 each were treated with 0.5 Hz rTMS+hUCB-MSCs or 10 Hz rTMS+hUCB-MSCs; and 15 were untreated (control group). The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured, and all rats underwent biotin dextran-amine (BDA) tracing of the corticospinal tract (CST). The levels of expression of neural stem cell proliferation related proteins, including BrdU, nestin, Tuj1, Ng2+ and GFAP, were measured, and the levels of bFGF and EGF determined by Western blotting. RESULTS:BBB scores and MEPs were increased after rTMS and hUCB-MSC
A promising new approach, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently been used as a therapeutic modality for cerebellar ataxia. However, t
Purpose: Whereas single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human visual cortex results in scotoma, dual-pulse TMS results in the transient visual percept of an area of brightness, termed a phosphene. In this study, we presented disk-shaped visual stimuli that overlapped the phosphene in the visual field. Subjects evaluated the brightness of the overlapping region when dim or bright disks were either flashed or steadily shown. Procedure: Dual magnetic pulses were delivered by a Neotonus Neopulse stimulator. The coil position over the left occipital lobe, power, and inter-pulse interval were optimized for phosphene induction. Trials began with a dark background (, 0.1 cd/m^2), then a large homogeneous disk (15 deg in diameter) was either: flashed for 93 ms and followed by TMS (40 ms after flash offset), or shown steadily for 6 s, during which (at the 4th second) TMS was triggered. The disks were set either dimmer or brighter than phosphenes perceived on a dark background. The ...
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As many as 25,000 people a year worldwide lose limbs from land mine blasts, and a new study shows that transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered to the scalp can stimulate the brain and provide significant reductions in phantom limb pain. A team of researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital evaluated the benefits of the brain-stimulation method in 54 patients who had amputations due to land-mine explosions. They compared results of patients given transcranial brain stimulation and a placebo treatment to determine if the procedure could provide significant relief from phantom limb pain (PLP). To read more, click here.. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Hasan Hodaj, Jean-Pierre Alibeu, Jean-François Payen, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur].
The dysfunction of cholinergic neurons is a typical hallmark in Alzheimers disease (AD). Previous findings demonstrated that high density of cholinergic receptors is found in the thalamus and the cerebellum compared with the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. We aimed at investigating whether activation of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway by means of cerebellar theta burst stimulation (TBS) could modulate central cholinergic functions evaluated in vivo by using the neurophysiological determination of Short-Latency Afferent Inhibition (SLAI). We tested the SLAI circuit before and after administration of cerebellar continuous TBS (cTBS) in 12 AD patients and in 12 healthy age-matched control subjects (HS). We also investigated potential changes of intracortical circuits of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) by assessing short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). SLAI was decreased in AD patients compared to HS. Cerebellar cTBS partially restored ...
Ela Plow, Ph.D., P.T.. Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute. Aging; brain; brain damage; brain plasticity; cancer-related fatigue; chemo brain; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); hemianopia (vision defect); motor control; motor imagery; motor learning; motor cortex; motor mapping of brain; noninvasive brain stimulation; spinal cord injury; stroke; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; neuroimaging; neuromodulation; neurorehabilitation; visual cortex; visual field loss. ...
Humans are noted for their capacity to over-ride self-interest in favor of normatively valued goals. We examined the neural circuitry that is causally involved in normative, fairness-related decisions by generating a temporarily diminished capacity for costly normative behavior, a deviant case, through non-invasive brain stimulation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and compared normal subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging signals with those of the deviant subjects. When fairness and economic self-interest were in conflict, normal subjects (who make costly normative decisions at a much higher frequency) displayed significantly higher activity in, and connectivity between, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC). In contrast, when there was no conflict between fairness and economic self-interest, both types of subjects displayed identical neural patterns and behaved identically. These findings suggest that ...
Background Sub-optimal functioning of the dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with executive dysfunction, such as set-shifting deficits, in neurological and psychiatric disorders. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of low-frequency inhibiting off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the left dorsal prefrontal cortex on behavioural performance, neural activity, and network connectivity during the performance of a set-shifting paradigm in healthy elderly (mean age 50+).
It is possible to comprehend speech and discriminate languages by viewing a speakers articulatory movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have shown that viewing speech enhances excitability in the articulatory motor cortex. Here, we investigated the specificity of this enhanced motor excitability in native and non-native speakers of English. Both groups were able to discriminate between speech movements related to a known (i.e., English) and unknown (i.e., Hebrew) language. The motor excitability was higher during observation of a known language than an unknown language or non-speech mouth movements, suggesting that motor resonance is enhanced specifically during observation of mouth movements that convey linguistic information. Surprisingly, however, the excitability was equally high during observation of a static face. Moreover, the motor excitability did not differ between native and non-native speakers. These findings suggest that the articulatory motor cortex processes several kinds
Background and Objective: Working memory is the most basic pillar of memory for doing cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on working memory in veterans and disabled athletes.   Material and Methods: The method of this study was ...
As a graduate student 15 years ago, I was extremely interested in regional brain contributions to motor learning. Magnetic resonance imaging scanners were not common, and to address my research questions, I was forced to recruit subjects with focal brain lesions. This was a tedious and inexact process that certainly extended my doctoral studies by a year. How times change. In my research laboratory today, we can induce temporary, virtual lesions with just a few minutes of noninvasive brain stimulation. Coupled with a stereotaxic system that employs the research participants own magnetic resonance imaging-based anatomy, we can target any location and easily increase or decrease cortical excitability. Pairing noninvasive brain stimulation with practice of novel tasks has rapidly become a primary research tool for scientists who study motor learning and recovery of function after brain damage. This is just one small example; overall, rehabilitation-related technology has rapidly advanced to a ...
The combination of voluntary effort and functional electrical stimulation (ES) appears to have a greater potential to induce plasticity in the motor cortex than either electrical stimulation or voluntary training alone. However, it is not clear whether the motor commands from the central nervous system, the afferent input from peripheral organs, or both, are indispensable to induce the facilitative effects on cortical excitability. To clarify whether voluntary motor commands enhance corticospinal tract (CoST) excitability during neuromuscular ES, without producing voluntary muscular contraction (VMC), we examined the effect of a combination of motor imagery (MI) and electrical muscular stimulation on CoST excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Eight neurologically healthy male subjects participated in this study. Five conditions (resting, MI, ES, ES + MI [ESMI], and VMC) were established. In the ES condition, a 50-Hz stimulus was applied for 3 to 5 s to the first dorsal interosseous
How to better suppress the interference from the non-target language when switching from one language to the other in bilingual production? The current study applied transcranial direct current...
Bergmann TO, Mölle M, Schmidt M, Lindner C, Marshall L, Born J, Siebner HR (2012). EEGguided TMS reveals rapid shifts in motor cortical excitability during the human sleep slow oscillation. J Neurosci. 32:243-53. Groppa S, Werner-Petroll N, Münchau A, Deuschl G, Ruschworth MF, Siebner HR (2012) Novel dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm to prob fast facilitatory inputs from ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex to primary motor cortex Neuroimage 62 500-9. Hartwigsen G, Bestmann S, Ward NS, Woerbel S, Mastroeni C, Granert O, Siebner HR (2012) Left dorsal premotor cortex and supramarginal gyrus complement each other during rapid action reprogramming. J Neurosci 32:16162-71. van Nuenen BFL, Kuhtz-Buschbeck J, Schulz C, Bloem BR, Siebner HR (2012) Weight-specific anticipatory coding of grip force in human dorsal premotor cortex. J Neurosci 32:5272-83. Hartwigsen G, Saur D, Price CJ, Baumgaertner A, Ulmer S, Siebner HR (2013) Perturbation of left posterior inferior frontal gyrus ...
A technique called temporally interfering stimulation has been developed by MIT researchers to allow noninvasive stimulation of deep brain regions using electrodes on the scalp. The technique, which produces a low-frequency signal at the target region by crossing two high-frequency electrical signals, was tested in live mice and was found to enable activation of highly specific brain regions without causing neuronal damage.
We developed a MATLAB-based toolbox, COMETS (COMputation of Electric field due to Transcranial current Stimulation), for simulating local electric fields generated by tDCS. Since COMETS has a simple and interactive graphical user interface, users can readily simulate various electrode configurations, sizes, and orientations without coding any MATLAB scripts. COMETS evaluates 3D cortical current distributions based on the electrostatic finite element method (FEM). ...