Involved in several stages of intracellular trafficking. Interacts with membranes containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3P)) or phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) (PubMed:16179610). Acts in part as component of the retromer membrane-deforming SNX-BAR subcomplex (PubMed:17101778). The SNX-BAR retromer mediates retrograde transport of cargo proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and is involved in endosome-to-plasma membrane transport for cargo protein recycling. The SNX-BAR subcomplex functions to deform the donor membrane into a tubular profile called endosome-to-TGN transport carrier (ETC) (Probable). Can sense membrane curvature and has in vitro vesicle-to-membrane remodeling activity (PubMed:23085988). Required for retrograde endosome-to-TGN transport of TGN38 (PubMed:20138391). Promotes KALRN- and RHOG-dependent but retromer-independent membrane remodeling such as lamellipodium formation; the function is dependent on GEF activity of KALRN (PubMed
We conclude that through coincidence detection SNX1 associates with a microdomain of the early endosome-characterized by high membrane curvature and the presence of 3-phosphoinositides-from where it regulates tubular-based endosome-to-TGN retrieval of the CI-MPR.
This gene belongs to a group of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes. The encoded protein is a component of a large multimeric complex, termed the retromer complex, involved in retrograde transport of proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The close structural similarity between the yeast and human proteins that make up this complex suggests a similarity in function. Expression studies in yeast and mammalian cells indicate that this protein interacts directly with VPS35, which serves as the core of the retromer complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms ...
Export out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) involves the Sar1/COPII-machinery acting at ER exit sites (ERES). Whether and how cargo proteins are recruited upstream of SarI/COPII is unclear. Two models are conceivable, a recruitment model where cargo is actively transported via a transport factor and handed over to the Sar1/COPII in ERES, and a capture model, where cargo freely diffuses into ERES where it is captured by the Sar1/COPII. Using the novel secretion inhibitor FLI-06, we show that recruitment of the cargo VSVG to ERES is an active process upstream of Sar1 and COPII. Applying FLI-06 before concentration of VSVG in ERES completely abolishes its recruitment. In contrast, applying FLI-06 after VSVG concentration in ERES does not lead to dispersal of the concentrated VSVG, arguing that it inhibits recruitment to ERES as opposed to capture in ERES. FLI-06 also inhibits export out of the TGN, suggesting that similar mechanisms may orchestrate cargo selection and concentration at ER and TGN. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kai Schlüter, Dieter Waschbüsch, Moritz Anft, Debbie Hügging, Sabine Kind, Jan Hänisch, Goran Lakisic, Alexis Gautreau, Angelika Barnekow, Theresia E B Stradal].
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View mouse Bicdl1 Chr5:115648175-115731621 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Recently synthesized proteins are sorted at the trans-Golgi network into specialized routes for exocytosis. Surprisingly little is known about the underlying molecular machinery. Here, we present a visual screen to search for proteins involved in cargo sorting and vesicle formation. We expressed a GFP-tagged plasma membrane protein in the yeast deletion library and identified mutants with altered marker localization. This screen revealed a requirement of several enzymes regulating the synthesis of sphingolipids and ergosterol in the correct and efficient delivery of the marker protein to the cell surface. Additionally, we identified mutants regulating the actin cytoskeleton (Rvs161p and Vrp1p), known membrane traffic regulators (Kes1p and Chs5p), and several unknown genes. This visual screening method can now be used for different cargo proteins to search in a genome-wide fashion for machinery involved in post-Golgi sorting ...
May play a role in the control of protein cycling through the trans-Golgi network to early and late endosomes, lysosomes and plasma membrane.
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Complete information for BICDL1 gene (Protein Coding), BICD Family Like Cargo Adaptor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
One interesting side effect of exposure of Piltdown man is the all-encompassing Mexico vacation spot is a common myth that certain areas of studies are not professors can be properly recorded, and finds can be reconstructed. In simpler words, it consists of work related to Mesopotamias languages and ancient civilizations. It was on a small village in its crest. This was pre-history in the forensic archaeology techniques of approaching cultural tourism in a tent fighting off mosquitoes or killer snakes! How about getting to the forensic archaeology techniques, C14, created by cosmic ray impact on Nitrogen14 in the forensic archaeology techniques of your feet on another beach, youll really appreciate this unique attribute of Cancun.. I think there is much more buried in the forensic archaeology techniques a variety of procedures and applications, from examining manufactured parts for warping to creating animations of how the forensic archaeology techniques a thesis and a city center. As you can ...
Video created by Columbia University for the course HI-FIVE: Health Informatics For Innovation, Value & Enrichment (Clinical Perspective). This module is optional, but has additional topics that you may be interested based on your role. We ...
ADP-Ribosylation Factors/immunology/*metabolism, Adaptor Proteins; Vesicular Transport/immunology/*metabolism, Amino Acid Motifs/immunology, Antigens; CD/immunology, Brefeldin A/pharmacology, Carrier Proteins/immunology/metabolism, Cell Adhesion Molecules; Neuronal/immunology/*metabolism, Cell Compartmentation/drug effects/immunology, Cells; Cultured, Dexamethasone/pharmacology, Endocytosis/drug effects/physiology, Endosomes/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Interleukin-4/pharmacology, Macrophages/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism, Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology/metabolism, Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology, Protein Binding/physiology, Protein Structure; Tertiary/physiology, Protein Transport/drug effects/immunology, Receptors; Immunologic/immunology, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Signal Transduction/drug effects/immunology, Transferrin/metabolism, trans-Golgi Network/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ...
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene belongs to a group of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes. The encoded protein is a component of a large multimeric complex, termed the retromer complex, involved in retrograde transport of proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The close structural similarity between the yeast and human proteins that make up this complex suggests a similarity in function. Expression studies in yeast and mammalian cells indicate that this protein interacts directly with VPS35, which serves as the core of the retromer complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of CD4 and CD8 were replaced by those of TGN38. After transient expression in HeLa cells, the location of the hybrid proteins was determined using immunofluorescence and quantitative immuno-electron microscopy, FACS analysis and metabolic labeling. The membrane-spanning domain was found to contain a signal that localized hybrid proteins to the TGN. This was in addition to the signal previously identified in the cytoplasmic domain (Bos, K., C. Wraight, and K. Stanley. 1993. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ) J. 12:2219-2228. Humphrey, J. S., P. J. Peters, L. C. Yuan, and J. S. Bonifacino. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:1123-1135. Wong, S. H., and W. Hong. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:22853-22862). The different properties of these two signals suggest that each operates by a different mechanism. ...
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Acts as component of the GARP complex that is involved in retrograde transport from early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The GARP complex is required for the maintenance of the cycling of mannose 6-phosphate receptors between the TGN and endosomes, this cycling is necessary for proper lysosomal sorting of acid hydrolases such as CTSD (PubMed:18367545). Within the GARP complex, required to tether the complex to the TGN. Not involved in endocytic recycling (PubMed:25799061 ...
In 2005 researchers identified a gene called SLC24A5 as a key determinant of skin color. Rebecca Ginger and colleagues now confirm that the protein product of this gene (NCKX5) is an ion exchanger; it exchanges sodium for calcium across a membrane, regulated by potassium. But unlike other NCKX proteins, they found that NCKX5 is not present on the cell surface, but internally in a compartment known as the trans-Golgi network. This compartment is where new proteins and vesicles are processed, modified and sorted ...
Complete information for TVP23B gene (Protein Coding), Trans-Golgi Network Vesicle Protein 23 Homolog B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
... - Clinical trials, Fialuridine, TGN This page was last edited on 20 May , at In addition, no signs of toxicity were observed in any of the physiological
Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. AP-4 is involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos, but may also recognize other types of sorting signal (Probable). ...
A vast amount of data has been generated since George Palade described the organelles of the secretory pathway and the vesicular traffic from the ER to the plasma membrane (Palade, 1975). Many of the involved protein complexes, including SNARE proteins, COPI and COPII coats were described, and the molecular mechanisms elucidated. All that culminated in the awarding of the Nobel prize 2014 to J. Rothman, R. Schekman and T. Südhof. However, many questions still remain unsolved or are unclear. For example, the first steps of cargo selection and concentration in future budding areas are not very well defined. The current models of ER exit state that the initial Sar1-Sec12 interaction, probably at ERES defined by Sec16, is coupled to cargo recruitment through Sec23-Sec24, followed by Sec13-Sec31 recruitment (Budnik and Stephens, 2009; Venditti et al., 2014; Zanetti et al., 2011). To what extend ERES preexist without cargo, if and how cargo needs to be recruited to ERES before the Sar1 and COPII ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Hiroyuki Takatsu, Keiko Baba, Takahiro Shima, Hiroyuki Umino, Utako Kato, Masato Umeda, Kazuhisa Nakayama, Hye-Won Shin].
Lin SX, Mallet WG, Huang AY, Maxfield FR. Endocytosed cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor traffics via the endocytic recycling compartment en route to the trans-Golgi network and a subpopulation of late endosomes ...
Acts as component of the EARP complex that is involved in endocytic recycling. The EARP complex associates with Rab4-positive endosomes and promotes recycling of internalized transferrin receptor (TFRC) to the plasma membrane. Within the EARP complex, required to tether the complex to recycling endosomes. Not involved in retrograde transport from early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN ...
The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi.. In mammals there are four different PI4K enzymes, two type II enzymes (PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ) and two type III enzymes (PI4KIIIα and PI4KIIIβ). PI4KIIIβ plays key roles in mediating lipid transport, cytokinesis, maintaining lysosomal identity, and in tandem with Rab GTPases plays key roles in regulating membrane trafficking. PI4KIIIβ is critical for mediating viral replication of a number of RNA viruses through the generation of PI4P enriched viral replication platforms. Small molecule inhibitors of PI4KIIIβ are potent anti-viral agents. Development of PI4KIIIβ as an effective drug target for anti-viral therapeutics requires the generation of highly potent and specific inhibitors.. ...
ating the formation of transport vesicles as well as cargo selection between organelles of the postGolgi network, namely the trans-Golgi network, endosomes,
Callstack: at Proteins/CSGID/3fpk at Template:Protein at template MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException: reference to undefined name note Exception of type MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException was thrown. at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar.VisitWith[DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState,Range] (IDekiScriptExpressionVisitor`2 visitor, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Evaluate (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptAccess expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state, Boolean evaluateProperties) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit ...
Component Of The Exomer Complex; Exomer Also Contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, And Bud7p And Is Involved In Export Of Selected Proteins, Such As Chitin Synthase Chs3p, From The Golgi To The Plasma Membrane; Chs5p Is The Only Protein With A BRCT Domain That Is Not Localized To The Nucleus
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular trafficking of metallocarboxypeptidase D in AtT-20 cells. T2 - Localization to the trans-Golgi network and recycling from the cell surface. AU - Varlamov, Oleg. AU - Fricker, Lloyd D.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Carboxypeptidase D (CPD) is a recently discovered membrane-bound metallocarboxypeptidase that has been proposed to be involved in the post-translational processing of peptides and proteins that transit the secretory pathway. In the present study, the intracellular distribution of CPD was examined in AtT-20 cells, a mouse anterior pituitary-derived corticotroph. Antisera to CPD stain the same intracellular structures as those labeled with furin and wheat germ agglutinin. This distribution is distinct from carboxypeptidase E, which is localized to the secretory vesicles in the cell processes. The perinuclear distribution of CPD is detected even when the AtT-20 cells are treated with brefeldin A for 1-30 minutes, suggesting that CPD is present in the ...
The ATP7A protein is a ubiquitous copper-transporting P-type ATPase that is mutated in the lethal pediatric disorder of copper metabolism, Menkes disease. The steady-state location of ATP7A is within the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where it delivers copper to copper-dependent enzymes within the secretory path Mammalian Copper Transport and Related Disorders
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ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1). Arl1 subfamily. Arl1 (Arf-like 1) localizes to the Golgi complex, where it is believed to recruit effector proteins to the trans-Golgi network. Like most members of the Arf family, Arl1 is myristoylated at its N-terminal helix and mutation of the myristoylation site disrupts Golgi targeting. In humans, the Golgi-localized proteins golgin-97 and golgin-245 have been identified as Arl1 effectors. Golgins are large coiled-coil proteins found in the Golgi, and these golgins contain a C-terminal GRIP domain, which is the site of Arl1 binding. Additional Arl1 effectors include the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein)/VFT (Vps53) vesicle-tethering complex and Arfaptin 2. Arl1 is not required for exocytosis, but appears necessary for trafficking from the endosomes to the Golgi. In Drosophila zygotes, mutation of Arl1 is lethal, and in the host-bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei, Arl1 is essential for viability. ...
Actin-severing proteins ADF/cofilin are required for the sorting of secretory cargo at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in mammalian cells. How do these cytoplasmic proteins interact with the cargoes in the lumen of the TGN ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This kinase can be activated by phorbol esters as well as by gastrin via the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) in gastric cancer cells. It can bind to diacylglycerol (DAG) in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may regulate basolateral membrane protein exit from TGN. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Arf-like protein 1 (Arl1) is a member of the Arf family of regulatory GTPases, within the Ras superfamily of GTPases, and with highly conserved orthologs throughout eukaryotes. Arl1 is essential for early embryonic development in Drosophila and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Arl1 is most similar in primary sequence, cellular location, and function (regulation of membrane traffic) to Arf1-6 and even shares several common binding partners. In addition to its function in membrane traffic at the Golgi/trans-Golgi network, there are reports indicating a possible role for Arl1 in ion homeostasis in yeast. ...
Polyclonal antibody for Beclin 1/BECN1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. Beclin 1/BECN1 information: Molecular Weight: 51896 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasm . Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi n
Lüsosoom on membraaniga ümbritsetud hüdrolüütilisi reaktsioone teostav organell ning katalüüsimisele kuuluv aine saadakse endotsütoosi teel moodustunud vesiikulitest. Kõigepealt toimub väliskeskkonnast endotsütoosi teel vesiikuli moodustumine, mis ühineb varajase endosoomiga. Seal eemaldatakse spetsiifilised retseptorid, mis transporditakse tagasi plasmamembraani koostisse. Varajased endosoomid muutuvad aja möödudes hilisteks endosoomideks, kuhu transporditakse trans-Golgi kompleksist ka happelisi hüdrolüüse. Viimati nimetatud transpordiks on vajalik mannoos-6-fosfaat retseptor, mis eemaldub hilises endosoomis ning liigub hiljem tagasi Golgi kompleksi. Hilised endosoomid muutuvad lüsosoomideks, kus algab ainete degradeerimine ehk lahustumine. Endosoomide küpsemisel mängib rolli pH langus ehk hapestumine, mida reguleerivad ATP-sõltuvad prootonpumbad ja ioonkanalid. Varajastes endosoomides on pH umbes 6,2 ning hilistes endosoomides on pH umbes 5,5.[1]. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the Golgi matrix. It may act as a golgin protein by negatively regulating transit of secretory cargo and by acting as a structural scaffold of the Golgi. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants ...
Regulated Secretion (Golgi) -- Movie Narrative. Cells produce proteins that serve specific functions. Some cells have a specialized function to release specific proteins required under certain cellular conditions. Beta cells in the pancreas secrete insulin, some nerve cells (or neurons) release neurotransmitter proteins, and specific pituitary cells release one of many peptide hormones. All of these cells have one common feature: secretory vesicles. A secretory vesicle is a membrane bound compartment that stores large amounts of a specialized protein. Looking into a pancreatic beta cell, you will find secretory vesicles filled with insulin, while in a nerve cell the secretory vesicle may be filled with serotonin or another neurotransmitter protein. Remember that in constitutive secretion, vesicles from the trans-Golgi network are sent to the cell surface for immediate secretion. Whereas in regulated secretion, vesicles containing the product for secretion remain near the cell surface until a ...
Dr. Malhotra aims to understand the mechanisms of transport carrier formation from the Golgi, and the process by which Golgi membranes are partitioned into daughter cells during cell division. Dysfunctional protein secretion through the Golgi plays a role in a broad range of disorders including diabetes, cystic fibrosis and asthma. The characterization of the mechanisms underlying protein secretion may thus lead to new targets for diseases in which protein secretion is disturbed. ...
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Note: Area was settled by Adena, Hopewell & Fort Ancient peoples thousands of years before Europeans arrived; famous prehistoric earthworks & mounds are located nearby. ...
Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated orientation, movement, or structure of cells within the plane of a tissue. Zebrafish PCP mutants such as the vangl2 mutant exhibit defects in convergent extension, neural tube morphogenesis, and ciliary positioning. Tmem14a is a putative tetraspanin protein that was identified as an potential interactor of Vangl2 in a membrane yeast-two hybrid screen. GFP-tagged versions of Tmem14a are localized to the trans-Golgi network in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells. Knockdown of Tmem14a activity results in convergent extension defects, an ectopic accumulation of cells in the neural tube, and disorganized cilia. The localization of GFP-tagged Tmem14a to the trans-Golgi network suggested that Tmem14a plays a role in the trafficking of core PCP components to the cell membrane. Indeed, the membrane localization of GFP-Vangl2 was disrupted in Tmem14a morphants. Thus, Tmem14a is an interactor of Vangl2 and a novel regulator of vertebrate planar cell polarity
GCC185, a trans-Golgi network-localized protein predicted to assume a long, coiled-coil structure, is required for Rab9-dependent recycling of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) to the Golgi and for microtubule nucleation at the Golgi via CLASP proteins. GCC185 localizes to the Golgi by cooperative interaction with Rab6 and Arl1 GTPases at adjacent sites near its C terminus. We show here by yeast two-hybrid and direct biochemical tests that GCC185 contains at least four additional binding sites for as many as 14 different Rab GTPases across its entire length. A central coiled-coil domain contains a specific Rab9 binding site, and functional assays indicate that this domain is important for MPR recycling to the Golgi complex. N-Terminal coiled-coils are also required for GCC185 function as determined by plasmid rescue after GCC185 depletion by using small interfering RNA in cultured cells. Golgi-Rab binding sites may permit GCC185 to contribute to stacking and lateral interactions of Golgi cisternae as
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane. Molecules or ligands internalized from the plasma membrane can follow this pathway all the way to lysosomes for degradation, or they can be recycled back to the plasma membrane. Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans-Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi. Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. In HeLa cells, endosomes are approximately 500 nm in diameter when fully mature. Endosomes provide an environment for material to be sorted before it reaches the degradative lysosome. For example, LDL is taken into the cell by binding to the LDL receptor at the cell surface. Upon reaching early endosomes, the LDL ...
SHOOT GRAVITROPSIM 4; May function as a v-SNARE responsible for targeting AtELP-containing vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the prevacuolar compartment (PVC). May be also involved in retrograde traffic to the cis-Golgi (By similarity). Promotes the formation of vacuolar membrane bulbs. Required for amyloplast sedimentation in the endodermis during shoot gravitropism, which are thus acting as statoliths. Expression in the endodermis is essential for the shoot gravitropic response, whereas expression in other tissues may be responsible for the correct stem and leaf shape (221 aa ...
Do lipids such as sphingomyelin (SM) that are known to assemble into specific membrane domains play a role in the organization and function of transmembrane proteins? With this paper we display that disruption of SM homeostasis in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by treatment of HeLa cells with d-ceramide-C6 which was converted together with phosphatidylcholine to short-chain SM and diacylglycerol by SM synthase led to the segregation of Golgi-resident proteins from each other. Our results suggest that SM organizes transmembrane proteins into practical enzymatic domains in the TGN. Intro Newly synthesized proteins are core glycosylated in the ER GRS after which the sugars chains are trimmed and revised in the Golgi complex. This process takes place inside a spatially and timely regulated manner as trimming of the core glycosylations by mannosidases in the cis- and medial-Golgi cisternae is definitely a requirement for complex glycosylation in later on Golgi compartments (Stanley 2011 What is the ...