TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipoteichoic acid induces HO-1 expression via the TLR2/MyD88/c-Src/NADPH oxidase pathway and Nrf2 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells. AU - Lee, I-Ta. AU - Wang, Shyi Wu. AU - Lee, Chiang Wen. AU - Chang, Chia Chi. AU - Lin, Chih Chung. AU - Luo, Shue Fen. AU - Yang, Chuen Mao. PY - 2008/10/1. Y1 - 2008/10/1. N2 - Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a stress-inducible rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation that confers cytoprotection against oxidative injury and provides a vital function in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Increasing reports have indicated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) exerts as LPS as an immune system-stimulating agent and plays a role in the pathogenesis of severe inflammatory responses induced by Gram-positive bacterial infection. We report that LTA is an inducer of HO-1 expression mediated through the signaling pathways in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). LTA-induced HO-1 protein levels, mRNA expression, and promoter activity were attenuated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle. AU - Lee, Fei Peng. AU - Chao, Pin Zhir. AU - Wang, Hsing Won. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. Methods: This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10-6 M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results: The results showed that adding methacholine to the ...
Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells have been serially passaged in serum-free medium. This serum-free model was employed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Ca2+ (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mM) on multiplication and morphology of the cells. The responses were analysed in terms of growth kinetics, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations. Culturing of the cells in high Ca2+ (1.0-2.0 mM) medium stimulated cell multiplication characterized by increased colony forming efficiency, greater number of cells per colony and cell population doublings per day. Additionally, the high Ca2+ concentrations induced proliferation in cultures grown to confluency in low Ca2+ (0.1 mM) medium. Cells propagated in low Ca2+ medium consisted of relatively heterogeneous cell populations, with most cells staining positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent. Ultrastructurally the cells exhibited secretory vesicles and microvilli on their surfaces, small desmosomes and intercellular interdigitation ...
In addition to their proliferative and differentiating effects, several growth factors are capable of inducing a sustained airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. These contractile effects were previously found to be dependent on Rho-kinase and have also been associated with the production of eicosanoids. However, the precise mechanisms underlying growth factor-induced contraction are still unknown. In this study we investigated the role of contractile prostaglandins and Rho-kinase in growth factor-induced ASM contraction. Growth factor-induced contractions of guinea pig open-ring tracheal preparations were studied by isometric tension measurements. The contribution of Rho-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclooxygenase (COX) to these reponses was established, using the inhibitors Y-27632 (1 μM), U-0126 (3 μM) and indomethacin (3 μM), respectively. The Rho-kinase dependency of contractions induced by exogenously applied prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was
Primary care Disease Readcode Medcode ReadcodeDescr Category Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B220100 103946.0 Malignant neoplasm of mucosa of trachea Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B220.00 15221.0 Malignant neoplasm of trachea Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B220z00 37810.0 Malignant neoplasm of trachea NOS Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B221000 17391.0 Malignant neoplasm of carina of bronchus Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B221100 33444.0 Malignant neoplasm of hilus of lung Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B221.00 12870.0 Malignant neoplasm of main bronchus Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea Primary Malignancy_Lung and trachea B221z00 21698.0 Malignant neoplasm of main bronchus NOS Diagnosis of Primary Malignancy_Lung and
People have tried other materials, but the problem has been they were using just one material that is not strong enough to hold the airways open and does not provide the flexibility needed, explained Sean Murphy, PhD, lead author and assistant professor of regenerative medicine at WFIRM. Our bioprinting method provides a combination of flexibility and strength needed to mimic native tracheal tissue.. Down the line, bioprinted tracheal tissue could be used to treat tracheal stenosis, a rare condition or symptom that causes the stiffening and narrowing of the trachea and can lead to death. Presently, treatments for the condition are limited and present their own challenges. Being able to 3D bioprint a patient specific tracheal tissue could therefore present a new and innovative solution.. The novel approach developed by the WFIRM team combines three key areas: patient-specific medical imaging, hydrogels embedded with differentiated cells and polymeric scaffolding with biomechanical-inspired ...
Attachment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to hamster tracheal organ cultures, tracheal outgrowth monolayers, human erythrocytes, and WiDr human tissue culture cells.:
We report that DPP signaling is required for directed tracheal cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis. The failure of tracheal cells to receive the DPP signal from adjacent dorsal and ventral cells results in the absence of dorsal and ventral migrations. Ectopic DPP signaling can reprogram cells in the center of the placode to adopt a dorsoventral migration behavior. The effects observed in response to ectopic DPP signaling are also observed upon the tracheal-specific expression of a constitutive active DPP type I receptor (TKV(Q253D)), indicating that the DPP signal is received and transmitted in tracheal cells to control their migration behavior. DPP signaling determines localized gene expression patterns in the developing tracheal placode, and is also required for the dorsal expression of the recently identified BRANCHLESS (BNL) guidance molecule, the ligand of the BREATHLESS (BTL) receptor. Thus, DPP plays a dual role during tracheal cell migration. It is required to control the ...
IL-4 and IL-13 have important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. A novel finding was that brief exposure of airway smooth muscle cells to IL-4 inhibited carbachol-stimulated calcium transients. We hypothesized that IL-4 inhibits transients by decreasing calcium store content and tested this by measuring the effects of IL-4 on transients induced by a nonspecific ionophore. Bovine trachealis cells were loaded with fura 2-AM, and cytosolic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were measured in single cells by digital microscopy. Stimulation (S1) with carbachol (10 microM) caused rapid, transient increases in [Ca2+]i to 1299 +/- 355 nM (n=5). After recovery of calcium stores, stimulation (S2) of the same cells with ionomycin (10 microM), in the absence of extracellular calcium, also increased [Ca2+]i to give S2/S1 ratio of 1.03 +/- 0.29. However, after 20 min of IL-4 (50 ng/ml), but not IL-13, ionomycin transients were decreased to 0.50 +/- 0.16 (S2/S1, P=0.02, n=6). IL-4 did not inhibit transients with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway epithelial cells modulate cholinergic neurotransmission in dog trachea. AU - Aizawa, H.. AU - Matsumoto, K.. AU - Shigyo, M.. AU - Inoue, H.. AU - Koto, H.. AU - Takata, S.. AU - Hara, N.. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - We investigated the effects of epithelial cells on excitatory cholinergic neurotransmission in dog trachea, to shed more light on the role of airway epithelial cells in regulating airway responsiveness. Airway epithelial cells were prepared by an enzymatic dissociation of the tracheal mucosa using protease-free collagenase. Tracheal smooth muscle contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine (ACh) were measured before and after the application of epithelial cells. Isolated and dispersed epithelial cells (3 × 105 cells/ml) suppressed the amplitude of the twitch-like contractions evoked by EFS in the combined presence of guanethidine sulfate (10-6m) and indomethacin (10-5m). In contrast, epithelial cells did not affect the ...
XC-407A Advanced Human Trachea Intubation Model-Xincheng Scientific Industries Co., Ltd. -ProductName:AdvancedHumanTracheaIntubationModelProductNo:XC-407AMaterial:PVCDescription:Features:1)UpgradedfromXC-4072)Neckbackwardfunction,morerealisticsimulationofendotrachealintubationtechniqueandt
The action of drugs on circular smooth muscle from rabbit renal artery, renal vein, mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, guinea pig bronchus, and mouse trachea was studied using an inexpensive modification of the method of Bevan, Nielsen and Ovvman, and Bevan and Osher. Two 30-gauge disposable stainless steel hypodermic needles supported the tissue rings in a standard 10-ml isolated muscle bath. All the blood vessels contracted to norepinephrine, histamine, and KCl. The veins, unlike the renal artery, did not respond maximally to KCl and did not contract at all to serotonin. The guinea pig bronchi contracted to carbachol, histamine, and KCl and relaxed to isoproterenol. The mouse trachea contracted maximally to carbachol, did not contract to histamine, and contracted to 50% of maximum in response to KCl. Thus, standard isolated tissue baths can be inexpensively adapted for the study of relatively small blood vessels and airways (about 1 mm in diameter).
Histologically the trachea is made up of mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage and adventitia. Therefore the study of histogenesis of the fetal trachea provides not only the information on the functional morphology of the organ, but also gives a baseline in the investigations and management of pre and neonatal pathological conditions. The present study was carried out on 15 human fetuses of known gestational age of all trimesters in the department of Anatomy in KMC Manipal. The transverse section of trachea was taken. The sections were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin and were observed under light microscope. The microscopic anatomy of the trachea was observed at different GA and the changes were observed. At first trimester the trachea was lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium without any goblet cells. Incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage were also observed .The cellular components of the hyaline cartilage were predominant while the amount of ground substance was comparatively less. ...
The soluble guanylyl cyclase is expressed in airway smooth muscle, and agents that stimulate this enzyme activity cause airway smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. The compound 5-Cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272) is a potent nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator, but little is known about its effects in airway smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the relaxations of rat tracheal smooth muscle induced by BAY 41-2272. Tracheal rings were mounted in 10-ml organ baths for isometric force recording. BAY 41-2272 concentration-dependently relaxed carbachol-precontracted tracheal rings (pEC(50) = 6.68 +/- 0.14). Prior incubation with the NO synthesis inhibitor L-NAME (100 mu M) or the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 mu M) caused significant rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves to BAY 41-2272. Sodium nitroprusside caused ...
List of 10 disease causes of Tracheobronchial airway obstruction, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Tracheobronchial airway obstruction.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) stimulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. This study characterizes the receptor involved as well as critical downstream signaling events mediating cytokine-induced NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 expression. TNFα stimulation for 1 to 4 h induced ICAM-1 expression in human ASM cells. This rapid TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression enhanced T-lymphocyte adhesion to ASM cells, which was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that TNFα receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed on native human tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of cells with htr-9, an antibody that specifically activates TNFR1, also stimulated expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and protein. Utr-1, a blocking antibody to TNFR2, did not affect TNFα-mediated ICAM-1 expression. Both TNFα and htr-9 increased luciferase activity in ASM cells ...
Ro 25-1553, a cyclic peptide analog of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), was designed to overcome many of the deficiencies inherent in this natural neuropeptide. On isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, Ro 25-1553 produces concentration-dependent relaxation of contractile responses to a number of different spasmogens. Depending on the contractile stimulus, Ro 25-1553 is 24 to 89 times more potent than VIP as a relaxant of guinea pig trachea. The high potency of Ro 25-1553 extends to studies on isolated, histamine-contracted, human bronchial smooth muscle, where Ro 25-1553 exhibits a 390-fold enhancement over native VIP and is more potent than other bronchodilating drugs, such as the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists isoproterenol and salbutamol. Ro 25-1553 was shown to displace the radioligand 125I-VIP from rat forebrain membranes with an IC50 value of 4.98 nM, thereby demonstrating that it acts at a VIP receptor. In addition, when tested in a battery of 40 other binding assays (e.g., ...
Background: The tracheal cartilage plays an important role in maintaining the mechanical stability of the trachea, as it keeps the trachea open and prevents its collapse under the negative pressures of the respiratory cycle. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of cartilage specimens from the cranial and caudal regions of the human trachea and compare the results with respect to age and sex of the subjects. Materials and Methods: After obtaining human trachea samples from braindead, organ-donating patients and storing them in appropriate conditions, the prepared cartilage samples from the cranial and caudal regions of the trachea were subjected to uniaxial tension and stress relaxation experiments to obtain the corresponding Youngs modulus and relaxation percentage values, respectively. The results were compared in terms of the position (cranial or caudal) in the trachea, and age and sex of the patients. Results: Based on the results, no statistically significant effect of
In this study human tissue of the respiratory tract was examined retrospectively. It was extremely difficult to collect an adequate number of cases who had died an acute death since necroscopic examination in these cases is rare. The data presented support the findings of other investigators who described DCs in human lung tissue and, for the first time, yield information on the initial occurrence and frequency of mature DCs in the human tracheal mucosa.. Animal data suggest an increase in bone marrow progenitor cells of DC and the immigration of these cells into different lung compartments.26 27 Since it has been shown that the number of DCs in the respiratory mucosa increases faster than neutrophil granulocytes after bacterial stimulation, local stimulation and ongoing proliferation might also be involved.28 Interestingly, our data are in line with recent findings in very young mice in whom few DCs were found in the airways. Resistance to pulmonary allergen sensitisation of these mice could be ...
Objective: To date numerous attempts have been undertaken to conquer the challenging problem of reconstructing long segmental tracheal defects, as yet without lasting success. Recently, employing concepts of tissue engineering in animals, cartilage-like constructs were transplanted in vivo. However, both the feasibility of fabricating tracheal replacements and the use of human tracheal chondrocytes (HTC) for tissue engineering are still under investigation. In this study, we optimized isolation and cultivation techniques for human tracheal cartilage, assessing the feasibility of seeding these cells onto a novel, three-dimensional (3-D) polyester-urethane polymer (DegraPol®). Methods: Human tracheal cartilage was harvested from the trachea of lung donors, digested in 0.3% collagenase II, and the condrocytes serially passaged every 7-9 days. Cells were also cultivated over agar plate during the total 6-8 weeks expansion phase. Thereafter, chondrocytes were seeded onto DegraPol® (pore sizes ...
ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cells, when grown in Airway Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cell Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells in serum-free conditions. The cells are cryopreserved at the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
TY - GEN. T1 - Endothelin-1 potentiates cholinergic neurotransmission in rat trachea via ETA and ETB receptors. AU - Knott, P.G.. AU - Henry, Peter. AU - Goldie, Roy. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 2. SP - 99. BT - 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologist. PB - Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists. CY - Sydney Australia. T2 - Endothelin-1 potentiates cholinergic neurotransmission in rat trachea via ETA and ETB receptors. Y2 - 1 January 1995. ER - ...
TRACHEAL COLLAPSE. Tracheal collapse is a progressive degenerative disorder of the tracheal cartilage, which results in a reduction of the luminal diameter of the trachea. The normal ring-shaped cartilages become C-shaped and flattened. The trachea becomes stretched and floppy, and to varying degrees falls down and obstructs the tracheal lumen. The normal diameter of the trachea is maintained by rigid hyaline cartilage rings. The loss of tone in the cartilage causes the collapse but it is unknown why exactly this loss in tone occurs. Dogs with tracheal collapse have abnormal cartilage rings that collapse with changes in tracheal pressure. As the trachea collapses, there is irritation and trauma to the trachea itself, which induces coughing and this induces even more collapse and further coughing.. CLINICAL SIGNS. Toy breeds such as Yorkshire terriers, Chihuahuas, Pomeranians, and Poodles are predisposed and clinical signs typically occur when dogs are middle aged (4-8 years). The most common ...
Mast cells (MC) and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) act proximally in detecting and processing antigens and immune insults. We sought to understand their comparative dynamic behavior with respect to the airway epithelium in the steady state and in response to an allergic stimulus in mouse trachea. We devised methods to label MC in living trachea and to demonstrate that MC and DC occupy distinct layers of the tracheal mucosa, with DC being closer to the lumen. DC numbers doubled after allergen challenge, but MC numbers remained stable. MC and DC migrated minimally in either steady state or allergen-challenge conditions, and their interactions with one another appeared to be stochastic and relatively infrequent. While DC, unlike MC, exhibited probing behaviors involving dendrites, these projections did not cross the epithelium into the airway lumen. MC typically were located too far from the epithelial surface to contact the tracheal lumen. However, MC had protrusions toward and into blood vessels, likely to
BioAssay record AID 79681 submitted by ChEMBL: Negative log of the concentration producing 50% of the maximum effect was measured in guinea pig trachea.
The tracheartes, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 20-25 mm and a length of about 10-16cm. It commences at the larynx(at the level vertebral level of C6 in humans) and bifurcates into the primary (main) bronchi (at the vertebral level of T4/T5 in humans) in mammals, and from the pharynx to the syrinx in birds, allowing the passage of air to the lungs. It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells with mucosae goblet cells which produce mucus. This lines the cells of the trachea to trap inhaled foreign particles which the cilia then waft upwards towards their larynx and then the pharynx where it can then be swallowed into the stomach. In humans there are about 15 - 20 incomplete C-shaped cartilaginous rings which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open. There is a piece of smooth muscle connecting the ends off the incomplete cartilaginous rings called the Trachealis muscle. This contracts ...
The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is the passage way that leads air to your lungs. It is made up of cartilage, muscle and connective tissue. Tracheas are often around 4 inches long which are comprised of approximately 20 cartilage rings. On the inside lining of the trachea is a mucus membrane that is able to catch harmful airborne particles and bacteria before it reaches your lungs. Swallowing and sneezing are ways of removing these particles [4C]. Breathing involves two main steps; oxygen enters the body when you breathe in and carbon dioxide leaves the body when you exhale. When someone takes a breath, oxygen goes through the nose and mouth down their trachea. From here the trachea splits up into two bronchi tubes which lead to the left and right lung. Next the oxygen travels through the smaller branches, bronchioles, to millions of small alveoli located throughout the lungs. Alveoli are small sacs in the lungs that allow for the exchange of gases with the blood stream. Here oxygen is ...
In asthma, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) can contribute to inflammation, airway wall remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Targetting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor |i|γ|/i| (PPAR|i|γ|/i|), a receptor upregulated in ASM in asthmatic airways, may provide a novel approach to regulate these contributions. This review summarises experimental evidence that PPAR|i|γ|/i| ligands, such as rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ), inhibit proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production from ASM |i|in vitro|/i|. In addition, inhaled administration of these ligands reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodelling in mouse models of allergen-induced airways disease. PPAR|i|γ|/i| ligands can also regulate ASM contractility, with acute treatment eliciting relaxation of mouse trachea |i|in vitro |/i|through a PPAR|i|γ|/i|-independent mechanism. Chronic treatment can protect against the loss of bronchodilator sensitivity to |i|β|
The purpose of our studies was to examine differentiation-dependent expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) isoforms in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In the presence of retinoic acid (RA) the cultures differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium. When cultured in RA-depleted media, the cultures differentiated into a squamous epithelium. In the absence of RA the cultures did not express 15-LO or either of the PGHS isoforms. The PGHS-1 isoform was not expressed in RA-sufficient cultures, but both PGHS-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were strongly expressed, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was produced during the predifferentiation phase. No PGHS-2 expression or PGE2 could be detected in fully differentiated mucociliary cultures. 15-LO showed the opposite expression pattern: neither mRNA nor protein were detected during the predifferentiation stage, but both were strongly expressed once mucous differentiation had occurred. Cytosolic ...
The present study represents the first electrophysiological and cellular evaluation of parasympathetic ganglionic neurons from tracheas and bronchi of mice. Data reported here regarding membrane properties such as the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and time constant of mouse airway neurons were within the range of those recorded in vitro for guinea pig (16), human (9), and ferret airway parasympathetic neurons (1), and in vivo for cat tracheal ganglion neurons (11). Although membrane properties of airway parasympathetic ganglionic neurons from human and other laboratory animals were similar, this may not necessarily indicate that these cells have a similar level of integration in the mammalian airways.. In this study, clusters of neurons (ganglia) were located on the mouse trachea and bronchi and could be investigated directly using intracellular microelectrodes. Thus far, it has been reported that parasympathetic neurons located in the intrinsic airway ganglia have anatomical and ...
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Chewing is essential for your dog. If you are looking for a natural, delicious, and chewy treat to keep your pooch happy and healthy, you may consider buying them a beef trachea. But what is a beef trachea, and is it right for your dog?. The beef trachea is a long-lasting premium dog chew that is low in fat and rich in protein. Your dogs will tear it like candy, and they cant get enough. They are highly digestible and good for your dogs teeth and gum health.. Are you wondering why you should get a beef trachea for your pup? You are in the right place. In this article, you will find in-depth information about beef trachea. Open your eyes to absorb information. ...
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q1 can you name these parts present in human respiratory system i that has cartilaginous rings ii that encloses the vocal cards iii sheet of muscle th - Biology - TopperLearning.com | vkr4x33
Trachea are a durable, crunchy chew that dogs love due to the higher fat content (compared to a bully stick). Trachea are known to be a natural source of glucosamine, which may help preserve joint health and mobility. The trachea can also be stuffed with anything from canned food to commercial raw food, and then frozen
Tracheal epithelium surface, scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The trachea or windpipe is secretory in nature, possessing many exocrine glands and being lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium in which ciliated and mucous cells predominate. The ciliated epithelial cells are interspersed with goblet mucosal cells which are covered by microvilli. Goblet cells produce mucous which is secreted through the microvilli and tiny particles present in inhaled air are trapped. The ciliated cells move the mucous upwards and out of the respiratory tract, thus cleaning the pathway. Magnification: x600 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C036/9758
Barkworthies Beef Tracheas offer a 100% digestible, sturdy all-natural dog chew with fat trimmings left on to make Barkworthies Beef Trachea both enticing and delicious! Barkworthies Beef Trachea also serve as a great dental chew by removing food residue and plaque. Barkworthies Beef Trachea are longer lasting for your
Interleukin (IL)-1 causes airway inflammation, enhances airway smooth muscle responsiveness, and alters neurotransmitter expression in sensory, sympathetic, and myenteric neurons. This study examines the role of intrinsic airway neurons in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by IL-1. Ferrets were instilled intratracheally with IL-1 (0.3 g/0.3 ml) or saline (0.3 ml) once daily for 5 days. Tra
An enticing and delicious 100% digestable beef trachea filled with a gourmet chicken treat filling for a blast of a culinary experience. K9 Chicken Gourmet Trachea comes in two conveniently sized packs:. Single Pack - One single K9 Chicken Gourmet Trachea. Bulk Pack - A package of ten K9 Chicken Gourmet Trachea. ...
Lamb Trachea are the smaller diameter version of beef trachea, but are also suitable for sensitive dogs that suffer from allergies and food intolerances. Lamb Trachea chews are hollow and come from the windpipe of a lamb. They are high in both chondroitin and glucosamine. These naturally occurring agents have both been proven as effective in promoting healthy joints in dogs ...
To study the mechanism of ether lipid accumulation which is characteristic of many tumors, we have compared the metabolism of lipids in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells and in a cell line derived from a benzo(a)pyrene-induced tumor. Growth of the primary epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the accumulation of alkyldiacylglycerols at levels (10% of total lipid) comparable to those found in the tumor cell line (B2-1). This class of ether lipids could not be detected in normal rat tracheal epithelium in vivo. A double isotope labeling method using [3H]- and [14C]palmitic acid was used to study metabolic stability of lipid classes in the cell cultures. Primary cells and B2-1 cells labeled with palmitic acid showed the greatest loss of label from triacylglycerols and free fatty acids during incubation in unlabeled media. A slight loss of label from the ester linkages of the alkyldiacylglycerols was observed in the primary epithelial cells but not the B2-1 cells. No label was lost from the ...
We have previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) induces oscillations in Ca++ and Ca++-activated Cl- currents (Clca) in tracheal myocytes. These oscillations are initiated by Ca++ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca++ stores and maintained by Ca++ influx, in part, through voltage-operated Ca++ channels. In the current study whole-cell Clca was measured in isolated tracheal smooth muscle cells as an index of changes in intracellular Ca++ concentration. We demonstrate that ACh-sensitive Ca++ stores and caffeine-sensitive Ca++ stores and caffeine-sensitive Ca++ stores are functionally linked but are refilled through distinct pathways. Two pathways responsible for replenishing ACh-sensitive Ca++ stores were identified. Ca++ influx through verapamil-sensitive voltage-operated Ca++ channels and Ca++ uptake through cyclopiazonic acid-sensitive Ca++ pumps accounted for 80% of the response. The other 20% of the response was both cyclopiazonic acid- and verapamil-insensitive. In ...
This study is the effects of inhalation toxic mixture of bleach and detergent was examined on the epithelial layer of trachea in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the using of chamber, as inhalation 20 minutes were exposure to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after inhalation and the trachea was studied pathology. In microscopic sections of tissue taken from the trachea the experimental group compared with the control group was changed to include: stimulation and activation of the respiratory epithelium hungarian (Mocusa layer), reducing the length of ciliated columnar cells, reducing the number of goblet cells ,loss of cilia, chaos and clutter on the order of tissue. In addition, statistically,
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Trachea The trachea, also called the windpipe, is part of the passageway that supplies air to the lungs. Any prolonged blockage, even for a few minutes, can cause death. The trachea is about 4.
A series of dibasic des-hydroxy β2 receptor agonists has been prepared and evaluated for potential as inhaled ultra-long acting bronchodilators. Determination of activities at the human β-adrenoreceptors demonstrated a series of highly potent and selective β2 receptor agonists that were progressed to further study in a guinea pig histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model. Following further assessment by; onset studies in guinea pig tracheal rings and human bronchial rings contracted with methacholine (guinea pigs) or carbachol (humans), duration of action studies in guinea pigs after intratracheal (i. t.) administration and further selectivity and safety profiling AZD3199 was shown to have an excellent over all profile and was progressed into clinical evaluation as a new ultra-long acting inhaled β2 receptor agonist with rapid onset of action.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intravenous anesthetics on Ca2+ sensitivity in canine tracheal smooth muscle. AU - Hanazaki, Motohiko. AU - Jones, Keith A.. AU - Warner, David O.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/1. Y1 - 2000/1. N2 - Background: Halothane and other volatile anesthetics relax airway smooth muscle in part by decreasing the amount of force produced for a particular intracellular calcium concentration (the Ca2+ sensitivity) during muscarinic receptor stimulation. In this study, ketamine, propofol, and midazolam were evaluated to determine whether the inhibitory effect of volatile anesthetics on this signal transduction pathway is a general property of other types of anesthetic drugs. Methods: A β-escin permeabilized canine tracheal smooth muscle preparation was used. Ketamine, propofol, and midazolam, in concentrations producing near-maximal relaxation in intact airway smooth muscle (200 μM, 270 μM, and 100 μM, respectively), were applied ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumour necrosis factor-a induces hyperreactivity in tracheal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig in vitro.. AU - Pennings, H.J.. AU - Kramer, K.. AU - Bast, A.. AU - Buurman, W.A.. AU - Wouters, E.F.M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Recent studies have implicated a role for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the development of the asthmatic reaction. In this study, we examined the influence of TNFα on isotonic contraction of tracheal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig in vitro in response to methacholine. Tracheal rings were incubated with recombinant human (rh)TNFα (3x10. AB - Recent studies have implicated a role for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the development of the asthmatic reaction. In this study, we examined the influence of TNFα on isotonic contraction of tracheal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig in vitro in response to methacholine. Tracheal rings were incubated with recombinant human (rh)TNFα (3x10. U2 - 10.1183/09031936.98.12010045. DO - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different phosphorylated forms of myosin in contracting tracheal smooth muscle. AU - Persechini, A.. AU - Kamm, K. E.. AU - Stull, J. T.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase phosphorylates two light chain subunits on each myosin molecule. We have developed a method for measuring nonphosphorylated, monophosphorylated, and diphosphorylated forms of myosin in smooth muscle. Four protein bands were separated in tissue extracts by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of pyrophosphate. Immunoblots demonstrated that three forms (designated M, MP, and MP2) reacted with rabbit antisera prepared against the purified phosphorylated light chain (P-light chain) from bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Evidence was obtained that M, MP, and MP2 represented nonphosphorylated, monophosphorylated, and diphosphorylated myosin, respectively, and that the other protein band was probably filamin. The formation of different phosphorylated ...
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BioAssay record AID 211521 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Tachykinin receptor 2 at guinea pig trachea.
ODONNELL S.R. and SAAR N. (1978) THE UPTAKE KINETICS AND METABOLISM OF EXTRANEURONAL NORADRENALINE IN GUINEA‐PIG TRACHEA AS STUDIED WITH QUANTITATIVE FLUORESCENCE MICROPHOTOMETRY. British Journal of Pharmacology, 62 2: 235-239. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1978.tb08451.x ...
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CysLTs are inflammatory lipid mediators implicated in multiple diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, atopic dermatitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (a model of multiple sclerosis). The identification of CysLT receptors, generation of CysLT receptor-deficient mice, and development of specific antagonists have expanded the scope of functions of these mediators in disease. In particular, signaling via these receptors is implicated in many components of these diseases, such as bronchoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, recruitment of effector cells, mucus and cytokine secretion, and fibrosis (127-133). In this section, we discuss the functional relevance of CysLT receptors to various diseases as determined by animal experiments.. Bronchoconstriction. LTC4 and LTD4 are equipotent in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, while LTD4 is more effective in peripheral airways (134). For example, the potency of LTD4 in the guinea pig lung ...
CysLTs are inflammatory lipid mediators implicated in multiple diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, atopic dermatitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (a model of multiple sclerosis). The identification of CysLT receptors, generation of CysLT receptor-deficient mice, and development of specific antagonists have expanded the scope of functions of these mediators in disease. In particular, signaling via these receptors is implicated in many components of these diseases, such as bronchoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, recruitment of effector cells, mucus and cytokine secretion, and fibrosis (127-133). In this section, we discuss the functional relevance of CysLT receptors to various diseases as determined by animal experiments.. Bronchoconstriction. LTC4 and LTD4 are equipotent in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, while LTD4 is more effective in peripheral airways (134). For example, the potency of LTD4 in the guinea pig lung ...
BACKGROUND Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) effectors protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2) in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. METHODS IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases), U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2) and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA). The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anion selectivity of the chloride-transport process in dog tracheal epithelium.. AU - Widdicombe, J. H.. AU - Welsh, M. J.. PY - 1980/9. Y1 - 1980/9. N2 - We have measured the fluxes of 82Br or 131I across short-circuited dog tracheal epithelium following complete replacement of chloride in the bathing medium by either bromide or iodide. In addition, we have partly replaced the bathing chloride with bromide, iodide, or thiocyanate and studied the effects of these anions on 36Cl fluxes. Our results show that the affinity sequence for the chloride transport process is I , Br congruent to Cl, that Br is transported, but that I is not. Thiocyanate is a potent inhibitor of chloride transport, and its effects are greater than those predicted by a simple competitive interaction with chloride for transport sites.. AB - We have measured the fluxes of 82Br or 131I across short-circuited dog tracheal epithelium following complete replacement of chloride in the bathing medium by either ...
The goal of this proposal is to design a portable bronchoscope that can determine the health status of the tracheal epithelial lining cells by analyzing changes in their metabolic profile. The device is intended to be used to quickly single out which individuals is showing injury and inflammation in the trachea and lung and therefore to provide them with the most adequate and early care. In this closing year 1 funding period, we have built the bronchoscope and done some preliminary testing on mouse trachea samples exposed to chemicals known to injure the tracheal epithelium. The size of the bronchoscope is quite small and will allow its transport and use by the military in the field or remote locations, while the small size of the instrument could permit its use on awake patients. Following evaluation of the field of research we have decided to develop a hybrid system Camera and Raster with two modalities seek and focus. The former modality will allow low magnification scan of the trachea and lung
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tube continued. T2 - Morphogenesis of the Drosophila tracheal system. AU - Schottenfeld, Jodi. AU - Song, Yanjun. AU - Ghabrial, Amin S.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors apologize to those whose work we were unable to include within the limited confines of this review. We thank Dena Alpert for her insightful comments on the manuscript. JS has received support from NIH Developmental Biology training grant (T32-HD007516-12) and is currently supported by an NIH NRSA postdoctoral fellowship (F32-GM090438). ASG gratefully acknowledges research support from the NIH (1R01GM089782-01A1), the March of Dimes (Basil OConnor award), a McCabe Scholar award, an ACS pilot grant, and the University of Pennsylvania. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - The Drosophila respiratory organ (tracheal system) consists of epithelial tubes, the morphogenesis of which is controlled by distinct sets of signaling pathways and transcription factors. The downstream events controlling tube formation and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiated structure and function of cultures from human tracheal epithelium. AU - Yamaya, M.. AU - Finkbeiner, W. E.. AU - Chun, S. Y.. AU - Widdicombe, Jonathan. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Here we describe the conditions which allow cultured human tracheal epithelial cells to retain the ion transport properties and ultrastructure of the original tissue. The order of potency of growth supports and media additives in elevating baseline short-circuit current (I(sc)) and responses to mediators were vitrogen gel (VIT) , extracellular matrix from bovine corneal endothelial cells (ECM) , human placental collagen (HPC), and 2% Ultroser G serum substitute (USG) , 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) , defined growth factors (GF). For all combinations of medium and growth supports, an air interface (AIR) gave better electrical properties than immersion feeding (IMM). As opposed to our earlier conditions (HPC/FCS/IMM), the best new combination (VIT/USG/AIR) produced higher baseline I(sc) (58.0 ...
Kesimer M., Scull M., Brighton B., DeMaria G., Burns K., ONeal W., Pickles R.J., Sheehan J.K.. Airway mucus forms the structural basis of the local innate immune defense mechanism. It is an integrated, active, viscoelastic gel matrix evolved to protect the exposed lung from physical, chemical, and pathological erosion. Exosomes are biologically active vesicles secreted by different cell types including epithelial, hematopoietic, and some tumor cells. They are also present in some biological fluids such as serum, urine, breast milk, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that exosome-like vesicles with antiviral properties are present in human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE) cell culture secretions. These vesicles have been isolated by differential centrifugation and are characterized further by mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, electron microscopy, and light-scattering methods. HTBE vesicles exhibited characteristic exosomal size ...
Interleukin (IL)-8 is a C-X-C chemokine that potently chemoattracts and activates neutrophils. We determined whether IL-8 could be produced by human airway smooth muscle cells in culture and examined its regulation. TNF-alpha stimulated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein release in a time- and dose-de …
The results of this present thesis show a deficiency of IL-10 production in alveolar macrophages in asthma. The reduced IL-10 expression on protein and m-RNA level correlated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-(, MIP1- ( and GM-CSF. These observations implicate an impaired IL-10 synthesis in asthma with a subsequent prolongation of the inflammatory response. This leads to the conclusion that a dysbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is present in asthma and may be therefore of pathogenetic importance. The reduced sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to the inhibitory effects of exogenous IL-10 compared to peripheral blood monocytes may be caused by different signal transduction mechanisms. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and IL-8 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells led to the conclusion that airway smooth muscle cells may act beside their contractile function as immunomodulatory cells in the pathogenesis of ...
The results of this present thesis show a deficiency of IL-10 production in alveolar macrophages in asthma. The reduced IL-10 expression on protein and m-RNA level correlated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-(, MIP1- ( and GM-CSF. These observations implicate an impaired IL-10 synthesis in asthma with a subsequent prolongation of the inflammatory response. This leads to the conclusion that a dysbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is present in asthma and may be therefore of pathogenetic importance. The reduced sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to the inhibitory effects of exogenous IL-10 compared to peripheral blood monocytes may be caused by different signal transduction mechanisms. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and IL-8 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells led to the conclusion that airway smooth muscle cells may act beside their contractile function as immunomodulatory cells in the pathogenesis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical characterization of native usher protein complexes from a vesicular subfraction of tracheal epithelial cells. AU - Zallocchi, Marisa L. AU - Sisson, Joseph Harold. AU - Cosgrove, Dominic E. PY - 2010/2/16. Y1 - 2010/2/16. N2 - Usher syndrome is the major cause of deaf/blindness in the world. It is a genetic heterogeneous disorder, with nine genes already identified as causative for the disease. We noted expression of all known Usher proteins in bovine tracheal epithelial cells and exploited this system for large-scale biochemical analysis of Usher protein complexes. The dissected epithelia were homogenized in nondetergent buffer and sedimented on sucrose gradients. At least two complexes were evident after the first gradient: one formed by specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15, and VLGR-1 and a different one at the top of the gradient that included all of the Usher proteins and rab5, a transport vesicle marker. TEM analysis of these top fractions found them enriched in ...
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The objective of this study was to immunohistochemically elucidate the major extracellular matrix constituents of rabbit tracheal cartilage. The impetus for this project is the need for crucial design and validation criteria for tissue engineering juxtaposed with the conspicuous lack of trachea extracellular matrix data in the literature. Tracheal tissue specimens were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits, and were immunostained for collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan and decorin; and a Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain was performed to visualize elastin. The most striking result was the highly organized relationship between distinct fibrous (containing collagen I, decorin and elastin) and hyaline-like (containing collagen II and aggrecan) regions of the tracheal wall. The tracheal cartilage stained strongly with collagen II throughout, with periodic bands of aggrecan in the tracheal arches, meaning that there were areas void of aggrecan immunostaining alternating with areas with strong aggrecan
Airway remodeling is not specifically targeted by current asthma medications, partly owing to the lack of understanding of remodeling mechanisms, altogether posing great challenges in asthma treatment. Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass due to hyperplasia/hypertrophy contributes significantly to overall airway remodeling and correlates with decline in lung function. Recent evidence suggests that IgE sensitization can enhance the survival and mediator release in inflammatory cells. Human ASM (HASM) cells express both low affinity (FcεRII/CD23) and high affinity IgE Fc receptors (FcεRI), and IgE can modulate the contractile and synthetic function of HASM cells. IgE was recently shown to induce HASM cell proliferation but the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that IgE sensitization induces HASM cell proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine, EdU incorporation, and manual cell counting. As an upstream signature component of FcεRI signaling, inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro and in vivo lung deposition of coated magnetic aerosol particles. AU - Xie, Yuanyuan. AU - Longest, P. Worth. AU - Xu, Yun Hao. AU - Wang, Jian Ping. AU - Wiedmann, Timothy Scott. PY - 2010/11. Y1 - 2010/11. N2 - The magnetic induced deposition of polydispersed aerosols composed of agglomerated superparamagnetic particles was measured with an in vitro model system and in the mouse trachea and deep lung for the purpose of investigating the potential of site specific respiratory drug delivery. Oleic acid coated superparamagnetic particles were prepared and characterized by TEM, induced magnetic moment, and iron content. The particles were dispersed in cyclohexane, aerosolized with an ultrasonic atomizer and dried by sequential reflux and charcoal columns. The fraction of iron deposited on glass tubes increased with particle size and decreasing flow rate. High deposition occurred with a small diameter tube, but the deposition fraction was largely independent of tube size at ...
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of a digital tracheal sound analyser (ELENS-DSA) in predicting nocturnal changes in airways resistance in asthmatic patients. This device allows continuous measurement of the proportion of the time occupied by wheezing (Wh%). METHODS: Nocturnal polygraphic studies with simultaneous continuous monitoring of tracheal sounds and airways resistance were performed in seven patients with nocturnal asthma. In order to evaluate the possible bias in wheezing estimation, each tracheal sound recording was passed through the automatic analyser and simultaneously monitored with earphones by an experienced observer. RESULTS: The device detected audible wheezing with an optimal sensitivity and specificity of 70%. Snoring was a minor cause of the relatively poor characteristics of the system. A close correlation (p , 0.001) between Wh% and airways resistance was observed only in those patients with the highest increase in resistance; when the ...
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Stenoses of the respiratory tract are life threatening conditions of various origins. The authors give referrence on 21 patients operated for postintubation stenoses of their trachea at the IInd Surgical Clinic of the UPJŠ Medical Faculty, the Faculty Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice, from 01. 01. 1999 to 30. 06. 2005. All patients had a tracheobronchoscopic examination and a CT examination completed prior to the procedure. Within 24 hours of their admission, 9 patients were operated, 7 underwent resection procedures and 2 patients had Montgomerys T-cannula introduced. 12 patients had their procedures planned, and were operated later than 24 hours after their admission. 10 patients underwent resections of the trachea, 2 had Montgomerys Tcannula implanted. The postoperative course following the resection of the trachea was without complications in 14 patients, 1 patient experienced transitional oedema in the anastomosis and 2 patients suffered restenoses. In this patient group, no fatal case ...
Hi Histonetters, We are working with mouse and rabbit trachea and are experiencing problems with the histology. We are seeing fragmentation, lifting off and ultimate destruction of the epithelial and underlying layers. This does not happen with all samples but is occuring far too often. We are fixing the mouse tissue in formalin 18-24 hrs at 4C and then transferring to 70% ETOH. The rabbit tissue is fixed in formalin at 4C for 24 hrs and then processed. We are using alcohols for dehydration and xylene for clearing. I see where other folks are using different dehydrants etc for mouse tissue but this is not an option for us at the moment. We have processed for very short durations and longer but still see quite a bit of variation. We are doing routine staining of the tissue as well as some immunohistochemistry. Do you have suggestions for fixatives and length and temperature of fixation? Suggestions for processing protocols, ie length, temp use of vacuum? Suggestions for ideal paraffin? Thanks, ...
Apparatus and method for performing a tracheostomy operation wherein the trachea is penetrated using a syringe needle (23) attached to a syringe (20) to form a small opening in the trachea. A guide wire (30) is inserted into the trachea through the needle (23) and after the syringe (20) is removed from the needle. The needle (23) is then removed from the trachea leaving the guide wire (30) inserted in the trachea. An instrument (T) specifically adapted for use in tracheostomy operations is inserted into the small trachea opening produced by the needle (23) while being guided by the guide wire (30). The instrument (T) being opened after insertion into the trachea to widen the trachea opening and a cannula for insertion into the opening of the trachea after having been widened by the instrument (T).
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the Palmaz stent, which has been successfully used to relieve airway obstruction in a small group of children, on the normal and operated on animal trachea. DESIGN In this experimental trial, stents were placed bronchoscopically in the thoracic tracheae of 4 groups of 50 anesthetized cats. The cats in group 1 (adults, n = 10) and group 2 (kittens, n = 10) had normal tracheae; the cats in group 3 (adults, n = 15) underwent horizontal tracheal incision and closure; and the cats in group 4 (adults, n = 15) underwent pericardial patch tracheoplasty. In group 3 and 4, the stents were inserted in 10 cats and 5 cats served as controls. Stents were inflated to a 15-mm diameter in group 1 and an 8-mm diameter in the other groups. Half of the animals with stents were killed 5 weeks after the procedure, and the others, 10 weeks after the procedure. SETTING The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario. RESULTS In group 1, 1 animal died of tracheal perforation. A mild
in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2003), 64. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of histamine on the contractile elements of the respiratory tract in neonatal calves and young adult cattle. SAMPLE POPULATION: Samples of trachealis muscle, bronchi ... [more ▼]. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of histamine on the contractile elements of the respiratory tract in neonatal calves and young adult cattle. SAMPLE POPULATION: Samples of trachealis muscle, bronchi, and intrapulmonary arteries and veins dissected from the respiratory tracts of healthy bovids (2 to 8 days and 16 to 20 months old). PROCEDURE: Histamine cumulative concentration-effect curves (10(-6) to 10(-3) M) were constructed in duplicate smooth muscle samples mounted in organ baths. Contractile responses to histamine were compared with reference contractions elicited by methacholine (10(-5) M) for airways or KCl (127 mM) for vessels. RESULTS: In young adult cattle, trachealis muscle had a substantial contractile response to ...
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Combination therapy of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics induces bronchoprotection in COPD. Mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may contribute to airway remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the impact of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics on bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. Because of the different mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics, we hypothesized functional interactions of these two drug classes. Guinea pig precision-cut lung slices were preincubated with the PDE4 inhibitors CHF-6001 or roflumilast and/or the anticholinergics tiotropium or glycopyorrolate, followed by stimulation with methacholine (10 μM) or TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) for 48 h. The inhibitory effects on airway smooth muscle remodeling, airway contraction, and TGF-β release were investigated. Methacholine-induced protein expression of smooth muscle-myosin was fully inhibited by CHF-6001 (0.3-100 nM), whereas roflumilast (1 µM) had smaller effects. Tiotropium and ...
The adult trachea measures approximately 12 cm but varies anywhere from 10 to 13 cm depending on height and sex. As there is some variability in the length, the anterior portion of the trachea is not subject to tremendous change, for the most part is composed of cartilage, and is C-shaped. The rings maybe complete or bifid. The posterior part of the trachea is also called the membranous portion and is the part of the airway that moves with breathing (Figure 37-1A). ...
With his three trachea transplant clinical trials suspended, the British laryngologist and UCL professor Martin Birchall now tries to pull at least the clinical trial RegenVox, which is about the regenerated voice-box (larynx) and upper trachea, out of the bog. In order to get an approval to transplant human patients, UCLs chief trachea transplanter tries to prove…
WebMDs Trachea Anatomy Page provides a detailed image and definition of the trachea. Learn about its function, location, and conditions that affect the trachea.
The tubular epithelium of the Drosophila tracheal system forms a network with a stereotyped pattern consisting of cells and branches with distinct identity. The tracheal primordium undergoes primary branching induced by the FGF homolog Branchless, differentiates cells with specialized functions such as fusion cells, which perform target recognition and adhesion during branch fusion, and extends branches toward specific targets. Specification of a unique identity for each primary branch is essential for directed migration, as a defect in either the EGFR or the Dpp pathway leads to a loss of branch identity and the misguidance of tracheal cell migration. Here, we investigate the role of Wingless signaling in the specification of cell and branch identity in the tracheal system. Wingless and its intracellular signal transducer, Armadillo, have multiple functions, including specifying the dorsal trunk through activation of Spalt expression and inducing differentiation of fusion cells in all fusion ...
Author: Chen, C. K.; Genre: Thesis; Title: Control of cell migration and branch morphogenesis during Drosophila tracheal development.
The Drosophila tracheal fate is stabilized by the combination of transcriptional programs to control tissue architecture and tissue-level input sensitive to tubular geometry, ensuring the robust mechanism of organ determination.
WFDC2/HE4 encodes a poorly characterised secretory protein that shares structural similarity to the multifunctional host defence protein, SLPI, through possession of two conserved Whey Acidic Protein/four disulphide-core (WFDC) domains. Like SLPI, WFDC2 is expressed in multiple epithelia within the respiratory tract and although its function remains unresolved, recent evidence supports its role as an antiproteinase. We have previously shown that it is over-expressed in lung diseases characterised by abnormalities of protease/antiprotease balance, including cystic fibrosis. Nothing is known about the distribution of WFDC2 in the mouse. In this study we have systematically localized the protein in normal adult mice as well in a number of mouse models characterised by epithelial remodelling. Strong WFDC2 staining is seen throughout the airway epithelium from the trachea down to the smallest airways. Staining is also seen in tracheal submucosal glands. No staining is seen in the peripheral lung. ...
A multi-layered transtracheal catheter. The transtracheal catheter has a multi-layer or double wall construction formed of two materials. One material is resistant to kinking. The other material is resistant to mucous buildup. Together, they form a catheter that can remain within the trachea for an extended period of time without needing to be removed for cleaning. The distal end of the catheter is deflected from the remainder of the catheter so that when the catheter is inside the trachea and held against the wall of the trachea, the distal end of the catheter is deflected from the wall so that the distal end is not in contact with the wall of the trachea. The result is reduced irritation to the trachea wall, reduced occlusion of the distal end by mucous buildup, and a more directed and efficient spray of material from the catheter into the right and left main skin bronchi of the lungs.
mice. Likewise, knockdown of IQGAP1 in primary human airway smooth muscle cells increased RhoA activity. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that IQGAP1 binds to both RhoA and p190A-RhoGAP, a GTPase-activating protein that normally inhibits RhoA activation. Proximity ligation assays in primary airway human smooth muscle cells and mouse tracheal sections revealed colocalization of p190A-RhoGAP and RhoA; however, these proteins did not colocalize in IQGAP1 knockdown cells or in ...
Mucus, however, traps smaller particles like pollen and smoke. This mucus is a gel-like substance that is composed mainly of mucins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates. A â ¦ These cilia direct the movement of molecules in a particular direction aids the function of excretion and secretion. In motile cilia, such as on the multiciliated epidermis (trachea, oviduct, or Xenopus tadpole skin), dynein motors generate ciliary movement, which drives fluid flow. Air that is inhaled may not necessarily be free of dust particles. The cilia In the female reproductive system, the cilia assist the movement of the ovum through the fallopian tube towards the uterus. im sure it isnt options c, d, or e. but i could be wrong. The ciliary apparatus is connected to cell cycle progression and proliferation, and cilia play a vital part in human and animal development and in everyday life. Cilia are broadly divided into two types. The function of cilia in the trachea and bronchi is to protect the airways from being ...