TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipoteichoic acid induces HO-1 expression via the TLR2/MyD88/c-Src/NADPH oxidase pathway and Nrf2 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells. AU - Lee, I-Ta. AU - Wang, Shyi Wu. AU - Lee, Chiang Wen. AU - Chang, Chia Chi. AU - Lin, Chih Chung. AU - Luo, Shue Fen. AU - Yang, Chuen Mao. PY - 2008/10/1. Y1 - 2008/10/1. N2 - Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a stress-inducible rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation that confers cytoprotection against oxidative injury and provides a vital function in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Increasing reports have indicated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) exerts as LPS as an immune system-stimulating agent and plays a role in the pathogenesis of severe inflammatory responses induced by Gram-positive bacterial infection. We report that LTA is an inducer of HO-1 expression mediated through the signaling pathways in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). LTA-induced HO-1 protein levels, mRNA expression, and promoter activity were attenuated by ...
Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells have been serially passaged in serum-free medium. This serum-free model was employed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Ca2+ (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mM) on multiplication and morphology of the cells. The responses were analysed in terms of growth kinetics, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations. Culturing of the cells in high Ca2+ (1.0-2.0 mM) medium stimulated cell multiplication characterized by increased colony forming efficiency, greater number of cells per colony and cell population doublings per day. Additionally, the high Ca2+ concentrations induced proliferation in cultures grown to confluency in low Ca2+ (0.1 mM) medium. Cells propagated in low Ca2+ medium consisted of relatively heterogeneous cell populations, with most cells staining positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent. Ultrastructurally the cells exhibited secretory vesicles and microvilli on their surfaces, small desmosomes and intercellular interdigitation ...
In addition to their proliferative and differentiating effects, several growth factors are capable of inducing a sustained airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. These contractile effects were previously found to be dependent on Rho-kinase and have also been associated with the production of eicosanoids. However, the precise mechanisms underlying growth factor-induced contraction are still unknown. In this study we investigated the role of contractile prostaglandins and Rho-kinase in growth factor-induced ASM contraction. Growth factor-induced contractions of guinea pig open-ring tracheal preparations were studied by isometric tension measurements. The contribution of Rho-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclooxygenase (COX) to these reponses was established, using the inhibitors Y-27632 (1 μM), U-0126 (3 μM) and indomethacin (3 μM), respectively. The Rho-kinase dependency of contractions induced by exogenously applied prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was
People have tried other materials, but the problem has been they were using just one material that is not strong enough to hold the airways open and does not provide the flexibility needed," explained Sean Murphy, PhD, lead author and assistant professor of regenerative medicine at WFIRM. "Our bioprinting method provides a combination of flexibility and strength needed to mimic native tracheal tissue.". Down the line, bioprinted tracheal tissue could be used to treat tracheal stenosis, a rare condition or symptom that causes the stiffening and narrowing of the trachea and can lead to death. Presently, treatments for the condition are limited and present their own challenges. Being able to 3D bioprint a patient specific tracheal tissue could therefore present a new and innovative solution.. The novel approach developed by the WFIRM team combines three key areas: patient-specific medical imaging, hydrogels embedded with differentiated cells and polymeric scaffolding with biomechanical-inspired ...
Attachment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to hamster tracheal organ cultures, tracheal outgrowth monolayers, human erythrocytes, and WiDr human tissue culture cells.:
We report that DPP signaling is required for directed tracheal cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis. The failure of tracheal cells to receive the DPP signal from adjacent dorsal and ventral cells results in the absence of dorsal and ventral migrations. Ectopic DPP signaling can reprogram cells in the center of the placode to adopt a dorsoventral migration behavior. The effects observed in response to ectopic DPP signaling are also observed upon the tracheal-specific expression of a constitutive active DPP type I receptor (TKV(Q253D)), indicating that the DPP signal is received and transmitted in tracheal cells to control their migration behavior. DPP signaling determines localized gene expression patterns in the developing tracheal placode, and is also required for the dorsal expression of the recently identified BRANCHLESS (BNL) guidance molecule, the ligand of the BREATHLESS (BTL) receptor. Thus, DPP plays a dual role during tracheal cell migration. It is required to control the ...
IL-4 and IL-13 have important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. A novel finding was that brief exposure of airway smooth muscle cells to IL-4 inhibited carbachol-stimulated calcium transients. We hypothesized that IL-4 inhibits transients by decreasing calcium store content and tested this by measuring the effects of IL-4 on transients induced by a nonspecific ionophore. Bovine trachealis cells were loaded with fura 2-AM, and cytosolic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were measured in single cells by digital microscopy. Stimulation (S1) with carbachol (10 microM) caused rapid, transient increases in [Ca2+]i to 1299 +/- 355 nM (n=5). After recovery of calcium stores, stimulation (S2) of the same cells with ionomycin (10 microM), in the absence of extracellular calcium, also increased [Ca2+]i to give S2/S1 ratio of 1.03 +/- 0.29. However, after 20 min of IL-4 (50 ng/ml), but not IL-13, ionomycin transients were decreased to 0.50 +/- 0.16 (S2/S1, P=0.02, n=6). IL-4 did not inhibit transients with
Histologically the trachea is made up of mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage and adventitia. Therefore the study of histogenesis of the fetal trachea provides not only the information on the functional morphology of the organ, but also gives a baseline in the investigations and management of pre and neonatal pathological conditions. The present study was carried out on 15 human fetuses of known gestational age of all trimesters in the department of Anatomy in KMC Manipal. The transverse section of trachea was taken. The sections were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin and were observed under light microscope. The microscopic anatomy of the trachea was observed at different GA and the changes were observed. At first trimester the trachea was lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium without any goblet cells. Incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage were also observed .The cellular components of the hyaline cartilage were predominant while the amount of ground substance was comparatively less. ...
List of 10 disease causes of Tracheobronchial airway obstruction, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Tracheobronchial airway obstruction.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) stimulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. This study characterizes the receptor involved as well as critical downstream signaling events mediating cytokine-induced NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 expression. TNFα stimulation for 1 to 4 h induced ICAM-1 expression in human ASM cells. This rapid TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression enhanced T-lymphocyte adhesion to ASM cells, which was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that TNFα receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed on native human tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of cells with htr-9, an antibody that specifically activates TNFR1, also stimulated expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and protein. Utr-1, a blocking antibody to TNFR2, did not affect TNFα-mediated ICAM-1 expression. Both TNFα and htr-9 increased luciferase activity in ASM cells ...
Ro 25-1553, a cyclic peptide analog of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), was designed to overcome many of the deficiencies inherent in this natural neuropeptide. On isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, Ro 25-1553 produces concentration-dependent relaxation of contractile responses to a number of different spasmogens. Depending on the contractile stimulus, Ro 25-1553 is 24 to 89 times more potent than VIP as a relaxant of guinea pig trachea. The high potency of Ro 25-1553 extends to studies on isolated, histamine-contracted, human bronchial smooth muscle, where Ro 25-1553 exhibits a 390-fold enhancement over native VIP and is more potent than other bronchodilating drugs, such as the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists isoproterenol and salbutamol. Ro 25-1553 was shown to displace the radioligand 125I-VIP from rat forebrain membranes with an IC50 value of 4.98 nM, thereby demonstrating that it acts at a VIP receptor. In addition, when tested in a battery of 40 other binding assays (e.g., ...
In this study human tissue of the respiratory tract was examined retrospectively. It was extremely difficult to collect an adequate number of cases who had died an acute death since necroscopic examination in these cases is rare. The data presented support the findings of other investigators who described DCs in human lung tissue and, for the first time, yield information on the initial occurrence and frequency of mature DCs in the human tracheal mucosa.. Animal data suggest an increase in bone marrow progenitor cells of DC and the immigration of these cells into different lung compartments.26 27 Since it has been shown that the number of DCs in the respiratory mucosa increases faster than neutrophil granulocytes after bacterial stimulation, local stimulation and ongoing proliferation might also be involved.28 Interestingly, our data are in line with recent findings in very young mice in whom few DCs were found in the airways. Resistance to pulmonary allergen sensitisation of these mice could be ...
ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cells, when grown in Airway Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cell Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells in serum-free conditions. The cells are cryopreserved at the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
TRACHEAL COLLAPSE. Tracheal collapse is a progressive degenerative disorder of the tracheal cartilage, which results in a reduction of the luminal diameter of the trachea. The normal ring-shaped cartilages become C-shaped and flattened. The trachea becomes stretched and floppy, and to varying degrees falls down and obstructs the tracheal lumen. The normal diameter of the trachea is maintained by rigid hyaline cartilage rings. The loss of tone in the cartilage causes the collapse but it is unknown why exactly this loss in tone occurs. Dogs with tracheal collapse have abnormal cartilage rings that collapse with changes in tracheal pressure. As the trachea collapses, there is irritation and trauma to the trachea itself, which induces coughing and this induces even more collapse and further coughing.. CLINICAL SIGNS. Toy breeds such as Yorkshire terriers, Chihuahuas, Pomeranians, and Poodles are predisposed and clinical signs typically occur when dogs are middle aged (4-8 years). The most common ...
Mast cells (MC) and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) act proximally in detecting and processing antigens and immune insults. We sought to understand their comparative dynamic behavior with respect to the airway epithelium in the steady state and in response to an allergic stimulus in mouse trachea. We devised methods to label MC in living trachea and to demonstrate that MC and DC occupy distinct layers of the tracheal mucosa, with DC being closer to the lumen. DC numbers doubled after allergen challenge, but MC numbers remained stable. MC and DC migrated minimally in either steady state or allergen-challenge conditions, and their interactions with one another appeared to be stochastic and relatively infrequent. While DC, unlike MC, exhibited probing behaviors involving dendrites, these projections did not cross the epithelium into the airway lumen. MC typically were located too far from the epithelial surface to contact the tracheal lumen. However, MC had protrusions toward and into blood vessels, likely to
BioAssay record AID 79681 submitted by ChEMBL: Negative log of the concentration producing 50% of the maximum effect was measured in guinea pig trachea.
The tracheartes, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 20-25 mm and a length of about 10-16cm. It commences at the larynx(at the level vertebral level of C6 in humans) and bifurcates into the primary (main) bronchi (at the vertebral level of T4/T5 in humans) in mammals, and from the pharynx to the syrinx in birds, allowing the passage of air to the lungs. It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells with mucosae goblet cells which produce mucus. This lines the cells of the trachea to trap inhaled foreign particles which the cilia then waft upwards towards their larynx and then the pharynx where it can then be swallowed into the stomach. In humans there are about 15 - 20 incomplete C-shaped cartilaginous rings which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open. There is a piece of smooth muscle connecting the ends off the incomplete cartilaginous rings called the Trachealis muscle. This contracts ...
The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is the passage way that leads air to your lungs. It is made up of cartilage, muscle and connective tissue. Tracheas are often around 4 inches long which are comprised of approximately 20 cartilage rings. On the inside lining of the trachea is a mucus membrane that is able to catch harmful airborne particles and bacteria before it reaches your lungs. Swallowing and sneezing are ways of removing these particles [4C]. Breathing involves two main steps; oxygen enters the body when you breathe in and carbon dioxide leaves the body when you exhale. When someone takes a breath, oxygen goes through the nose and mouth down their trachea. From here the trachea splits up into two bronchi tubes which lead to the left and right lung. Next the oxygen travels through the smaller branches, bronchioles, to millions of small alveoli located throughout the lungs. Alveoli are small sacs in the lungs that allow for the exchange of gases with the blood stream. Here oxygen is ...
The purpose of our studies was to examine differentiation-dependent expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) isoforms in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In the presence of retinoic acid (RA) the cultures differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium. When cultured in RA-depleted media, the cultures differentiated into a squamous epithelium. In the absence of RA the cultures did not express 15-LO or either of the PGHS isoforms. The PGHS-1 isoform was not expressed in RA-sufficient cultures, but both PGHS-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were strongly expressed, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was produced during the predifferentiation phase. No PGHS-2 expression or PGE2 could be detected in fully differentiated mucociliary cultures. 15-LO showed the opposite expression pattern: neither mRNA nor protein were detected during the predifferentiation stage, but both were strongly expressed once mucous differentiation had occurred. Cytosolic ...
The present study represents the first electrophysiological and cellular evaluation of parasympathetic ganglionic neurons from tracheas and bronchi of mice. Data reported here regarding membrane properties such as the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and time constant of mouse airway neurons were within the range of those recorded in vitro for guinea pig (16), human (9), and ferret airway parasympathetic neurons (1), and in vivo for cat tracheal ganglion neurons (11). Although membrane properties of airway parasympathetic ganglionic neurons from human and other laboratory animals were similar, this may not necessarily indicate that these cells have a similar level of integration in the mammalian airways.. In this study, clusters of neurons (ganglia) were located on the mouse trachea and bronchi and could be investigated directly using intracellular microelectrodes. Thus far, it has been reported that parasympathetic neurons located in the intrinsic airway ganglia have anatomical and ...
18 Gauge Opal Branch Cartilage Ring- Up your piercing game with the 18 Gauge Opal Branch Cartilage Ring, which features five beautiful opal gems.
18 Gauge Opal Branch Cartilage Ring- Up your piercing game with the 18 Gauge Opal Branch Cartilage Ring, which features five beautiful opal gems.
CZ and Clay Flowers Curve to make this delicate piece your soon to be favorite. 316L Surgical Steel Ear Cartilage Barbell Stud. 16 GA. 1/4 barbell. Rose Gold Cartilage rings are always popular!
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
Trachea are a durable, crunchy chew that dogs love due to the higher fat content (compared to a bully stick). Trachea are known to be a natural source of glucosamine, which may help preserve joint health and mobility. The trachea can also be stuffed with anything from canned food to commercial raw food, and then frozen
Tracheal epithelium surface, scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The trachea or windpipe is secretory in nature, possessing many exocrine glands and being lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium in which ciliated and mucous cells predominate. The ciliated epithelial cells are interspersed with goblet mucosal cells which are covered by microvilli. Goblet cells produce mucous which is secreted through the microvilli and tiny particles present in inhaled air are trapped. The ciliated cells move the mucous upwards and out of the respiratory tract, thus cleaning the pathway. Magnification: x600 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C036/9758
Interleukin (IL)-1 causes airway inflammation, enhances airway smooth muscle responsiveness, and alters neurotransmitter expression in sensory, sympathetic, and myenteric neurons. This study examines the role of intrinsic airway neurons in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by IL-1. Ferrets were instilled intratracheally with IL-1 (0.3 g/0.3 ml) or saline (0.3 ml) once daily for 5 days. Tra
To study the mechanism of ether lipid accumulation which is characteristic of many tumors, we have compared the metabolism of lipids in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells and in a cell line derived from a benzo(a)pyrene-induced tumor. Growth of the primary epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the accumulation of alkyldiacylglycerols at levels (10% of total lipid) comparable to those found in the tumor cell line (B2-1). This class of ether lipids could not be detected in normal rat tracheal epithelium in vivo. A double isotope labeling method using [3H]- and [14C]palmitic acid was used to study metabolic stability of lipid classes in the cell cultures. Primary cells and B2-1 cells labeled with palmitic acid showed the greatest loss of label from triacylglycerols and free fatty acids during incubation in unlabeled media. A slight loss of label from the ester linkages of the alkyldiacylglycerols was observed in the primary epithelial cells but not the B2-1 cells. No label was lost from the ...
We have previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) induces oscillations in Ca++ and Ca++-activated Cl- currents (Clca) in tracheal myocytes. These oscillations are initiated by Ca++ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca++ stores and maintained by Ca++ influx, in part, through voltage-operated Ca++ channels. In the current study whole-cell Clca was measured in isolated tracheal smooth muscle cells as an index of changes in intracellular Ca++ concentration. We demonstrate that ACh-sensitive Ca++ stores and caffeine-sensitive Ca++ stores and caffeine-sensitive Ca++ stores are functionally linked but are refilled through distinct pathways. Two pathways responsible for replenishing ACh-sensitive Ca++ stores were identified. Ca++ influx through verapamil-sensitive voltage-operated Ca++ channels and Ca++ uptake through cyclopiazonic acid-sensitive Ca++ pumps accounted for 80% of the response. The other 20% of the response was both cyclopiazonic acid- and verapamil-insensitive. In ...
This study is the effects of inhalation toxic mixture of bleach and detergent was examined on the epithelial layer of trachea in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the using of chamber, as inhalation 20 minutes were exposure to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after inhalation and the trachea was studied pathology. In microscopic sections of tissue taken from the trachea the experimental group compared with the control group was changed to include: stimulation and activation of the respiratory epithelium hungarian (Mocusa layer), reducing the length of ciliated columnar cells, reducing the number of goblet cells ,loss of cilia, chaos and clutter on the order of tissue. In addition, statistically,
Click here to close Hello! We notice that you are using Internet Explorer, which is not supported by Xenbase and may cause the site to display incorrectly. We suggest using a current version of Chrome, FireFox, or Safari. ...
Trachea The trachea, also called the windpipe, is part of the passageway that supplies air to the lungs. Any prolonged blockage, even for a few minutes, can cause death. The trachea is about 4.
A series of dibasic des-hydroxy β2 receptor agonists has been prepared and evaluated for potential as inhaled ultra-long acting bronchodilators. Determination of activities at the human β-adrenoreceptors demonstrated a series of highly potent and selective β2 receptor agonists that were progressed to further study in a guinea pig histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model. Following further assessment by; onset studies in guinea pig tracheal rings and human bronchial rings contracted with methacholine (guinea pigs) or carbachol (humans), duration of action studies in guinea pigs after intratracheal (i. t.) administration and further selectivity and safety profiling AZD3199 was shown to have an excellent over all profile and was progressed into clinical evaluation as a new ultra-long acting inhaled β2 receptor agonist with rapid onset of action.. ...
Question: What product would you recommend for my small dog with a collapsed trachea? Answer: The trachea, or windpipe, carries air from the outside to the lungs. In some toy-breed dogs (especially Poodles, Pomeranians, Yorkies, and Chihuahuas), a hereditary structural defect can allow the trachea to collapse during panting or rapid breathing. The collapse may…
Barkworthies Beef Trachea offers a 100% digestible, sturdy all-natural dog chew with fat trimmings left on making Barkworthies Beef Trachea both enticing and delicious! Beef trachea has the health benefits of a naturally occurring form of glucosamine and chondroitin for strong healthy joints, they also serve as a great
Nylon Trachea Brush-The Nylon Trachea Brush is flexible brush with 4.25 wire handle and 3.25 x 3.25 nylon bristles. The Nylon Trachea Brush is 6 overall
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Trachea tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in trachea Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
In this paper a new bronchoscopic method was developed and tested, that performs measuring both cross-sectional areas and length of central airway stenoses in real-time. Furthemore this method enables to represent a three-dimensional reconstruction of the airway section that was analysed. To measure th cross-section area, a laser probe inserted into the operating channel of a bronchoscope projects a ring of light onto the trachal wall and marks the cross-sectional area. A new software especially developed for this method makes it possible to identify the projected ring of light and measures the cross-sectional area after applying lens distortion correction algorithms. By saving a succession of cross-sections 3D-data is provided for visualizing and volume calculation. The measuring accurracy was first tested employing plastic tubes with known diameters and 17 models of porcine trachea. The cilinical evaluation was realized in a pilot study. Sections of different length of tracheas of 10 patients ...
Trachea - Beef Whole - These Trachea are big and perfect for all but the smallest of dogs. These are ideal at about 12-14 inches long and about 2-3 inch in diameter. A great natural source of Glucosamine these are tasty, natural and healthy. Features Suitable for most dog sizes beyond toy size Easy to use from bag Supe
Trachea lining, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The tracheal lining contains mucus-secreting goblet cells and epithelial cells bearing hair-like cilia (red). The movement of the cilia moves mucus and foreign particles upwards out of the respiratory tract, helping to keep the lungs and airways free. This ciliated epithelium is from a mammalian trachea. - Stock Image C003/7023
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production ...
It seems that it is caused by a progressive weakening of the tracheal rings. One study showed that dogs with tracheal collapse have less chondroitin sulfate in their tracheal rings. It can be caused by deficiency of the components of the cartilage, such as components of tracheal ring cartilage like glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, calcium, and chondroitin. Cushings disease can also weaken the cartilages. Chronic respiratory disease and infection can also play a role ...
Lungs, Bronchi, Trachea, NoseAnatomy and PhysiologyThe Respitory SystemLungs, Bronchi, Trachea, NosePharynxMore Than Just a PipeGas Laws and BreathingVolumes and Volumes I know, I know, breathing always makes you think about lungs, but how does the air in the lungs get there?
process begins with the inhalation of air through the nostrils going to the nasal passages. The air then travels to the nasal cavity and into the back of the throat going into the windpipe or the trachea. The air is filtered from foreign objects by the cilias that are found in the trachea, and this air goes to the lungs. The old air in the lungs also goes out of the nose, which is what we ...
Last Monday, Percy woke up with one of his "asthma attacks", which hes been having for years. When we first got him, a vet said it was asthma, and to just try to calm him down when hes having an episode. They usually only last a couple of minutes but this one went on and on and on. Percy then started coughing like he wanted to throw up, and then went back to wheezing. He would stop for a few minutes, and then start back up again. I thought maybe this was something different so I called the vet to ask if we could bring him right in. They said they were completely booked, and couldnt see him until 3:00 the next day. They then said to give him a dose of Benadryl. The Benadryl made him sleepy, but only for about an hour. When he woke up, it started all over again. So, we bundled him up, and took him to the E.R. vet down the road. The diagnosis was a collapsed trachea. Its not permanent but it does get worse over time as the cartilage in the trachea begins to weaken. So, the asthma diagnosis we ...
|font size=3|Free Range American Lamb Trachea (aka lamb version of moo-tube,windee)|/font| |p||font size=3|Ingredient:Lamb Trachea|/font||/p|
in Equine Veterinary Journal (2003), 35(2), 190-6. Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary ... [more ▼]. Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary vasculature and airways or which ET receptor subtypes mediate ET-1 induced vasoconstrictive and bronchoconstrictive action in the horse. Objectives: To investigate the effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on smooth muscle from isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. In addition, the roles of ETA and ETB receptors in ET-1 mediated contraction in these tissues were assessed. Methods: The force generation of ring segments from pulmonary arteries or third-generation airways (obtained from horses subjected to euthanasia for orthopaedic ...
GPRC5A is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in lung tissue but repressed in most human lung cancers. Studies in Gprc5a-/- mice have established its role as a tumor suppressor function in this setting, but its the basis for its role have been obscure. Here we report that GPRC5A functions as a negative modulator of EGFR signaling. Mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) from Gprc5a-/- mice exhibited a relative increase in EGFR and downstream STAT3 signaling, whereas GPRC5A expression inhibited EGFR and STAT3 signaling. GPRC5A physically interacted with EGFR through its transmembrane domain, which was required for its EGRF inhibitory activity. Gprc5a-/- MTEC were much more susceptible to EGFR inhibitors than wile-type MTEC, suggesting their dependence on EGFR signaling for proliferation and survival. Dysregulated EGFR and STAT3 were identified in the normal epithelia of small and terminal bronchioles as well as tumors of Gprc5a-/- mouse lungs. Moreover, in these lungs EGFR inhibitor treatment ...
These clinical results provide evidence that a tissue-engineering strategy including decellularisation of a human trachea, autologous epithelial and stem-cell culture and differentiation, and cell-scaffold seeding with a bioreactor is safe and promising. ( Xagena ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.