The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analog ...
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analog ...
2017 The Author(s). Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PSNT, thus preventing it from binding to nAChR. The PSNT of Naja kaouthia (NK3) was immobilized on microtiter wells and nAChR was added to bind with it. The in vitro IC 50 of N. kaouthia venom that inhibited 50% of nAChR binding to the immobilized NK3 was determined. Varying concentrations of antisera against N. kaouthia were separately pre-incubated with 5xIC 50 of N. kaouthia venom. The remaining free NK3 were incubated with nAChR before adding to the NK3 coated plates. The in vitro and ...
On Starfleet vessels there are normally one or two forward torpedo launchers and one aft launcher. Photon torpedoes are not stored on a starship armed with a full load matter and antimatter for safety reasons. When red alert is initiated, up to four torpedoes are fueled with matter and antimatter and loaded into the launching tubes; up to ten torpedoes can be loaded into the same launcher for simultaneous launch. When the command to fire is given, the ships targeting computers transfers initial flight instructions to torpedos computers. Shortly after launch the matter and antimatter are transferred to the central mixing tank though they are still kept separate by magnetic fields. While in flight the ship can transfer new targeting instructions to the torpedo to make in flight course corrections. Finally, one second before the torpedo reaches the target the magnetic fields are dropped allowing the matter and anti-matter to mix ...
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) of Torpedo electroplax is a multisubunit transmembrane glycoprotein complex with a subunit stoichiometry of alpha 2 beta gamma delta. The RNAs for the separate subunits were transcribed in vitro from cDNAs inserted in pSP64T vectors and microinjected in Xenopus oocytes. Microinjected in vitro-transcribed RNAs were stable, with a half-life of 72 hr. Xenopus oocytes assembled functional AcChoRs from the subunit-specific RNAs. These receptors were inserted in the cell membrane and could be detected as early as 6 hr after RNA microinjection. The oocyte-expressed AcChoR subunits could be immunoprecipitated with anti-Torpedo AcChoR subunit antibodies. Expression of the AcChoR in oocytes proceeded linearly for 72 hr after microinjection. While the amount of RNA injected did not alter the linearity of the expression time course, the rate of receptor expression in oocytes showed a saturable dependence on RNA concentration. Varying the relative amount of ...
Synonyms: Fimbriotorpedo ocellata, Narcacion pantherinus, Narcacion torpedo, Narcobatus narke, Narcobatus torpedo, Raia torpedo, Raia torpedo STEPHAN 1779, Raja torpedo, Torpedo narce, Torpedo narke, Torpedo ocellata, Torpedo oculata, Torpedo unimaculata, Torpedo (Torpedo) ...
The Cardassians are known to have developed a version of the quantum torpedo which equips their Dreadnought type heavy penetrator.2 It is known that the design schematics of the quantum warhead developed by Starfleet were scanned by unauthorized personnel at least once during the development of that weapon, and it is now thought that an operative of the Obsidian Order was able to copy this data and escape with it. The Cardassians have apparently encountered considerable problems with the manufacture of quantum weapons, and their version of the torpedo is significantly less reliable than the Starfleet model. As a result the central command considered the quantum torpedo unsuitable for use as the primary torpedo armament of a fleet vessel, hence its role as the short range defence system of a device like Dreadnought ...
The Cardassians are known to have developed a version of the quantum torpedo which equips their Dreadnought type heavy penetrator.2 It is known that the design schematics of the quantum warhead developed by Starfleet were scanned by unauthorized personnel at least once during the development of that weapon, and it is now thought that an operative of the Obsidian Order was able to copy this data and escape with it. The Cardassians have apparently encountered considerable problems with the manufacture of quantum weapons, and their version of the torpedo is significantly less reliable than the Starfleet model. As a result the central command considered the quantum torpedo unsuitable for use as the primary torpedo armament of a fleet vessel, hence its role as the short range defence system of a device like Dreadnought ...
Major Torpedo Programs at NUWES Through the Years Keyport has ranged and overhauled many different kinds of torpedoes over the past 75 years. Below are the major programs. The torpedoes, designated by Mark numbers, are listed in the year they were first introduced at the Station; most were worked on in years that overlap with newer designs. Today, NUWES works on the Mk 46, Mk 48 (ADCAP), and Mk 50 Torpedoes.. ...
Surviving Against the Odds. By Michael Fink. Grant C. Young inscribed his name in the history books on April 7th, 1945, when he became one of the last torpedo bombers to score a hit on the Japanese battleship Yamato. Shortly after his torpedo struck, Yamato rolled over, exploded cataclysmically, and sank. The sinking of the Yamato-one of the two biggest battleships ever constructed, the pride of the Japanese fleet-was the death knell of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The story of Grants successful torpedo run capped an incredible WWII saga and marked the beginning of three decades service in the United States Navy.. Grant was born on November 8th, 1921, in rural Dixon, Illinois. He enlisted in the Navy on August 26, 1940 at the age of 18. Grants boyhood experience repairing tractor engines and transmissions on the family farm landed him a job as an Aviation Metalsmith at Naval Air Station Pensacola. Though he advanced rapidly through the ranks, Grants real dream was to fly planes, not fix them. ...
The Chidori-class torpedo boat (千鳥型水雷艇, Chidori-gata suiraitei) was an Imperial Japanese Navy class of torpedo boats that served during the Second World War. They proved to have too much armament for the hull and Tomozuru (友鶴) capsized shortly after completion in heavy weather. The entire class had to be rebuilt before they became satisfactory sea-boats. They saw service in the Battle of the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies campaign as escorts and continued in that role for the rest of the war. Three were sunk during the war and the fourth was seized by the British at Hong Kong after the end of the war where it was scrapped later. In 1930, the London Naval Treaty was concluded in which the IJN received a heavy limit on the destroyers. The IJN planned to build the under 600 tons class destroyer which were not limited by the treaty, and the category Torpedo boat was revived for them. The aim for these ships was to have half the armament of the Fubuki-class destroyer. ...
... definition, a torpedo guided by sound that either emanates from the target or is emitted by the torpedo and bounces off the target. See more.
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from Torpedo electric organ and mouse muscles when expressed in Xenopus oocytes desensitize with different time courses. Initially, the role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation on the gamma subunits in the different desensitization rates was investigated by expressing normal and mutant AChRs in the oocytes cultured in the presence of gentamicin. Mutant Torpedo AChRs lacking the potential cAMP-dependent phosphorylation sites in the gamma subunit appear to desensitize like normal Torpedo AChRs. Similarly, mutant mouse extrajunctional AChRs containing a newly created phosphorylation site in the gamma subunit appeared to desensitize like normal mouse AChRs, which lack the potential cAMP-dependent phosphorylation site in the gamma subunit. These results suggest that different rates of desensitization between the Torpedo and muscle extrajunctional AChRs are not attributable to differential cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of these AChRs. Subsequently, to determine
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Primitive is fine if it does the job. A glass container could do the job rather than a forcefield. A conveyor belt is a pulley, one of the simple machines along with wheel, axle, wedge, screw. If the article is not enough of a NPOV or if the wording isnt quite right, feel free to change it. The idea wasnt to "diss" older starships for using a mechanical solution more than point out its inherent flaws. I think a mechanical solution is a lot better than a site-to-site transport or storing torpedoes live, for example. If you have a better idea for why the torpedo bay takes up a huge amount of space Id like to hear it. Ive always thought there was a lot of physical machinery in the older starships --User:brianeyci ...
A torpedo can be fired as a standard missile. It has no maneuver capacity however beyond a small gas thruster designed to move it to a afe distance from a ship. The torpedo must be programmed by a navigator using the launching ships computer. The throw to prevent misjump has all normal modifiers and is at an additional -2. The range of the torpedo is one parsec. The torpedoes weigh 50 kg like a standard missile. The Navy (and some say the Scouts too) do not sell the things. A torpedo could probably be sold to a mega-corp or government for several million dollars if you found one you could trust. A torpedo typically mounts a small beacon, a recorder with a few shielded terabytes of information and a kilo of cargo capacity (nothing living). Most also have a self destruct charge to prevent people from salvaging them without the proper disarming codes. Some have carried up to a kilo of cargo ...
Nicholson was the son of a Reverend John Young Nicholson, Rector of Aller, a village near Langport, Somerset.[1] He passed out of Britannia in December 1878. Following service in Agincourt, Dido, Northampton and Sultan, Nicholson was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 21 August, 1885.[2] Nicholson passed as a Torpedo Lieutenant, Second Class, on 22 June, 1888. He would serve in a variety of appointments that are difficult to discern in his Service Record, including time as torpedo officer in Swiftsure in mid 1891 - possibly for the Annual Manoeuvres. He then returned to an appointment as torpedo officer in Boadicea, which had only two ancient Whitehead torpedo carriages, until he was invalided back to England with climatic debility and dyspepsia in April 1894.[3] After recovering from his illness, Nicholson spent a year on the staff at the torpedo training school H.M.S. Defiance. In mid-January 1896 he was appointed to Revenge as first officer and for torpedo duties. Nicholson remained with ...
Theres a new Avantree Torpedo Bluetooth Speaker out, and it offers some interesting improvements in quality. So what has changed since the classic Torpedo? Well, just about 4mm is all. Plus some extra buttons. But wait, theres still some more. Take a look at my video below to see more details. Super Summary Pros: - The form factor, packaging, etc. is almost unchanged - The technical details more or less unchanged - However the sound quality is definitely better (especially…. Read More ...
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With almost a quarter of her crew untested in battle Grayback departed Pearl Harbor for the East China Sea on December 2nd for her ninth war patrol. Within five days of her first contact with Japanese ships, she had expended all her torpedoes in a series of attacks which netted four ships for a total of over 10,000 tons. On the night of the 18th to 19th December Grayback attacked convoy of four freighters and three escorts. She sent freighter Gyokurei Maru and escort Numakaze to the bottom and damaged several others in surface attack. Two nights later, on the 20th to 21st of December, she spotted another convoy of six ships; and, after an end-around run she fired a spread of nine torpedoes into the heart of the Japanese formation. This first attack sunk one freighter and damaged another before Grayback dived to elude depth charges. Three hours later she surfaced and sank a second freighter. After an unsuccessful attack the following night had exhausted her torpedo supply, Grayback headed home. ...
Titan beams, mmm... They are my favourites too. But I still think you underrate the torpedoes for a few reasons. One factor is the damage reduction properties of armour. As far as I understand it armour reduces damage per hit, and as a consequence quick firing but lower damage weapons suffer worse against it. (E.g. 5x titans=100 damage but against ultradense armour this reduces to 50, whereas 2x thunderbolt=100 only reduces to 80, and yes Ive fudged a bit in this example as titans upgrade to 29...) This brings torpedoes back into the game a bit (and devastators as well but I tend not to use them). The second factor is the space equivalent of combined arms. My chosen recipe is to have heavily shielded beamers as my quickest ships (to soak up early damage and chase fleeing ships), medium shielded torpedo boats with medium speed (for maximum damage in close and early shots from range) and slower lighter shielded carriers (legendary ...
1IDL: The solution structure of the complex formed between alpha-bungarotoxin and an 18-mer cognate peptide derived from the alpha 1 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
Psychobilly bands! Psychobilly is a mixture of punk and rockabilly. Info about the band The Photon Torpedoes. Flyers, gigs, photos, bio, news and discussions.
Yapon gəmiləri Rabaula istiqamətlənir. Təxmini olaraq saat 1:40 radəlırindən «Onami» və «Makinami» amerikanlar tərəfindən aşkarlanır. «Çarlz Ocborn», «Klakstoun» və «Dayson» amerikan gəmiləri yapon gəmilərini görən kimi onlara torpedo zərbələri endirilir. İlk torpedo zərbəsi ilə Onami gəmisi suya qərq olur. «Makinami» gəmisi isə ağır zərbə almışdır. «Konversa» və «Spensa» gəmiləri artileriya zərbələri ilə batırılır. Yaponlar digər gəmiləri qorumaq məqsədi ilə ayrılırlar. Gəmilərin hərəsi bir istiqamətə yönəlir. Amerikanlar «Yoqiri» gəmisini təqib edirlər. Ağır artileriya zərbələri nəticəsində saat 3:28 radələrində gəmi batırılır[4]. Amerikanların digər gəmiləri təqib etmək cədhi uğursuzluqla nəticələnir. Döyüşdə iştirak etmiş gəmilər 4:04 radələrində geri qayıdırlar. ...
And that will mean the end of many bookies. FOBTs contribute around half of the average betting shops revenue. They have no way of making that money from sports betting, which has largely gone online. If they lose half their revenue, there will be thousands of closures. The Association of British Bookmakers says 92 per cent of betting shops are at risk. Nobody knows how many, but it is not unlikely that most would go ...
A government proposal that all baby boomers get tested for hepatitis C may be drawing high praise for its potential health benefits, but its also raising questions about the unintended consequences of screening for those seeking insurance. Exp
And as been stated in dialogue that the Defiant carriers a big punch in a small body. Proving that bigger is not better. Why would it prove that? The...
Monsanto and its allies have a time table. They believe they can accomplish, in a relatively short time, a fait accompli. There will be so many licensed GMO food crops and so many drifting genes, the very idea of ridding the world of GMO crops will be seen as impossible. In the meantime, they need to stall. They need to divert attention away from the one action that could torpedo all their efforts: BANNING GMO CROPS.. Continue reading about Prop 37s biggest supporter was… Monsanto. ...
As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 524 people, 235 households, and 105 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,890.9 people per square mile (722.6/km²). There were 261 housing units at an average density of 941.8/sq mi (359.9/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.45% White, 3.05% African American, 0.19% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 8.21% from other races, and 1.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.76% of the population.. There were 235 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.4% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 55.3% were non-families. 40.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 3.07.. In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 12.6% from 18 to 24, 39.5% ...
A series of monoclonal antibodies binding to different epitopes shared by a 14 × 10(3)Mr membrane-bound polypeptide has been obtained. By indirect immuno-fluorescence, it was shown that the 14 × 10(3)Mr antigen is present in various cell types in Torpedo electric organ and muscle, especially fibroblasts, capillary endothelial cells, axonal cuff cells and, to a lesser extent, Schwann cells. At the electron-microscope level, after immunogold labelling, the antigen was found associated with the external surface of the plasma membrane of these cells, with the exception of the axonal cuff cells where part of the labelling was intracellular. The possible biological role of this 14 × 10(3)Mr protein is unknown but preliminary experiments suggest that this antigen has affinity for other Torpedo electric organ membrane proteins.. ...
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An acetylcholinesterase has been purified from Torpedo californica by mild proteolysis of electroplax membranes with trypsin (5 µg/ml for 5 min) to solubilize the enzyme, followed by affinity chromatography of the soluble enzyme. The procedure yields an apparently homogeneous enzyme whose molecular weight (approximately 335,000), frictional coefficient (1.65), and amino acid composition all distinguished the Torpedo acetylcholinesterase from that which has been prepared by lytic procedures from Electrophorus. The enzyme is composed of four similar, if not identical, subunits, each of which possesses a catalytic and inhibitor binding site. Torpedo acetylcholinesterase contains 7.9% carbohydrate present as hexoses, hexosamines, and sialic acid, and at least some of these residues are exposed on the outer surface of the molecule. Concanavalin A, a plant lectin with specificity toward mannose residues at nonreducing positions, forms a sedimentable complex with the purified acetylcholinesterase ...
The Mark 44 torpedo is a now-obsolete air-launched and ship-launched lightweight torpedo manufactured in the United States, and under licence in Canada, France, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom, with 10,500 being produced for U.S. service. It was superseded by the Mark 46 torpedo, beginning in the late 1960s. The Royal Australian Navy, however, continued to use it alongside its successor for a number of years, because the Mark 44 was thought to have superior performance in certain shallow-water conditions. It has been deployed by many navies and air forces including the USN, Royal Navy, Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Air Force from various launch vehicles. These include long-range maritime patrol aircraft, e.g. P-3 Orion, RAF Nimrod, LAMPS and other embarked naval helicopters, ASROC missiles, Ikara missiles. During the 1950s the US Navy ordered development of a new generation of lightweight anti-submarine torpedoes. Two programs were started, the EX-2A at the Naval Ordnance Test Station ...
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A subsynaptic protein of Mr approximately 300 kD is a major component of Torpedo electric organ postsynaptic membranes and copurifies with the AChR and the 43-kD subsynaptic protein. mAbs against this protein react with neuromuscular synapses in higher vertebrates, but not at synapses in dystrophic muscle. The Torpedo 300-kD protein comigrates in SDS-PAGE with murine dystrophin and reacts with antibodies against murine dystrophin. The sequence of a partial cDNA isolated by screening an expression library with mAbs against the Torpedo 300-kD protein shows striking homology to mammalian dystrophin, and in particular to the b isoform of dystrophin. These results indicate that dystrophin is a component of the postsynaptic membrane at neuromuscular synapses and raise the possibility that loss of dystrophin from synapses in dystrophic muscle may have consequences that contribute to muscular dystrophy. ...
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I wonder why the US Navy, was not more ready for the Japanese Navys night fighting and Long Lance torpedos. The Japanese navy used night fighting & torpedos in 1905, against the Russian Navy. Japan was the only foe, the US would likely face in the Pacific. Seems to me US planners would have thought about all that. The torpedo blister was a good defence against torpedos, and was first used by the British RN in WW1. I wonder why, they werent added to more US ships, that needed them.
Preparative-scale photolabeling, isolation of photolabeled Torpedo nAChR fragments, and identification of photolabeled amino acids by automated Edman protein microsequencing were performed as detailed previously (Chiara et al., 2009; Hamouda et al., 2013). In brief, Torpedo nAChR-rich membranes (2 mg of protein/ml; 10 mg of protein and ∼13 nmol ACh binding sites per condition) were photolabeled with 1 μM [3H]CMPI (80 μCi per condition) in the absence and presence of 1 mM Carb, and the nAChR subunits were resolved on an 8% SDS-PAGE gel. The nAChR β, γ, and δ subunits were recovered by passive elution from the gel bands excised from the stained gel and resuspended in digestion buffer (15 mM Tris, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.1% SDS, pH 8.1). The gel bands containing the [3H]CMPI-photolabeled nAChR α subunit were excised and transferred to 15% polyacrylamide mapping gels and subjected to in-gel digestion with 100 μg of V8 protease to generate nAChR α subunit fragments (αV8-20, αV8-18, αV8-10, and ...
1LXG: NMR-based Binding Screen and Structural Analysis of the Complex Formed between alpha-Cobratoxin and an 18-mer Cognate Peptide Derived from the alpha1 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor from Torpedo californica
Some of these pieces are parts of a secret acoustic torpedo: "ZAUKONIG". It was powered by a 55 hp electric motor and had a speed of 24 knots and a range of 5.7 km. It had a very sensitive acoustic homing capability but in bad weather it detonated either early or late and it was only sensitive to ships traveling at 15 knots! Allied skippers would set their speed either above or below 15 knots knowing that they would be safer. The Allied forces also developed anti-GNAT devices that made noises and distracted acoustic homing torpedos: (See: http://www.one35th.com/seehund/sh_armament.htm for more information on the torpedo.) It is unclear why parts of a secret torpedo were found in an inland fresh water lake and that may remain an unsolved mystery ...
On 22 September 1914, three obsolete British cruisers, without their escorts, on patrol in the Broad Fourteens are sighted by U-boat U9. The brave U-boat commander launches a daring attack and surfaces his craft to fire a torpedo at HMS Aboukir - a strike which would have devastating consequences. The torpedo, however, turned out to be a dud - a common failing in such weapons at the time - and merely struck the Aboukir with a resounding clang. Without any possibility of its torpedo attack being mistaken for a sea-mine, and being at a point-blank distance of 500 yards, U9 is swiftly sunk by the firepower of the three cruisers while it attempts an emergency dive. With the loss of a third u-boat, for no successes in return, in the first six weeks of war, the German navy begins to reconsider their u-boat strategy, with the pre-war strategists ideas that the submarine would never be an effective weapon of war seeming to be proven correct. ...
Toyota has created a prototype electric tractor-trailer powered by hydrogen fuel cells. Will it put a wrench in Teslas truck plan?
Ministers fear it could take a decade to secure a post-Brexit free trade deal with the European Union after a little-known region in Belgian blocked a flagship agreement with Canada.