Optical projection tomography is a form of tomography involving optical microscopy.[1] The OPT technique is sometimes referred to as Optical Computed Tomography (optical-CT) and Optical Emission Computed Tomography (optical-ECT) in the literature, to address the fact that the technique bears similarity to X-ray computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).[2] It is in many ways the optical equivalent of X-ray computed tomography or the medical CT scan. OPT differs in the way that it often uses ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared photons as opposed to X-ray photons. However, essential mathematics and reconstruction algorithms used for CT and OPT are similar; for example, radon transform or iterative reconstruction based on projection data are used in both medical CT scan and OPT for 3D reconstruction. Both medical CT and OPT compute 3D volumes based on transmission of the photon through the material of interest. Given that the tissue is typically opaque in ...
The microstructure and permeability are crucial factors for the development of hydrogels for tissue engineering, since they influence cell nutrition, penetration and proliferation. The currently available imaging methods able to characterize hydrogels have many limitations. They often require sample drying and other destructive processing, which can change hydrogel structure, or they have limited imaging penetration depth. In this work, we show for the first time an alternative non-destructive method, based on optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging, to characterize hydrated hydrogels without the need of sample processing. As proof of concept we used gellan gum (GG) hydrogels obtained by several crosslinking methods. Transmission mode OPT was used to analyse image microtextures and emission mode OPT to study mass transport. Differences in hydrogels structure related to different types of crosslinking and between modified and native GG were found through the acquired Haralicks image texture ...
Due to the lack of the number of projections available in a Parallel Beam Optical Tomography System (only x-axis and y-axis, also known as orthogonal projection), ambiguous image will be constructed when the flowing materials fall into certain positions in the pipeline. Therefore, two rectilinear projections are added to the system in order to correct this ambiguous image. However, the rectilinear projection only acts as a mask. Thus, converting the analog signals from the rectilinear sensors into binary digital signals is already sufficient. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Magnetic resonance imaging appropriate for construction of subject-specific head models for diffuse optical tomography. AU - Kurihara, Kazuki. AU - Kawaguchi, Hiroshi. AU - Obata, Takayuki. AU - Ito, Hiroshi. AU - Okada, Eiji. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Subject-specific head models of which their geometry is based on structural magnetic resonance images are essential to accurately estimate the spatial sensitivity profiles for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images, which are commonly used for structural imaging, are not sufficient for the thresholdbased segmentation of the superficial tissues. Two types of pulse sequences, which provide a high contrast among the superficial tissues, are introduced to complement the segmentation to construct the subject-specific head models. The magnetic resonance images acquired by the proposed pulse sequences are robust to the threshold level and adequate for the thresholdbased segmentation of ...
While histological studies and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations have elucidated the trajectory of structural changes in the developing brain, less is known regarding early functional cerebral development. Recent investigations have demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) can identify networks of functional cerebral connections in infants. However, technical and logistical challenges frequently limit the ability to perform MRI scans early or repeatedly in neonates, particularly in those at greatest risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT), a portable imaging modality, potentially enables early continuous and quantitative monitoring of brain function in infants. We introduce an HD-DOT imaging system that combines advancements in cap design, ergonomics, and data analysis methods to allow bedside mapping of functional brain development in infants. In a cohort of healthy, full-term neonates ...
Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for ...
We describe a phantom which enables EEG and near-infrared optical tomography to be performed simultaneously over the same volume. The phantom provides a surface electrical contact impedance comparable to that of the human scalp, whilst also possessing an optical scattering coefficient and electrical conductivity equivalent to that of brain tissue. The construction of the phantom is described, as is the resulting simultaneous EEG and near infrared optical tomography experiment, which, to our knowledge, is the first performed on a scale comparable to that of the infant human brain. This imaging experiment successfully shows the suitability of this phantom construction for the assessment of simultaneous EEG and near infrared optical tomography systems.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Traditional image reconstruction methods in rapid dynamic diffuse optical tomography employ l(2)-norm-based regularization, which is known to remove the high-frequency components in the reconstructed images and make them appear smooth. The contrast recovery in these type of methods is typically dependent on the iterative nature of method employed, where the nonlinear iterative technique is known to perform better in comparison to linear techniques (noniterative) with a caveat that nonlinear techniques are computationally complex. Assuming that there is a linear dependency of solution between successive frames resulted in a linear inverse problem. This new framework with the combination of l(1)-norm based regularization can provide better robustness to noise and provide better contrast recovery compared to conventional l(2)-based techniques. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed l(1)-based technique is computationally efficient compared to its counterpart (l(2)-based one). The proposed ...
Some optical properties of a highly scattering medium, such as tissue, can be reconstructed non-invasively by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Since the inverse problem of DOT is severely ill-posed and nonlinear, iterative methods that update Greens function have been widely used to recover accurate optical parameters. However, recent research has shown that the joint sparse recovery principle can provide an important clue in achieving reconstructions without an iterative update of Greens function. One of the main limitations of the previous work is that it can only be applied to absorption parameter reconstruction. In this paper, we extended this theory to estimate the absorption and scattering parameters simultaneously when the background optical properties are known. The main idea for such an extension is that a joint sparse recovery step gives us unknown fluence on the estimated support set, which eliminates the nonlinearity in an integral equation for the simultaneous estimation of the ...
Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) has been growing significantly in the past two decades as a promising tool for in-vivo and non-invasive imaging of tissues using near-infrared light. It can improve our ability to probe complex biologic interactions dynamically and to study disease and treatment responses over time in near real time. Recent advances on the transfer of techniques from laboratory to clinics have led to the development of various diagnostic applications such as imaging of the female breast and infant brain. The potential value of the promising tool, however, can be limited by the reconstruction time for tomographically imaging tissue optical properties. The current solution procedure in DOT consumes a considerable amount of time due to discretization of the problem domain and nonlinear nature of tissue optical properties. It is becoming ever more important to develop faster imaging tools as measurement data sets increase in size as a result of the application of newer generation ...
A new ultrafast Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) has been developed for real time in vivo brain metabolism monitoring in songbird. The technique is based on space resolved time of flight measurements of the photons across the brain tissues. A three dimensional reconstruction of the brain activity is foreseeable by means of a double space and time sampling of the reflectance signal. The setup and the treatment procedure are described in depth and promising preliminary results showing the response of brain tissues to hypercapnia stimulations (increase of CO2) are presented ...
Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) An extension of fNIRS that give the Gowerlabs NTS Optical Imaging System its 3D imaging capability.
POSTER 8 - 3-D VISUALIZATION OF MOUSE EMBRYOS WITH OPTICAL PROJECTION TOMOGRAPHY Walls JR 1, Sled JG 1, Bruneau BG 2, Sharpe J 3, Henkelman RM 1 1 Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, 2 Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, 3 Human Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council, Edinburgh, United Kingdom The ability to visualize the 3D organization of biological tissue is essential to unravelling its complexities. A new imaging technique called Optical Projection Tomography (OPT), essentially an optical version of X-Ray computed tomography (CT), fills a gap among current imaging modalities by creating molecularly specific, cellular resolution images of specimens up to 1 cc in size. The visualization of a specific genes pattern of expression is essential to gain an understanding of its role. Mutant comparisons performed with OPT are more sensitive to spatial complexity than comparisons performed with serial sectioning techniques that might alter subtle morphology. ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2010 Feb;29(2):230-45. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2009.2029855. Epub 2009 Aug 25. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Fluorescence molecular tomography is an imaging modality which exploits the specificity of fluorescent biomarkers to generate volumetric images using near-infrared light, which is safe and non-ionizing, at a substantially lower cost than competing modalities like positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). While these very attractive features make it well-suited for preclinical research, the 3D reconstruction of fluorescent sources is confounded by the high degree of absorption and scattering of photons propagating through tissue, which make the inverse problem ill-posed. The focus of my Ph.D. research has been the development of computational techniques to tackle this challenge in order to reconstruct high resolution 3D images of molecular targets in vivo in small animals. To accurately and efficiently predict the photon fluence on the animal surface, we have developed a fast approach based on the Born approximation for computing the photon ...
As an optical molecular imaging modality, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can monitor the activities of organisms in vivo at the molecular and cellular levels. However, the recovered image...
This paper represents the configuration of an optical tomography sensor by using infrared emitters and phototransistors. The projection geometry of the sensor is based on the combination of two orthogonal and two rectilinear projection arrays. A fixture is designed for holding all emitter-receiver pairs in parallel. Selection of the phototransistor is explained so that the tomography sensor developed is free of noise caused by the surrounding environment. This paper describes all points to be considered when designing an optical tomography sensor. The results show that the developed system has the capability to detect the concentration profile of the flow. ...
Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, obtaining images only from subsurface features. This means that in order to obtain 3D volumetric information these specimens need to be studied either after fixation and a chemical clearing process, through an imaging window - thus perturbing physiological development -, or during early stages of development when the scattering contribution is negligible. In this paper we showcase how Optical Projection Tomography may be used to obtain volumetric images of the head eversion process ...
Part I Computed Tomography System Industry Overview. Chapter One Computed Tomography System Industry Overview. 1.1 Computed Tomography System Definition. 1.2 Computed Tomography System Classification Analysis. 1.2.1 Computed Tomography System Main Classification Analysis. 1.2.2 Computed Tomography System Main Classification Share Analysis. 1.3 Computed Tomography System Application Analysis. 1.3.1 Computed Tomography System Main Application Analysis. 1.3.2 Computed Tomography System Main Application Share Analysis. 1.4 Computed Tomography System Industry Chain Structure Analysis. 1.5 Computed Tomography System Industry Development Overview. 1.5.1 Computed Tomography System Product History Development Overview. 1.5.1 Computed Tomography System Product Market Development Overview. 1.6 Computed Tomography System Global Market Comparison Analysis. 1.6.1 Computed Tomography System Global Import Market Analysis. 1.6.2 Computed Tomography System Global Export Market Analysis. 1.6.3 Computed Tomography ...
Mesh-based Monte Carlo techniques for optical imaging allow for accurate modeling of light propagation in complex biological tissues. Recently, they have been developed within an efficient computational framework to be used as a forward model in optical tomography. However, commonly employed adaptive mesh discretization techniques have not yet been implemented for Monte Carlo based tomography. Herein, we propose a methodology to optimize the mesh discretization and analytically rescale the associated Jacobian based on the characteristics of the forward model. We demonstrate that this method maintains the accuracy of the forward model even in the case of temporal data sets while allowing for significant coarsening or refinement of the mesh.
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Matthaios Doulgerakis.. Concussion has been defined as a "complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic brain injury". It is a brain injury characterized by the absence of gross anatomical lesions.. Currently, concussion can be diagnosed clinically only. However, the scientific community is trying to enhance the ability to diagnose concussion. Different authors reported a pathological neuronal activation pattern on concussed patients using a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Furthermore, in the University Hospital of Birmingham a study is undertaken by Dr Di Pietro PhD in order to identify biomarkers in the blood and saliva of concussed patients.. This presentation will broadly discuss these studies and it will explain how the Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) can be part of the assessment of concussed patients. It will also explain how aerobic fitness can potentially improve the recovery from ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The Lens serves almost all the patents and scholarly work in the world as a free, open and secure digital public good, with user privacy a paramount focus.
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
Perhaps the most recent imaging modality pertinent to diabetes research is optical projection tomography (OPT) ([25], reviewed in [26]). OPT was originally developed as an ex vivo technology for the 3D visualisation of embryonic-scale specimens, and as such has facilitated studies of pancreatic development [27, 28]. Despite being an optical imaging modality, the 3D images generated by OPT are large volumetric data sets similar to those generated by other tomographic techniques (as opposed to optical sectioning techniques such as confocal microscopy); therefore, the same visualisation techniques may be used. Hence, OPT could be described as a CT scanner which, instead of using X-rays, employs light in the visible part of the spectrum. By combined improvements in sample preparation, tomographic imaging and computational processing, the technology was recently adapted to image specifically labelled structures within intact adult mouse organs, including the pancreas [29]. By the nature of the ...
DISP uses joint design of physical sampling and digital processing strategies to develop high performance sensor systems. DISP builds instruments for visible, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray, millimeter wave, terahertz, acoustic and ion imaging and spectroscopy. DISP has made particular contributions to the theory and practice of compressive measurement systems and to spectral imaging, holography and diffraction tomography, optical projection tomography and high pixel count cameras ...
Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease with 415 million affected adults worldwide. The pancreatic endocrine cells, most importantly the insulin producing β-cells, play an important role in regulating blood glucose homeostasis. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the inability of the pancreas to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin due to autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) on the other hand is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Alterations in the β-cell mass (BCM) and/or function play a major role in the development and progression of the disease. Understanding BCM dynamics in disease models is therefore a key aspect for better interpretation of research results. In this thesis, we have used optical projection tomography (OPT) as a tool to evaluate a non-invasive imaging modality for β-cell scoring and to study disease dynamics in frequently used animal models for T1D and T2D.. The possibility to monitor BCM in ...
Fetal Genital Anatomy. We described in detail with histology, computer 3-D reconstruction, immunohistochemistry and Optical projection tomography the anatomy of the human male and female genitalia. This work has lead to a more precise anatomical understanding of the surgical anatomy of the normal male and the hypospadiac penis. ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by amyloidosis of brain tissues. This phenomenon is studied with genetically-modified mouse models. We propose a method to quantify amyloidosis in whole 5xFAD mouse brains, a model of AD. We use optical projection tomography (OPT) and a random forest voxel classifier to segment and measure amyloid plaques. We validate our method in a preliminary cross-sectional study, where we measure 6136 +/- 1637, 8477 +/- 3438, and 17267 +/- 4241 plaques (AVG +/- SD) at 11, 17, and 31 weeks. Overall, this method can be used in the evaluation of new treatments against AD. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement Nguyen, David; Uhlmann, Virginie; Planchette, Arielle L.; Marchand, Paul J.; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Lasser, Theo; Radenovic, Aleksandra
My lab is interested in the normal developmental processes that build the lung and how such processes go awry during lung malformations, injury and tumorigenesis. What is unique about my lab is our effort to develop a series of three-dimensional labeling and imaging methods such as optical projection tomography. We develop these novel methods to address a major challenge in studying the lung - its complex three-dimensional architecture including the tree-like airways and honeycomb-like alveoli, making it difficult to compare structures on conventional two-dimensional sections. Development of the alveolar type 1 cell and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major chronic lung disease associated with preterm birth and characterized by alveolar simplification with dysmorphic microvasculature. Current BPD research focuses on myofibroblasts, alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and the endothelium, but seems to leave out the "elephant in the room", the alveolar type 1 (AT1) cell, ...
Professor Ulf Ahlgren and associates at Umea University in Sweden are a leading research team in the world in the development of optical projection tomography. With the aid of this imaging technology, they have now described aspects of how the pancreas develops during embryonic development and how the so-called islets of Langerhans are distributed in the adult organ. The findings are important for the interpretation of modeling systems for diabetes.
Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open. The presence of Wnt11 in the emerging tubular system suggests that it may have certain roles later in the development of the epithelial ductal system. The Wnt11 knockout allele was backcrossed with the C57Bl6 strain for several generations to address possible differences in penetrance of the kidney phenotypes. Strikingly, around one third of the null mice with this inbred background survived to the postnatal stages. Many of them also reached adulthood, but urine and plasma analyses pointed out to compromised kidney function. Consistent with these data the tubules of the C57Bl6 Wnt11 −/− mice appeared to be enlarged, and the optical projection tomography indicated changes in tubular convolution
Abstract: This work presents a so called parametric level set method (PaLS) for reconstruction of obstacles in general inverse problems. For the proposed parametric technique, general evolution equations for the reconstruction of unknown obstacles are derived in terms of the underlying parameters. The main feature of this technique is efficiently reducing the dimensionality of the problem by means... read more of an appropriate parametrization. This approach bypasses many difficulties with conventional inverse problems, such as ill-posedness and regularization challenges and many implementation complexities with traditional shape based and level set methods such as re-initialization, use of signed distance function and difficulties in using Newton type methods. As a proof of concept, the performance of proposed approach is examined in three different inverse problems, i.e., electrical resistance tomography, X-ray computed tomography and diffuse optical tomography. However, the ultimate and ...
Two optical tomography systems have been used to date to image the neonatal brain, both based on the measurement of times of flight of photons travelling across the head. The distribution of photon flight times is unique for each source-detector pairing and provides information on the light absorbing and scattering characteristics of the tissue being interrogated.. The first two-dimensional tomographic images of the brain were demonstrated by Benaron et al, who developed an imaging system that measures photon flight times between points arranged around the circumference of the head.19,20 Images representing a transverse slice across the brain were reconstructed using a relatively straightforward backprojection method.21 Scans of infants at a variety of gestational ages successfully showed intracranial haemorrhage and a focal region of low oxygenation after acute stroke.19,20,22 A major drawback of this system was the acknowledged simplicity of the image reconstruction algorithm, which ignored ...
independent measurements per sample. Reconstruction of such data sets requires fast algorithms. The latter have been developed and applied experimentally in our previous work to imaging of the intrinsic absorption coefficient of highly scattering media. However, it is widely recognized that the use of fluorescent contrast agents in OT has the potential to significantly enhance the technique. We show that the algorithms previously developed by us can be modified to reconstruct the concentration of fluorescent contrast agents.. © 2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Optical and acoustical trapping has been established as a tool for holding and moving microscopic particles suspended in a liquid in a contact-free and non-invasive manner. Opposed to standard microscopic imaging where the probe is fixated, this technique allows imaging in a more natural environment. In collaboration with the the Division for Biomedical Physics at…
HIE, one of the most common forms of newborn brain injury, occurs when a baby is temporarily deprived of oxygen at birth, usually because of a difficult delivery. HIE often leaves the baby with severe disabilities.. By term age, a healthy babys brain exhibits constant electrical activity. This can be observed with electroencephalography (EEG), a common clinical neuromonitoring technique.. In contrast, babies with HIE often exhibit periods of almost no brain activity, punctuated by periods of hyperactivity. This state is known as burst-suppression. Despite being a relatively common phenomenon, surprisingly little is known about the state or what effect it has on brain development. This is, in part, because studying and imaging the brain of such vulnerable infants is a huge challenge.. Chalia et al. combine EEG with diffuse optical tomography, which uses near-infrared light to produce images of changes in oxygenation in the brain. In applying this approach to study burst-suppression in the infant ...
The CIMS of CRCHUS is involved in the design and the development of PET, PET/CT and diffuse optical tomography (DOT), high resolution pre-clinical scanners. Capitalizing on state-of-the-art breakthroughs in photodetection and electronics, the most recent LabPET™ scanners developped at CIMS of CRCHUS offer an excellent submillimetrics spatial resolution. The LabPET™ technology is entirely modular, adaptable to the needs of pre-clinical research and dedicated clinical applications in human.. ...
A first lens produces a Fourier transform of the wavefront distorted optical image at the Fourier transform plane. A phase encoded filter is positioned at the transform plane and a second filter is tandemly positioned with respect to the first filter, the second filter having a transmittance which is statistically similar to the reciprocal spatial frequency spectrum of the Fourier transform of the distortion function, to in turn produce an intermediate signal at the transform plane, which is now Fourier transformed by a second lens to recover the optical image having a substantially reduced degree of distortion.
Imaging changes in lymphoid organs in vivo after brain ischemia with three-dimensional fluorescence molecular tomography in transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in T lymphocytes ...
I just stumbled on this http://www.google.com/patents/US20110012901 does this mean that you are unable to use LPVs in your game without Cryteks permiss...
Systems and methods for optically scanning multiple object planes are provided. One embodiment is a method for providing multiple object planes in an optical image scanning environment comprising positioning a first optical sensor array to receive an optical signal corresponding to a first object plane located a first distance from the platen and positioning a second optical sensor array to receive an optical signal corresponding to a second object plane located a second distance from the platen.
The teams will make use of computers and software such as Matlab, Maple, SAS, and R. Brief descriptions of the research areas are given below: Computational Number Theory, Computational Biology, Inverse Problems, Optical Tomography, Chemistry of Dimerization, High Dimensional Data Analysis, Symmetry and Asymptotic Behavior. In addition to the technical program, participants will engage in a companion program to develop their oral and written communication skills, as well as collaborative and other professional skills. This will be accomplished through required oral presentations, written technical reports, and a close, positive working environment among the participants and the program faculty. The bulk of the work will take place in the "Theorodrome", the computer laboratory/workplace devoted to the REU, and in adjoining classrooms. A list of technical reports and refereed papers prepared by participants since 1990 is available: RHIT REU Publications Program Philosophy: The Rose-Hulman REU will ...
Free Online Library: Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.(Research Article, Report) by BioMed Research International; Biotechnology industry High technology industry Cardiology Optical tomography Methods Tissue engineering Technology application
This DVD demonstrates, via synchronized video and three-dimensional animation, how to perform ultrasound-assisted peripheral nerve blocks for the lower limbs. It presents all blocks commonly performed, including blocks of the sciatic nerve, lumbar plexus, and femoral nerve. Each block is presented step by step with voice-over narration and synchronized video clips of ultrasound localization of the nerve, surrounding anatomy, needle advancement, and anesthetic application ...
This report analyzes the Computed Tomography System industry from aspects of production and its consumption with a view to provide a complete industry structure overview to the readers. In terms of its production, this Computed Tomography System market research analyzes the production, revenue, gross margin of its main manufacturers and/or the unit price that they offer in different regions from 2012 to 2017. In terms of its consumption, the consumption volume, consumption value, sale price, import and export and/or more in different regions from 2012 to 2017 is explored. Projections of its production and consumption in coming 2017-2022 timeframe are also provided.
The WIYN 3.5m will soon have a new optical imager. The One Degree Imager (ODI) will take advantage of WIYNs wide field of view as well as its excellent delivered image quality. ODI will be capable of providing actively corrected images over the entire field of view using orthogonal transfer array (OTA) CCDs. The array of ODI detectors will consist of 64 OTA CCDs, each of which will have 64 selectable cells or sub-arrays. The pixel scale will be 0.1. The initial filter set will include the Sloan u, g, r, i, and z broad-band filters as well as an Halpha narrow-band filter. Additional details about the instrument are located on the WIYN Observatory pages about ODI. The Yale/WIYN Survey web pages have additional information regarding the survey. Yale University has committed 90 nights of its share of WIYN 3.5-m observing time and is considering adding 60 additional nights for a total of 150 nights to undertake a survey program using ODI. The survey will be made during the first three years of ...
What can we gain from viewing cancer pathogenicity through the eyes of basic physical mechanisms and concepts? On the one hand, real-world biological systems - from cells to tissues to living organisms - encompass an enormous complexity that simply cannot be fully captured in an exact manner. On the other hand, there is no shortage of illustrations where the behaviors of even the most complexly interwoven biological systems can be capture by a simple physical approach: Viewing blood cells purely in terms of their inherent viscoelastic character illuminates their function within organisms at different stages of their development [Ekpenyong et al., 2012]. Similarly, examining the retinas of the freshwater Elephantnose fish in terms of light propagation through photonic crystals has clarified fundamental questions evolutionary biology [Kreysing et al., 2012]. These simple insights can give us information and inspiration about the underlying nuts and bolts of how these complex systems function, ...