Woodland tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) grows naturally in the Andes from Bolivia to Argentina and is largely cultivated nowadays as an ornamental plant. Nicotiana tomentosiformis also grows naturally in the Andes but over a wider range, from Peru to Argentina [1]. N. sylvestris (2n = 24) and N. tomentosiformis (2n = 24) belong to clades of the Nicotiana sections Sylvestres and Tomentosae, respectively, of the Solanaceae family, which have diverged about 15 million years ago [2]. Other members of this family include many agriculturally important species such as tomato, potato, eggplant and pepper. N. sylvestris is considered to be the maternal donor, which about 200,000 years ago merged through interspecific hybridization with N. tomentosiformis (most likely paternal donor) to form an allotetraploid N. tabacum (2n = 4x = 48), the common tobacco [3]. Thus, the N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis genome sequences are expected to have high identity to the S-genome and T-genome of N. tabacum, ...
The cell line of tobacco cultivar BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow No.2) is one of the most commonly used in plant cell biology. The purpose of this study was to follow the intracellular localization of protein of unknown function from maize (ZmMAB1) during the cell cycle. Synchronization of the cell cycle of tobacco BY-2 cells in the liquid medium was achieved by careful selection of initial dilution, degree of differentiation and subculturing period. In the cell culture which was left two weeks without subculturing, cells became differentiated and mature but after resubculturing in fresh medium, they began to divide, and the third day they reach the highest mitotic index. Visualization of microtubules allowed the identification of particular stages of mitosis, and that was achieved by flourescently labeled protein MAP-4. The maize protein ZmMAB1 labeled with red fluorescent protein showed its colocalization with the microtubules during division ...
Read Manipulation of the napin primary structure alters its packaging and deposition in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seeds, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
After tobacco is harvested, it is cured (dried), and then aged to improve its flavor. There are four common methods of curing tobacco: air curing, fire curing, flue curing, and sun curing. The curing method used depends on the type of tobacco and its intended use. Air-cured tobacco is sheltered from wind and sun in a well-ventilated barn, where it air dries for six to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured. In fire curing, smoke from a low-burning fire on the barn floor permeates the leaves. This gives the leaves a distinctive smoky aroma and flavor. Fire curing takes three to ten weeks and produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured. Flue-cured tobacco is kept in an enclosed barn heated by flues (pipes) of hot air, but the tobacco is not directly exposed to smoke. This method produces cigarette tobacco that ...
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Spit tobacco, also known as chewing tobacco and snuff, are forms of tobacco that are put between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco can be in the form of leaf tobacco (which is packaged in pouches), or plug tobacco (which are packaged in brick form). Snuff is a powdered form of tobacco, usually sold in cans. The nicotine is released from the tobacco as the user chews. Although chewing tobacco and snuff are considered smokeless tobacco products, harmful chemicals including nicotine are ingested. More than 28 cancer-causing chemicals have been found in smokeless tobacco.. Chewing tobacco and snuff can cause cancer in the cheek, gums, and lips. Like a pipe, cancer often occurs where the tobacco is held in the mouth. Cancer caused by smokeless tobacco often begins as leukoplakia (a condition characterized by a whitish patch that develops inside the mouth or throat) or erythroplakia (a condition characterized by a red, raised patch that develops inside the mouth). Other problems associated ...
Spit tobacco, also known as chewing tobacco and snuff, are forms of tobacco that are put between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco can be in the form of leaf tobacco (which is packaged in pouches), or plug tobacco (which are packaged in brick form). Snuff is a powdered form of tobacco, usually sold in cans. The nicotine is released from the tobacco as the user chews. Although chewing tobacco and snuff are considered smokeless tobacco products, harmful chemicals including nicotine are ingested. More than 28 cancer-causing chemicals have been found in smokeless tobacco.. Chewing tobacco and snuff can cause cancer in the cheek, gums, and lips. Like a pipe, cancer often occurs where the tobacco is held in the mouth. Cancer caused by smokeless tobacco often begins as leukoplakia (a condition characterized by a whitish patch that develops inside the mouth or throat) or erythroplakia (a condition characterized by a red, raised patch that develops inside the mouth). Other problems associated ...
Interaction of sulfur and nitrogen nutrition in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants: significance of nitrogen source and root nitrate reductase ...
Adenosine diaminase deficiency is a heritable disorder caused by the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), an important enzyme in purine salvage pathway. The absence of ADA results in a dysfunctional immune system due to the build-up of toxic metabolites. This led Sanjeewa Singhabahu and colleagues at University of East London to produce functional human ADA in tobacco plants. They inserted a human ADA cDNA into a plant expression vector and transformed the tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Analyses confirmed the integration of the construct into the plant nuclear genome and expression of the recombinant ADA in transgenic tobacco leaves. Further analysis have revealed that the size of the recombinant ADA is similar with the human ADA. ADA-specific activities of between 0.001 and 0.003 units per mg total soluble protein were measured in crude extracts collected from transgenic tobacco plant leaves.. Read the research article at ...
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Sеnеscеnciја listа prеdstаvlја kоmplеksnu, gеnеtički kоntrоlisаnu pоslеdnju fаzu оntоgеnеzе listа kоја rеzultirа kооrdinisаnоm rаzgrаdnjоm mаkrоmоlеkulа i mоbilizаciјоm njеgоvih kоmpоnеnti u drugе dеlоvе bilјkе. Nа ćеliјskоm nivоu, оnа оbuhvаtа prоmеnе strukturе, mеtаbоlizmа i gеnskе еksprеsiје kоје dоvоdе dо smrti, čiјi sе tip оznаčаvа kао prоgrаmirаnа ćеliјskа smrt (PCD). Kао еkspеrimеntаlni mоdеl u оvоm rаdu kоrišćеnе su in vitro gајеnе bilјkе duvаnа (Nicotiana tabacum L.) kоје оbеzbеđuјu sеt listоvа u kојimа pоstојi grаdаciја sеnеscеnciје. Istrаživаnjе је оbuhvаtilо citоhistоlоšku i imunоhistоhеmiјsku аnаlizu dinаmikе strukturnih prоmеnа mеzоfilа listоvа, kао i ispitivаnjе mеtаbоličkih, biоhеmiјskih i mоlеkulаrnih prоcеsа tоkоm sеnеscеnciје listа. Utvrđеn је rеdоslеd ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nicolas Amelot, Audrey Carrouche, Saïda Danoun, Stéphane Bourque, Jacques Haiech, Alain Pugin, Raoul Ranjeva, Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati, Christian Mazars, Christian Briere].
Burley tobacco is a genotype of chloroplast-deficient mutant with accumulates high levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) which would induce malignant tumors in animals. Nitrate is a principle precursor of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Nitrate content in burley tobacco was significantly higher than that in flue-cured tobacco. The present study investigated differences between the two tobacco types to explore the mechanisms of nitrate accumulation in burley tobacco. transcripts (3079) related to the nitrogen and carbon metabolism were observed. Expression of genes involved in carbon fixation, glucose and starch biosynthesis, nitrate translocation and assimilation were significantly low in burley tobacco than flue-cured tobacco. Being relative to flue-cured tobacco, burley tobacco was significantly lower at total nitrogen and carbohydrate content, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate (Pn), but higher nitrate content. Burley tobacco
우리나라 잎담배에 발생하고 있는 바이러스의 종류와 감염상을 조사하기 위하여 전주지방에서 Burley종 (Burley-21) 20개체, 부천연초시험장 포장에시 황색종(Hicks) 20개체를 병징별로 채집하여 혈청학적인 방법에 의해 실시했다. 검정대상 바이러스는 Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Potato virus X(PVX) 및 Potato virus Y(PVY)등 5종으로 TMV, AMV, CMV는 한천내확산법으로 PVX, PVY는 미량침강법으로 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 공시이병개체중에서 TMV, CMV, AMV, P X 및 PVY 등 5종의 바이러스가 검출되었다. 2. 조사된 40개체중 각 바이러스의 감염율은 AMV |TEX|$67.5\%$|/TEX|, CMV |TEX|$60.0\%$|/TEX|, TMV|TEX|$47.5\%$|/TEX|PVY|TEX|$17.5\%$|/TEX|, PVX|TEX|$10.0\%$|/TEX|의 순이었다. 3. Burley종에서는 TMV감염율이 |TEX|$15.0\%$|/TEX|로 황색종의 |TEX|$80.0\%$|/TEX|보다 현저히 낮았다. 4.
Proteinase inhibitors and thionins are among the many proteins thought to have a role in plant defence against pests and pathogens. Complementary DNA clones encoding the precursors of a multi-domain proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata Link et Otto (NA-PI) (Mr approximately 43 000) and a β-hordothionin (β-HTH) (Mr approximately 13 000) from barley, were linked to constitutive promoters and subsequently transferred by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into tobacco. The NA-PI and β-HTH precursor proteins were synthesised and post-translationally processed in transgenic tobacco and accumulated as polypeptides of apparent size Mr approximately 6000 and Mr approximately 8500, respectively. The na-pi and β-hth genes were stably inherited for at least two generations. Transgenic tobacco plants containing the highest amounts of NA-PI and β-HTH were crossed to produce plants containing both genes. Helicoverpa armigera (tobacco budworm) larvae that ingested transgenic tobacco leaves ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Main Strategies of Plant Expression System Glycoengineering for Producing Humanized Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Objectives: Sugars in tobacco products enhance the taste and smoke characteristics of the blend. Sugars are often added to processed tobacco, particularly air-cured Burley tobacco leaves that contain virtually no sugars. The most commonly used sugars were systematically added to Burley tobacco to study the effect on aldehyde emissions in mainstream smoke. Methods: Two levels of sucrose, glucose, and fructose were added to Burley tobacco. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butanal in mainstream smoke were sampled on Carboxen 572 cartridges and determined by HPLC-DAD. Results: The addition of sugars to Burley tobacco resulted in an increase of the aldehydes acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butanal in the mainstream tobacco smoke. This increase is specific, as much lower increases in tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide levels were observed. The observed aldehyde level increases ranged from 5% to 40%. The increase was higher ...
The Santa Barbara County Board of Supervisors are meeting Tuesday to discuss a ban on flavored tobacco.. The ban will only be effective in the unincorporated areas of the county.. The proposed ordinance or County Code Chapter 37A - Licensure to Tobacco Retailers will include language that provides strengthened public health requirements for tobacco retailers in an effort to prevent youth exposure to tobacco, including electronic smoking devices and flavored tobacco products.. The amendment provides a multi-pronged approach to address underage nicotine use and regulate businesses to prevent youth access to nicotine and tobacco products. The amendment includes language to prohibit the sale of flavored tobacco products, prohibit small and inexpensive pack sizes, prohibit coupons that allow a consumer to purchase a tobacco product for less than the full retail price, prohibit the sale of any tobacco product to a consumer through a multiple-package discount or otherwise provide any such product to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Faithful editing of a tomato-specific mRNA editing site in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. AU - Karcher, D.. AU - Kahlau, Sabine. AU - Bock, R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - RNA editing sites and their site-specific trans-acting recognition factors are thought to have coevolved. Hence, evolutionary loss of an editing site by a genomic mutation is normally followed by the loss of the specific recognition factor for this site, due to the absence of selective pressure for its maintenance. Here, we have tested this scenario for the only tomato-specific plastid RNA editing site. A single C-to-U editing site in the tomato rps12 gene is absent from the tobacco and nightshade plastid genomes, where the presence of a genomic T nucleotide obviates the need for editing of the rps12 mRNA. We have introduced the tomato editing site into the tobacco rps12 gene by plastid transformation and find that, surprisingly, this heterologous site is efficiently edited in the transplastomic plants. This ...
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Sabetta W, Vannini C, Sgobba A, Marsoni M, Paradiso A, Ortolani F, Bracale M, Viggiano L, Blanco E, de Pinto MC. 2016. Cyclic AMP deficiency negatively affects cell growth and enhances stress-related responses in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. Plant Mol Biol.,90(4-5):467-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-016-0431-5. ...
A draft research plan was posted on the USPSTF Web site for public comment from March 14 through April 11, 2018. In response, the USPSTF made the following changes to the research plan. First, reviews focused on relapse prevention interventions will now be included. Second, the USPSTF clarified that the target condition includes use of any tobacco product, as regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, dissolvables, smoking tobacco through a hookah or waterpipe, and e-cigarettes and other ENDS. Reviews limited to or including cessation of any of these tobacco products will be included. Third, reviews limited to specific subpopulations of adults with high prevalence of tobacco use or at risk of tobacco use-related morbidity will be included, as will results from credible subgroup analyses. Lastly, reviews of medications that are not approved as first-line tobacco cessation medications but are used ...
Tobacco control policy is one of the primary areas of emphasis in Propels tobacco control program area. Tobacco control policies help smokers quit, help change populations attitudes about tobacco, and protect non-smokers. Our experience in tobacco control policy includes involvement and influence in key policy initiatives, evaluation and advocacy. For example, results from the Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Survey (CSTADS) on flavoured tobacco use among youth has played an influential part in federal and provincial bans of flavoured tobacco.
This briefing sets out the facts relating to the change in the law which are due to come into effect next week.. Legal Background. From Monday 1 October it will be illegal to sell any tobacco product to any person under the age of 18 throughout Great Britain. In January, the Government announced that the minimum age for the purchase of tobacco would be raised from 16 to 18 in England and Wales and the Scottish Parliament subsequently made a similar announcement to raise the minimum age to 18 in Scotland. [1].. The legal age for the purchase of tobacco has been 16 since 1908. The law prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors is set out in the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (1937 in Scotland) as amended by the Children and Young Persons (Protection from Tobacco) Act 1991.. The change in the law will bring tobacco sales in line with alcohol, simplifying the procedure for checking the age of purchasers of alcohol or tobacco. All tobacco retailers will be required to display a notice stating ...
Tobacco clearances data (including excise and customs duty) are an indicator of tobacco volumes in the Australian market, and provide a useful approximation of tobacco consumption over time. Treasury has advised that tobacco clearances fell by 3.4% in the 2013 calendar year relative to the 2012 calendar year, and fell by a further 7.9% in 2014, 3.5% in 2015 and 2.8% in 2016. As at the end of 2016, tobacco clearances had fallen a total of 16.5% since 2012.. These tobacco clearance rates do not take into account refunds of excise equivalent customs duty made under Customs plain packaging related Tobacco Refund Scheme between December 2012 and May 2013. These refunds cannot be related to annual net clearances on a comparable basis to other data used to derive tobacco clearance rates.. ...
When is World No Tobacco Day?. World No Tobacco Day is a holiday dedicated to the cessation of smoking. It was founded by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987, and has been held every May 31st since 1989. The goal of the holiday is to increase the awareness of the adverse health effects of tobacco products, which kill an estimated 6 million people worldwide every year.. Tobacco Dangers. The fact that tobacco products are dangerous to health is not breaking news to anyone in the United States. However, the troubling news is that people continue to smoke and chew tobacco, despite knowing the potential repercussions. Smoking can lead to numerous diseases, such as lung cancer, hypertension and heart disease, while chewing tobacco can also cause gum disease and oral cancer. People with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, may find that using tobacco exacerbates their symptoms.. Another danger is second-hand smoke. WHO estimates a worldwide death toll of 600,000 from second-hand ...
All forms of tobacco lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. During the past few decades, the number of people who consume tobacco has increased worldwide because of an overall increase in the global population. It is estimated that close to 80% of the ,1.3 billion people who smoke tobacco in the world are in low- and middle-income countries. Smokeless forms of tobacco are also widely consumed in low- and middle-income countries, including chewable and snuffed forms. Lack of targeted and effective strategies to control tobacco consumption contributes to a large burden of cardiovascular disorders in low- and middle-income countries, where cardiovascular disorders have become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiology of tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries and assess the public health policies needed to control tobacco use in such regions for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders and other tobacco-related morbidities ...
The potential of tobacco waste as a viable source of medicinally important flavonoids like rutin has been investigated. Three flavonoids, apigenin, quercetin and rutin, have been isolated from waste tobacco leaves, and their identities have been confirmed by UV-visible, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. By using analytical HPLC, the amount of rutin present in the tobacco leaves, before and after fermentation, and also in waste tobacco leaves, has been determined as 1.5, 0.5 and 0.6%, respectively.
TY - GEN. T1 - Expression of oryzacystatin I in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. Samsun) modifies photosynthesis and responses. AU - Prins, A.. AU - Van Heerden, P. D. R.. AU - Kunert, K. J.. AU - Foyer, Christine. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Conference paper. SN - 10956433. VL - 141. SP - S298-S298. BT - COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY. T2 - Expression of oryzacystatin I in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. Samsun) modifies photosynthesis and responses. Y2 - 1 January 2005. ER - ...
The glycoprotein APA (Alanine- and Proline-rich Antigen, a 45/47 kDa antigen complex, Rv1860) is considered as a major immunodominant antigen secreted by M. tuberculosis. This antigen has proved to be highly immunogenic in experimental models and humans, presenting a significant potential for further development of a new vaccine for tuberculosis. Glycosylation plays a key role in the immunogenicity of the APA protein. Because plants are known to promote post-translational modification such as glycosylation and to be one of the most economic and safe hosts for recombinant protein expression, we have over expressed the APA protein in transgenic tobacco plants aiming to produce a glycosylated version of the protein. Seeds are known to be a well-suited organ to accumulate recombinant proteins, due to low protease activity and higher protein stability. We used a seed-specific promoter from sorghum, a signal peptide to target the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum and ultimately in the protein storage
OPINION - Tobacco policy is back again on the main stage of political discourse, thanks to the rise in youth usage of vaping and e-cigarettes. We recognize the need to address adolescent nicotine addiction prompted by this new popularity and the public health effects.. However, not all tobacco products are the same. Unequivocally, premium cigars are not part of this youth access issue. Data recorded by the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration in their Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health, or PATH, study asserts that the average age of people enjoying their first premium cigar is 30.. Nonetheless, anti-tobacco groups are seizing the moment to put further restrictions on all tobacco products. That includes premium cigars, which do not have addictive qualities and do not pose the same health risks as other tobacco products. In fact, the PATH study acknowledges that the average premium cigar enthusiast is on the same health risk continuum as a nonsmoker.. Tobacco ...
Enforcement of tobacco laws can deter violators and sends a message that community leaders believe these policies are important for protecting Indianas youth. Enforcement of Indianas tobacco laws deters youth from trying to obtain tobacco products and retailers from illegally selling tobacco products to minors.. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act became law in June 2009. It gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacturing distribution and marketing of tobacco products to protect public health.. Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Resources for Retailers ...
Tobacco By-2 Cells: From Cellular Dynamics to Omics by Nagata, Toshiyuki available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. It is our utmost pleasure to present a new book on tobacco BY-2 cells, Tobacco BY-2 Cells: From...
Tobacco use is one of the most important preventable causes of premature death in the world. More than 6 million people per year die from tobacco use across the globe. There is no question that limiting tobacco use is one of the most effective ways to save lives and improve overall well-being.. Smoking tobacco causes exposure to a lethal mixture of more than 7000 toxic chemicals, including at least 70 known carcinogens that can damage nearly every organ system in the human body. Harms from tobacco begin before birth, as pregnant women who smoke give birth to infants at higher risk of congenital disorders, cancer, lung diseases, and sudden death. Newly identified risks from smoking include renal failure, intestinal ischemia, and hypertensive heart disease. The risk of death and disease from tobacco rises with the number of cigarettes smoked, but damage begins with use of a very small number of cigarettes. A regular life-long smoker loses at least 10-11 years of life to tobacco on average. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of stress-induced Ca2+ pulses in single aequorin-transformed tobacco cells. AU - Cessna, S. G.. AU - Messerli, M. A.. AU - Robinson, K. R.. AU - Low, Philip. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Signaling patterns measured in large cell populations are the sum of differing signals from separate cells, and thus, the detailed kinetics of Ca2+ pulses can often be masked. In an effort to evaluate whether the cytosolic Ca2+ pulses previously reported in populations of elicitor- and stress-stimulated tobacco cells accurately represent the pulses that occur in individual cells, a study of single cell Ca2+ fluxes in stress-stimulated tobacco cells was undertaken. Individual aequorin-transformed cells were isolated from a tobacco suspension culture and placed directly on a sensitive photo-multiplier tube mounted in a dark chamber. Ca2+-dependent luminescence was then monitored after stimulation with hypo- or hyper-osmotic shock, cold shock, or defense elicitors ...
By Carolyn Crist(Reuters Health) - Nearly 50 alcohol-flavored tobacco product lines are marketed by more than 400 tobacco brands in the United States and these products may especially attract teens, luring them into tobacco addiction, according to a new study.Adolescent drinking and smoking tend to go hand in hand, the authors write in the journal Tobacco Control, and the combination of alcohol flavors in tobacco products is sure to appeal to teen users.So-called characterizing flavors in cigarettes, except for menthol, are banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and these restrictions should be extended to the many flavored tobaccos for cigars, cigarillos and hookahs, as well as e-cigarette liquids, they add.
Tobacco: Tobacco, common name of the plant Nicotiana tabacum and, to a limited extent, Aztec tobacco (N. rustica) and the cured leaf that is used, usually after aging and processing in various ways, for smoking, chewing, snuffing, and extraction of nicotine. Various other species in the genus Nicotiana are
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to discuss current insights on the influence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke in lower and upper respiratory inflammatory illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS: Insight has been gained on the effect of tobacco smoking on the development of asthma from the womb to adolescence. Secondhand tobacco exposure and active smoking play a major role not only in the inception of asthma epidemiological community studies but also in patients already suffering from allergic rhinitis. Tobacco seems to influence innate immunity predisposing to Th2-associated respiratory diseases and increasing the risk for IgE-mediated sensitization. Tobacco smoking is related to worst outcomes in both asthma and rhinitis. SUMMARY: Several deleterious effects have been described in asthma because of smoking: accelerated decline in lung function, more severe symptoms, impairment in quality of life and diminished therapeutic response to steroids. The harmful effect of tobacco smoking is not only on ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to discuss current insights on the influence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke in lower and upper respiratory inflammatory illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS: Insight has been gained on the effect of tobacco smoking on the development of asthma from the womb to adolescence. Secondhand tobacco exposure and active smoking play a major role not only in the inception of asthma epidemiological community studies but also in patients already suffering from allergic rhinitis. Tobacco seems to influence innate immunity predisposing to Th2-associated respiratory diseases and increasing the risk for IgE-mediated sensitization. Tobacco smoking is related to worst outcomes in both asthma and rhinitis. SUMMARY: Several deleterious effects have been described in asthma because of smoking: accelerated decline in lung function, more severe symptoms, impairment in quality of life and diminished therapeutic response to steroids. The harmful effect of tobacco smoking is not only on ...
North Carolina tobacco growers will vote Nov. 19 on whether to continue the self-assessment to support tobacco research and education. The check-off assessment is 10 cents per 100 pounds of flue-cured and burley tobacco sold.. The Tobacco Research Check-off, which started in 1991, has allocated about $300,000 annually to tobacco-related projects at N.C. State University. The previous referendum passed with more than 92 percent support.. Funds from the check-off are allocated by the N.C. Tobacco Research Commission, which includes the N.C. Agriculture Commissioner, the chairman of the N.C. Tobacco Foundation, and the presidents of the N.C. Farm Bureau Federation, the N.C. State Grange and the Tobacco Growers Association of North Carolina.. If two-thirds of growers vote in favor of the referendum, the N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will continue to collect the check-off funds at the points of sale at all North Carolina leaf receiving stations and auctions. Any person eligible ...
Cultivation of tobacco raises concerns about detrimental health and social consequences for youth, but tobacco producing countries only highlight economic benefits. We compared sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of school-age youth who worked and did not work in tobacco farming and assessed the effects on smoking behavior and health at 1 year. We used existing data collected in the province of Jujuy, Argentina where 3188 youth 13 to 17 years of age from a random middle school sample responded to longitudinal questionnaires in 2005 and 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models predicted association of tobacco farming work with health status and smoking behavior at 1 year. 22.8% of youth in the tobacco growing areas of the province were involved in tobacco farming. The mean age of initiation to tobacco farming was 12.6 years. Youth working in farming had higher rates of fair or poor versus good or excellent self-perceived health (30.3% vs. 19.0%), having a serious injury (48.5% vs. 38
Cultivation of tobacco raises concerns about detrimental health and social consequences for youth, but tobacco producing countries only highlight economic benefits. We compared sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of school-age youth who worked and did not work in tobacco farming and assessed the effects on smoking behavior and health at 1 year. We used existing data collected in the province of Jujuy, Argentina where 3188 youth 13 to 17 years of age from a random middle school sample responded to longitudinal questionnaires in 2005 and 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models predicted association of tobacco farming work with health status and smoking behavior at 1 year. 22.8% of youth in the tobacco growing areas of the province were involved in tobacco farming. The mean age of initiation to tobacco farming was 12.6 years. Youth working in farming had higher rates of fair or poor versus good or excellent self-perceived health (30.3% vs. 19.0%), having a serious injury (48.5% vs. 38
Tobacco has a predominantly negative history with human health. Smoking tobacco causes exposure to a lethal mixture that can damage nearly every organ in the human body. More than 6 million people per year die across the globe from the use of tobacco. Most tobacco related deaths occur in middle and low income countries. Tobacco is a common name used for several plants and it has long been grown and used by humans. The most important and dangerous constituents of tobacco are Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide and Tar. Most commonly used forms of tobacco are cigarette, bidi (most commonly used in India), cigar, hookah, snuff, tobacco chewing and E-cigarette. Diseases such as cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease are the leading cause of deaths associated to use of tobacco and affects all age groups. One person dies every 6 second due to use of tobacco.. Effects of tobacco on health. Physiology - Brain: Use of tobacco causes headaches and dizziness. Nicotine makes a person feel good when smoking but ...
With fewer farmers growing tobacco, it can be hard for the farmers who are still in the business to find the resources they need.. According to the UGA Farm Gate Value, tobacco raked in $53.7 million in 2011. It was an improvement from the $46.3 million generated in 2010 but far less than the $69.5 million generated in 2008.. Weve come from 20 years ago when we were at 48,000 acres, now down to 11,000 or so this year, said J. Michael Moore, University of Georgia tobacco agronomist. Were down to 150 or less tobacco growers, but we have some young growers. We have some returning growers that are coming in and adding to our numbers and to our production.. Moore helped to organize the Tobacco Tour, held June 10-12, to showcase the latest tobacco research for Georgia and Florida tobacco agribusiness supporters and included a stop at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Tifton campus.. It has always been an opportunity to showcase the work of Extension ...
A smoking article having one or more reconstituted tobacco split inner wrap strips is described. One or more split inner wrap strips extend coaxially along the tobacco column between the inner surface of an outer wrap of cigarette paper and the tobacco column. The tobacco blend includes burley and a second tobacco, such as flue-cured, oriental, Maryland, or rare and exotic tobaccos, and combinations thereof. This blend improves burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels, especially tobacco-specific nitrosamines (i.e., TNSAs). A cigarette with an improved burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels is also described.
A smoking article having one or more reconstituted tobacco split inner wrap strips is described. One or more split inner wrap strips extend coaxially along the tobacco column between the inner surface of an outer wrap of cigarette paper and the tobacco column. The tobacco blend includes burley and a second tobacco, such as flue-cured, oriental, Maryland, or rare and exotic tobaccos, and combinations thereof. This blend improves burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels, especially tobacco-specific nitrosamines (i.e., TNSAs). A cigarette with an improved burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels is also described.
It would be expected that N. tabacum would have an IGS signal distribution that reflected the sum of that found in the diploid progenitors N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. However, there was reduced A1/A2 satellite signal in all three tobacco lines [synthetic tobacco Th37 (Figure 3, D and E), a feral tobacco (Figure 3, F and G) and cv. 095-55 (Figure 3H)]. The reduction in A1/A2 satellite sequence was least apparent in the synthetic tobacco (Figure 3, D and E) and the sequence distribution on a subset of chromosomes most closely reflected, albeit in reduced abundance, that found in N. tomentosiformis (compare labeled chromosomes in Figure 3E with those in Figure 2). But there are differences; e.g., there is a satellite locus on the long arm of the T3 chromosome of Th37 plants that did not occur on chromosome 3 of any N. tomentosiformis varieties studied. The novel locus could have arisen by an allopolyploidy-induced translocation or amplification event.. Distribution of A1/A2 satellite in ...
The tobacco plant could be used to fight cancer cells in humans in the future.. A molecule found in a variety of flowering tobacco plant could hold the key to beating cancer in years to come.. Dr. Mark Hulett, lead researcher at La Trobe University, Australia where the discovery was made said: “There is some irony in the fact that a powerful defence mechanism against cancer is found in the flower of a species of tobacco plant, but this is a welcome discovery.†According to Dr. Hullet, the main problem with current treatments is that they attack cells indiscriminately, whether they are cancerous or not.. NaD1, the protein responsible for defending the tobacco plant against fungi and bacteria uses a different approach, which may prove revolutionary.. The molecule works by using a pincer-like structure to latch onto lipids in the membrane of cancer cells, causing them to rupture and explode.. Unlike current cancer treatment, NaD1 targets affected cells whilst leaving healthy cells ...
The genetic diversity of 89 flue-cured tobacco varieties was examined using 12 ISSR primers. These cultivarswere evaluated at the Guilan Tobacco Research Center, Rasht, Iran, using a 7×7 simple lattice design with two replications, and 12 morphological traits. The total number of PCR amplified products was 143 bands ranging from 450 to 3000 bp, of which 108 bands (74.28%) were polymorphic. Primers UBC 811 and UBC 814 with 16 bands and UBC 825 with 6 bands generated the highest and lowest number of bands, respectively. Of all the primers, UBC817, UBC824 and UBC873 showed the maximum amount (0.47) of polymorphism information content (PIC) and the greatest diversity. To determine the genetic relationship among tobacco cultivars, cluster analysis was performed based on either morphological traits or ISSR markers using the un-weighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA). Tobacco genotypes were divided into five main groups. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on a similarity matrix of
Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection
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TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro translation products of mrnas derived from TMV-infected tobacco exhibiting a hypersensitive response. AU - Smart, Thomas E.. AU - Dunigan, David D.. AU - Zaitlin, Milton. PY - 1987/6. Y1 - 1987/6. N2 - Expression of the hypersensitive response (HSR) to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) is controlled by the single dominant N gene and is temperature sensitive. TMV-infected Xanthi-nc tobacco plants grown at the HSR-restrictive temperature of 31° for 3 days postinoculation show necrosis approximately 8 hr after the temperature shift to the HSR-permissive temperature of 25°. Both polyribosomal and total cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNAs were isolated at various times after the temperature shift from leaves of TMV-infected and mock-infected Xanthi-nc tobacco plants and from TMV-infected Turkish Samsun tobacco plants (genotype nn; systemic for TMV infection). The RNAs were translated in vitro and the products were ...
DARVISHZADEH, Reza et al. Genetic variation in oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by agro-morphological traits and simple sequence repeat markers. Rev. Ciênc. Agron. [online]. 2013, vol.44, n.2, pp.347-355. ISSN 1806-6690. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-66902013000200018.. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity and determine differences between several oriental tobacco genotypes by examining both agro-morphological traits and molecular markers. Simple lattice design with two replications was used to evaluate 100 oriental tobacco genotypes. Analysis of variance manifested that there is high level of genetic diversity in oriental-type tobaccos based on morphological traits including number of leaf, days to 50% flowering, leaf length, leaf width, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem height and stem girth. Classification of genotypes using agro-morphological data by means of un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm based on squared ...
KEY MESSAGE: Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines with constitutive expression of an Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase gene (LecRK - I.9 or LecRK - IX.1) show enhanced resistance to Phytophthora pathogens, demonstrating conserved gene functionality after interfamily transfer. In plants, cell surface receptors mediate the first layer of innate immunity against pathogenic ... read more microbes. In Arabidopsis several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) were previously found to function as Phytophthora resistance components. In this study, we determined the functionality of Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 or LecRK-IX.1 in Phytophthora resistance when transferred into the Solanaceous plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Multiple transgenic lines were generated for each LecRK gene and molecular analyses revealed variation in transgene copy number, transgene expression levels and LecRK protein accumulation. Infection assays showed that transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing either Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 or ...
Previous research has shown that elevated CO2 reduces plant resistance against insects and enhances the water use efficiency of C3 plants, which improves the feeding efficiency of aphids. Although plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to regulate water relations and phytohormone-mediated resistance, little is known about the effect of elevated CO2 on MAPKs and the cascading effects on aphids. By using stably transformed Nicotiana attenuataplants silenced in MPK4, wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), or salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK), we determined the functions of MAPKs in plant-aphid interactions and their responses to elevated CO2. The results showed that among all plant genotypes, inverted repeat MPK4 plants had the largest stomatal apertures, the lowest water content, the strongest jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent resistance, and the lowest aphid numbers, suggesting that MPK4 affects plant responses to aphids by regulating stomatal aperture and JA-dependent ...
We report the production of hGM-CSF cytokine in leaves of industrial tobacco cultivars DH-17 and DH-27 by using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. We prove the concept that very high biomass industrial tobacco plants are suitable platforms for rapid, low cost production of foreign proteins. Successful transient expression of the GM-CSF was achieved in less than three months, opening the possibility for future applications of this approach in rapid response production of various proteins of non-plant origin in industrial tobacco.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic activation of m-phenylenediamine to products mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium by medium isolated from tobacco suspension cell cultures. AU - Gichner, Tomáš. AU - Stavreva, Diana A.. AU - Čeřovská, Noemi. AU - Wagner, Elizabeth D.. AU - Plewa, Michael J.. PY - 1995/9. Y1 - 1995/9. N2 - Both tobacco cells in suspension and the medium recovered from the suspension cultures (TX1MX) activated the aromatic amine m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) into a product that was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and YG1024. Medium recovered from stationary-phase tobacco cell cultures exhibited the highest level of m-PDA activation. No cytochrome P-450 was detected in the activating medium. A high molecular weight matrix having the highest m-PDA activating capacity and associated with a substantial fraction of the total peroxidase activity was isolated by Centricon-100 ultrafiltration of TX1MX. The data suggest that the peroxidases present in the recovered cell culture medium or ...
This is the tobacco industrys favourite economic myth. Conveyed to legislators and cabinet ministers (and journalists), its intent is to encourage the development of an indigenous tobacco industry within a given country, or to discourage the adoption of tobacco control policies likely to decrease tobacco product consumption.. The half truth in this myth resides in the fact that tobacco farming and product manufacture, distribution, and sale do constitute significant economic activities in many economies, and in the world as a whole. Globally, according to tobacco industry estimates, 33 million people farm tobacco, albeit many of them part time and most in addition to other crops.1 Approximately half that number work in tobacco product manufacture, distribution, and retailing. In addition, another 10 million or so are employed in supplier industries providing materials and services to the tobacco industry (for example, harvesting tools and cigarette papers, insurance coverage, and transportation ...
Best Tobacco Seeds Dealers. Find the list of best Tambaku Seeds suppliers & Manufacturers. Yellow Pages Directory of Tambaku Seeds, Tobacco Seeds manufacturers, Traders, and Tambaku Seeds, Tobacco Seeds Suppliers & Dealers in India.
The Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Counter Tobacco, and the American Heart Association today released Deadly Alliance: How Big Tobacco and Convenience Stores Partner to Market Tobacco Products and Fight Life-Saving Policies. This report details the concentration of tobacco marketing at the point-of-sale and its impact on tobacco use, especially among kids. It also shows how tobacco companies enlist convenience stores and other tobacco retailers in opposing policy changes, such as tobacco taxes and point-of-sale remedies (e.g., warning labels, restrictions on placement, flavors, and discounts, etc.). If you are working on funding for tobacco prevention, tobacco taxes, or point-of-sale issues, these groups recommend this report ...
Oligochitosan was applied by spraying it on tobacco leaves for inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The maximum inhibition of TMV by oligochitosan was observed when inoculation occurred at 24 h after spraying 50 mu g ml(-1) oligochitosan. The production of H(2)O(2) and NO in epidermal tobacco cells induced by oligochitosan was investigated by epidermal strip bioassay and LSCM, using cell permeable fluorophore diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2D) and 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA), respectively. Epidermal tobacco cells treated with oligochitosan resulted in a strong increase of intracellular NO and H(2)O(2). Oligochitosan and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the defense reaction against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and increased phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. Co-treatment of the tobacco cells with oligochitosan and NO scavenger CPTIO blocked the inducing resistance. The results indicated that the defense response induced by oligochitosan was connected ...
René A. Arrazola, MPH1, Linda J. Neff, PhD1, Sara M. Kennedy, MPH2, Enver Holder-Hayes, MPH3, Christopher D. Jones, PhD1 (Author affiliations at end of text). Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood (1,2). Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased (3), and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products (4). CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey* to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current ...
Previous studies clearly demonstrated the involvement of exocyst in plant cell polarity regulation, including polar tip growth (Cole et al., 2005; Synek et al., 2006; Hála et al., 2008). The significance of EXO70 family diversity in angiosperms (Eliáš et al., 2003; Cvrčková et al., 2012) has become one of the key topics in understanding plant cell polarity regulation (Žárský et al., 2009). However, most studies carried out to date were limited to Arabidopsis and none involved expression, localization, and functional study of EXO70 family diversity within a single cell. Here, we attempted to overcome these shortcomings by systematic investigation of tobacco EXO70 isoforms in tobacco pollen tubes, a cell type particularly favorable for analyses of genes regulating cell morphogenesis and membrane traffic.. First, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the EXO70 family in Solanaceae and studied it in the context of previous findings (Eliáš et al., 2003; Cvrčková et al., 2012). All nine ...
Smokeless tobacco has several health risks including cancer, and its not a safe substitute for cigarette smoking. There are no safe forms of tobacco. The National Cancer Institute states there are approximately 28 chemicals in smokeless tobacco that can cause cancer. Also, according to the American Cancer Society, people who use smokeless tobacco have a higher chance of developing oral and throat cancer than people who dont use tobacco. Users of smokeless tobacco are also at higher risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Smokeless tobacco can also cause white sores called leukoplakia to develop in the mouth (these may eventually lead to cancer).. Apart from cancer, dipping has several other health consequences. Tobacco contains nicotine, an addictive substance which can cause chemical dependence. Chemical dependence makes it difficult for folks to quit using tobacco even when they are aware of the possible health consequences. Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and the levels of ...
Background and aims: India has a high burden of tobacco usage and its related morbidity and mortality. Almost 30% of the above 15 years of age of the Indian population use some forms of tobacco. Men usually use smoked tobacco, while women more likely use smokeless (chewed) tobacco. Tobacco usage has been identified as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among slum dwellers in urban cities. This study explored the tobacco consumption patterns and its determinants in an urban slum community of New Mumbai. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Study methods included review of secondary literature and policy documents on tobacco control. Primary data were collected from the Turbhe slum community in New Mumbai using semi-structured interview schedules. Cluster sampling followed by simple random sampling technique was used to achieve the sample size of 300 households. Results: The prevalence of tobacco consumption in Turbhe slums was very high. Twenty five percent of tobacco
The launching of the latest incarnation of HTPs is a reprise55 of similar efforts in the past to use similar products to undermine tobacco control, particularly efforts that present the tobacco industry as a harm reduction partner.. As early as the 1960s, the tobacco companies developed alternative tobacco products with the goal of supplementing the cigarette market with products. A few of these products, such as RJ Reynolds (now Reynolds America, part of BAT) Premier and Eclipse and Philip Morris Accord and HeatBar were marketed but received poor ratings from customers, were commercial failures and were withdrawn.55 It is possible the companies were not more aggressive in making reduced harm claims on new products because of legal concerns: Claiming that the new products were safer would amount to an admission that cigarettes were dangerous, opening the door for litigation and political difficulties for the tobacco industry, including FDA regulation of new products and cigarettes in the ...
The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries (1). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999--2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically ...
Many locals, in a state like Meghalaya, chew the tobacco leaf in its raw form. Rubbed with lime, a small piece is handed over to a friend or an acquaintance one meets across the streets or when there is a visitor at home. I was surprised that something, which I was often witness to, as a child, still continues. I asked Rosaline about the pictorial warnings on packed tobacco products and if that had brought down the consumption of tobacco to some extent. She said that most people there still eat the raw form of the leaf and they do not prefer the packed product. While tobacco activists may pat their backs for having succeeded in getting more effective pictorial health warnings occupying larger areas of the packs, how does one warn/educate the users of unpacked tobacco leaves? Even as steps are taken by the government to deter people from using tobacco, there is a constant tussle between the policy makers and tobacco producers. There needs to be some kind of policy for those tobacco users who are ...
The tobacco industrys point of view is nurtured and protected by the Tobacco Institute, a nonprofit corporation founded in 1958. Its membership includes major U.S. manufacturers of cigarettes, smoking and chewing tobacco, and snuff: The Bloch Brothers Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, Conwood Corporation, G. A. Georgopulo & Company, Helme Products, Larus & Brother Company, Liggett & Myers, Lorillard, Philip Morris Incorporated, R. J. Reynolds Industries, Scotten-Dillion Company, and United States Tobacco Company. The Institute is financed by contributions from the large corporations according to their share of the market. The institute reports on the pro-tobacco side of the medical story, attempting to discredit antismoking publicity, and publishes information on the historical role of tobacco, its place in the national economy, the industry itself, and the publics use of tobacco products. The Council for Tobacco Research, created in 1953 in response to medical bulletins ...
Results: Ninety-six percent (n = 770) of tobacco users had previously attempted to quit tobacco and 95.7% were willing to quit. Sixteen percent (n = 132) of respondents reported that they currently used tobacco. About 83% of tobacco users agreed that the student dentist should ask patients whether or not they use tobacco, 79.4% agreed that the student dentist should advise tobacco users to quit, and 81.4% agreed that student dentists should offer information on quitting tobacco to patients who want to quit. Only 12.5% (n = 100) of the patients who use tobacco were aware of the community resources available to quit tobacco ...
We found an inverse relationship between product-specific perceived harm and nonidentification as a tobacco product user. Most exclusive users of e-cigarettes or hookah thought that all tobacco products and any specific tobacco product they did not use were harmful; in contrast, the tobacco product they used was thought of by many as not being harmful. These findings reveal that these exclusive users may not consider their products to be part of the universe of all tobacco products. Recent Internet search patterns reveal that some of the top search queries in the United States in relation to e-cigarettes include Are electronic cigarettes safe? and Are electronic cigarettes harmful?15 Similarly, the top queries in relation to hookah include Is hookah tobacco? and Is there tobacco in hookah?15 These search patterns reveal that despite significant efforts by the public health community to educate people about the risks of tobacco products, particularly among youth, there is confusion about ...
Both marketing and health education messages should include the information that all tobacco products are harmful and that abstinence from all tobacco products is the most healthful choice. At the same time, simply saying that smokeless tobacco is not safe is not a sufficient stance for public health communications. There is a recognized continuum of risk along which various tobacco products can be placed, with low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products much lower on the risk continuum than combustible tobacco, although it is not harmless. Devising an effective way to inform the public about the continuum should be an important research priority, as currently consumers are woefully incorrect in their assessments of relative risk of various tobacco products. This state of affairs could result in people deciding not to give up smoking in favor of a product lower on the risk continuum because they assume that all tobacco products are equally harmful ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 267 650, based on international application PCT/GB2001/000945, published as WO 2001/065954 and having the application No. 01 908 002.7 at the EPO, was granted with 47 claims.. Independent claim 1 as granted read as follows:. A tobacco treatment process wherein tobacco having a pH of less than 6.5 is subjected to treatment with a supercritical fluid extraction medium to extract nitrosamines from said tobacco, said tobacco being one or more of cut tobacco, whole leaf tobacco, tobacco dust and reconstituted tobacco.. II. Opposition was filed against the granted patent under Article 100(a) EPC, lack of novelty and inventive step, and Article 100(b) EPC, insufficiency of disclosure.. The opposition division held that the patent as granted lacked inventive step. The set of claims of the first auxiliary request, however, met the requirements of the Convention.. III. The documents cited during the proceedings before the opposition division and ...
CHATHAM - Taking action ahead of a new state law set to go into effect June 1, the board of health last week approved regulations banning the retail sale of all flavored tobacco products in town.. Last summer the board banned flavored tobacco sales in regular retail stores, but allowed the sales in adult-only smoke shops. The latest revision of the towns tobacco control regulations, slated to go into effect Jan. 1, prohibits all flavored tobacco sales, including in adult smoke shops.. The ban applies to all menthol and mint cigarettes, including brands such as Newport and Kool, as well as flavored cigars, chewing tobacco and vaping products.. This means that we can have as many tobacco shops in town as people want to apply for, but none of them will be able to sell any flavored tobacco products of any type, cigarettes or vaping products or cigars, anything with mint, Chairman John Beckley said at the boards Dec. 2 meeting.. Were a little ahead on this, but its the same as what the states ...
In the wake of unassailable medical research proving commercial tobaccos lethal effects, tobacco control policies have proliferated. Tobacco exacts a staggering toll on the world population - not just in mortality (approximately 5 million deaths a year) but in billions of dollars in tobacco-related health care costs and expenditures due to active and passive smoking. U.S. legal and regulatory policies related to tobacco have included state and local laws prohibiting smoking in public places and workplaces, restrictions on the sale and marketing of tobacco products (particularly to children), and federal legislation giving the Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco.. In addition to legislation and regulation, commercial tobacco control strategies have also included litigation. Evidence of the tobacco industrys long history of deception and suppression of information about the health hazards of its products has led to several waves of civil and class action lawsuits. The ...
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In large-scale field trials, scientists from North Carolina State University have shown that silencing a specific gene in burley tobacco plants significantly reduces harmful carcinogens in cured tobacco leaves.. The finding could lead to tobacco products †especially smokeless products †with reduced amounts of cancer-causing agents.. NC States Dr. Ralph Dewey, professor of crop science, and Dr. Ramsey Lewis, assistant professor of crop science, teamed with colleagues from the University of Kentucky to knock out a gene known to turn nicotine into nornicotine. Nornicotine is a precursor to the carcinogen N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). Varying percentages of nicotine are turned into nornicotine while the plant ages; nornicotine converts to NNN as the tobacco is cured, processed and stored.. The field tests in Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina compared cured burley tobacco plants with the troublesome gene silenced and control plant lines with normal levels of gene expression. The ...
Objective: Patients with first-episode psychosis have a high prevalence of tobacco use. We aimed to examine the prevalence and course of tobacco use during early psychosis using meta-analysis.. Data Sources: Systematic search of MEDLINE (1948-2011), Embase (1947-2011), CINAHL (1984-2011), PsycINFO (1967-2011), and ISI Web of Science (1900-2011) using the search terms [psychosis OR schizophrenia] AND [tobacco OR smoking OR nicotine].. Study Selection: We located 10 studies reporting the age at initiation of daily tobacco use and the age at onset of psychosis, 31 studies reporting prevalence of tobacco use in patients with first-episode psychosis, 10 studies comparing smoking to age-/gender-matched controls, and 7 studies reporting prevalence of tobacco use at intervals after treatment.. Data Extraction: The following data were extracted: age at initiation of daily tobacco use and at onset of psychosis, the proportion of patients with first-episode psychosis who used tobacco, the proportion of the ...
Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga is urging all smokers to refrain from smoking today, in hope that it is a beginning of a life as a non-smoker. He also urges all local residents to support all activities planned by the Department of Health, Tobacco/Diabetes Prevention Control Programs, Tobacco/Diabetes Prevention Coalition Board, and various government agencies, as the territory observes World No Tobacco Day.. This years theme is: Tobacco - A Threat to Development.. Every year on May 31st, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and their partners, mark World No Tobacco Day (WNTD), highlighting the health and additional risks associated with tobacco use, and advocating for effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption.. Samoa News asked several storeowners if they would be willing to hold off on selling tobacco products today - in observance of WNTD - and all of them said no.. Even with the recent increase in the price of cigarettes ...
Mumbai, India: Bharat book announces a report on 20 % Discount on Tobacco in Thailand Vaild Upto 11 Aug 2017, this report At the same time, cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco continued to see steady demand, further contributing to the strong value performance of tobacco.. In 2016, tobacco registered strong growth in retail value sales. Due to a tax rise for cigarettes in the first half of the year, the price of cigarettes rose by an average of 20%. The increase in unit price more than compensated for the negligible decline in retail volume sales of cigarettes, and boosted retail value sales in 2016. At the same time, cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco continued to see steady demand, further contributing to the strong value performance of tobacco.. ...
Prof Prakit Vathesatogkit himself has lived by example of how health professionals can contribute to tobacco control in their lifetime. In his 40 years as a lung disease specialist, he spent first 10 years in clinical management of lung diseases, of which smoking was the major and common cause! He was left aghast not only with late diagnosis of lung cancer but also to see abysmally low cure rates for lung cancer cases. Also available treatment was within reach to only a few of his patients. He finally decided to join the brewing tobacco control movement 30 years ago and learnt by doing. He has indeed set an example for others to imbibe. He has contributed on tobacco control related policy advocacy and then engaged with legislative processes in Thailand. His leadership in tobacco control in strengthening the global tobacco treaty (formally called the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control or WHO FCTC) is well acknowledged ...
When Congress gave the FDA regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009, it provided a pathway for companies to obtain approval for modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs)…, sold or distributed for use to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease… (here). While decades of epidemiologic studies prove that non-combustible tobacco products are vastly safer than those involving inhaled smoke laced with thousands of toxins, the legislation required proof from manufacturers that MRTPs must benefit the health of the population as a whole taking into account both users of tobacco products and persons who do not currently use tobacco products. (here) In other words, MRTPs must benefit the 60 million Americans who smoke as well as 250 million American non-smokers. ...
The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted ...
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative stress.
Case opinion for US 1st Circuit NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TOBACCO OUTLETS INC USA LLC v. CITY OF PROVIDENCE RHODE ISLAND. Read the Courts full decision on FindLaw.
Tobacco is a uniquely dangerous consumer product that is addictive and harmful to human health when used as intended. Smokeless tobacco practices are common in some parts of the world, especially in India (Pershagen, 1996). Nicotine exposure is similar in smokeless tobacco users and smokers (Ebbert et al., 2006) often leading to strong physical dependence. As a rule, smokeless tobacco products contain high levels of nitrosamines with carcinogenic potency in experimental animals (Phillips et al., 2004). Habitual use of oral tobacco can increase the risk of oral cancer, but the data are insufficient to assess in detail the risks associated with many types of smokeless tobacco. Tobacco induces DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage in human tissues. Formation of carcinogen- DNA adducts in critical genes can lead to mutations that alter protein function and that cause the carcinogenic progression of cells from normality to neoplasias (Hainaut et al., 2001; Cooper, 2002). Goran Pershagen suggested that