Electrospun tissue engineering scaffolds are attractive due to their distinctive advantages over other types of scaffolds. As both osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity play crucial roles in bone tissue engineering, scaffolds possessing both properties are desirable. In this investigation, novel bicomponent scaffolds were constructed via dual-source dual-power electrospinning (DSDPES). One scaffold component was emulsion electrospun poly(D ,L -lactic acid) (PDLLA) nanofibers containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), and the other scaffold component was electrospun calcium phosphate (Ca-P) particle/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocomposite fibers. The mass ratio of rhBMP-2/PDLLA fibers to Ca-P/PLGA fibers in bicomponent scaffolds could be controlled in the DSDPES process by adjusting the number of syringes used to supply solutions for electrospinning. Through process optimization, both types of fibers could be evenly distributed in bicomponent scaffolds. The ...
The objective of this article is to systematically present the emerging understanding that 3D porous scaffolds serve not only as structural templates for tissue fabrication but also provide complex signaling cues to cells and facilitate oxygen and therapeutic agent delivery. Strategies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often rely on 3D scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix as structural templates that support cell adhesion, migration, differentiation and proliferation, and provide guidance for neo-tissue formation. In addition to providing a temporary support for tissue fabrication, 3D scaffolds have also been used to study cell signaling that best mimics physiological conditions, thereby expanding our understanding beyond 2D cell cultures. It is now understood that cell responses to 3D scaffolds are distinctively different from 2D surfaces. Recently, 3D scaffolds emerged as a vehicle for improved oxygen transport to seeded cells and also to deliver relevant
The field of tissue engineering has advanced and evolved to focus on biomimetic strategies to meet the rise in demands of tissue replacements for surgical reconstruction. One of the key strategies focuses on developing growth factor delivery systems, by incorporating growth factors into tissue scaffolds. While growth factors are crucial cell-inducing components, their limitations such as short half-lives and dose related adverse effects remain a challenge. To overcome these challenges, this thesis is focused on the development of a novel biomimetic tissue scaffold concept incorporating cell-mediated activation of growth factors for cartilage regeneration. The latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was selected as a model latent protein due to its well established effects on cartilage as well as its ubiquity in many other tissue types. The thesis first focused on the development and characterisation of the tissue scaffold. A non-woven fibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning, ...
Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the bodys physiology but there are still no effective treatments for volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from severe traumatic injury or tumor excision. Recent studies show that a tissue engineering strategy using a compound containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold generates significant regenerative effects on VML injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The characteristics of human umbilical cord MSCs, including multiplication capacity and multidifferentiation ability, were determined. We constructed a compound containing MSCs and decellularized ECM scaffold which was used for tissue regeneration in a VML model. We found that MSCs and decellularized ECM scaffold generated synergistic effects on promoting skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Interestingly, both MSCs and decellularized ECM scaffold could promote macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype and suppress
This review detailed the most commonly used biomaterial scaffolds for engineering tissues from stem cells by covering the types of materials available and their unique properties. This information allows readers to determine which material best suits their specific application. As mentioned in earlier in this review, many of these materials have not been fully optimized for specific tissue engineering applications and further work will continue to optimize these formulations for translation to the clinic for targeted applications. For example, optimized scaffolds could enhance the survival and differentiation of neural stem cells being transplanted into the diseased or damaged nervous system, which could lead to improved function. The type of material and the cues that are incorporated in the scaffold play a large role in directing the fate of the stem cells seeded inside as detailed in this review. The ability to further functionalize the materials discussed in this review in terms of their ...
Natural biomaterials such as collagen show promise in tissue engineering applications due to their inherent bioactivity. The main limitation of collagen is its low mechanical strength and somewhat unpredictable and rapid degradation rate; however, combining collagen with another material, such as chitosan, can reinforce the scaffold mechanically and may improve the rate of degradation. Additionally, the high cost and the risk of prion transmission associated with mammal-derived collagen has prompted research into alternative sources such as marine-origin collagen. In this context, the overall goal of this study was to determine if the incorporation of chitosan into collagen scaffolds could improve the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffold. In addition the study assessed if collagen, derived from salmon skin (marine), can provide an alternative to collagen derived from bovine tendon (mammal) for tissue engineering applications. Scaffold architecture and mechanical properties were ...
To date, special interest has been paid to composite scaffolds based on polymers enriched with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, the role of HA containing different trace elements such as silicate in the structure of a polymer scaffold has not yet been fully explored. Here, we report the potential use of silicate-containing hydroxyapatite (SiHA) microparticles and microparticle aggregates in the predominant range from 2.23 to 12.40 μm in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) as a hybrid scaffold with randomly oriented and well-aligned microfibers for regeneration of bone tissue. Chemical and mechanical properties of the developed 3D scaffolds were investigated with XRD, FTIR, EDX and tensile testing. Furthermore, the internal structure and surface morphology of the scaffolds were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray μCT and SEM. Upon culturing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on PCL-SiHA scaffolds, we found that both SiHA inclusion and microfiber orientation affected cell adhesion. The best hMSCs
Many strategies for tissue engineering of replacement structures, such as heart valves, depend in part on preparing a tissue scaffold from a natural tissue matrix. An essential step in tissue scaffold fabrication is decellularization of the matrix. The objective of any decellularization method is twofold: (1) the preservation of the physical and biochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and (2) the removal of all cellular material. Decellularization is currently done by contacting xenographic tissue with a combination of chemical detergents and biological agents. These processes can alter ECM structure and composition, which can trigger host immune response and inflammation. Currently, there are no accepted quantitative standards against which to certify the viability of the decellularized material. However, future standards will certainly include characteristics like removal of nuclear material, biochemical composition, and mechanical strength. We are evaluating a novel ...
We describe a simple method for bone engineering using biodegradable scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells derived from human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPS-MSCs). The hiPS-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers (CD90, CD73 and CD105), possessed multipotency characterized by tri-lineages differentiation: osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic and lost pluripotency - as seen with the loss of markers OCT3/4 and TRA-1-81 - and tumorigenicity. However, these iPS-MSCs are still positive for marker NANOG. We further explored the osteogenic potential of the hiPS-MSCs in synthetic polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds or PCL scaffolds functionalized with natural polymer hyaluronan and ceramic TCP (PHT) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that these iPS-MSCs are functionally compatible with the two 3D scaffolds tested and formed typically calcified structure in the scaffolds. Overall, our results suggest the iPS-MSCs derived by this simple method retain fully osteogenic function and provide a new
Cardiac patch, which is a suitable alternative to heart transplant, recovers the heart tissue and ensures its sound functioning. The integration of advanced features such as therapeutic control through drug release is another groundbreaking innovation which is expected to be introduced in the cardiac patches and marketed globally in the coming decade. Such improvisations and additional features to the existing cardiac patches is anticipated to fuel the growth of the global cardiac patch market significantly during the 2017-2025 period. However, the limitations of cardiac patches such as the formation of aneurysms and the obstruction of growth potential because of ingrown tissue and calcification leads to multiple replacements and can hamper the market growth.. The global cardiac patch market can be segmented based on end-users and region. In terms of end-users, the market can be divided into hospitals and specialty clinics. The hospitals segment is likely to hold a major share in the global ...
A common problem in the design of tissue engineered scaffolds using electrospun scaffolds is the poor cellular infiltration into the structure. To tackle this issue, three approaches to scaffold design using electrospinning were investigated: selective leaching of a water-soluble fiber phase (poly ethylene oxide (PEO) or gelatin), the use of micron-sized fibers as the scaffold, and a combination of micron-sized fibers with codeposition of a hyaluronic acid-derivative hydrogel, Heprasil. These designs were achieved by modifying a conventional electrospinning system with two charged capillaries and a rotating mandrel collector. Three types of scaffolds were fabricated: medical grade poly(ε-caprolactone)/collagen (mPCL/Col) cospun with PEO or gelatin, mPCL/Col meshes with micron-sized fibers, and mPCL/Col microfibers cosprayed with Heprasil. All three scaffold types supported attachment and proliferation of human fetal osteoblasts. However, selective leaching only marginally improved cellular ...
2002). The tortuosity of scaffolds fabricated using solvent casting is not controllable because it requires the contact of the particulates during the fabrication procedure, which is a random process facilitated by using high humidity. Similarly, poor interconnectivity of pores is reported for scaffolds produced using gas foaming techniques, where only 10%À30% of the scaffolds pores are connected (Hutmacher, 2001). Control of pore size distribution in scaffolds fabricated using freeze-drying is an interesting research topic. 2010. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Magn. Reson. Med. 64 (2), 341À348. 22404. , 2014. One-pot synthesis of macromesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl. 43, 367À374. 1016/j. 042. Epub 2014 Jul 19. , 2014. Designer functionalised selfassembling peptide nanofibre scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Expert Rev. Mol. ...
Biologic scaffold materials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used in a variety of surgical and tissue engineering/regenerative medicine
Biologic scaffolds composed of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) can provide a microenvironmental niche that alters the default healing response toward a constructive and functional outcome. The present study showed similarities in the remodeling characteristics of xenogeneic ECM scaffolds when used as a surgical treatment for volumetric muscle loss in both a preclinical rodent model and five male patients. Porcine urinary bladder ECM scaffold implantation was associated with perivascular stem cell mobilization and accumulation within the site of injury, and de novo formation of skeletal muscle cells. The ECM-mediated constructive remodeling was associated with stimulus-responsive skeletal muscle in rodents and functional improvement in three of the five human patients.. ...
Computational approaches have great potential for aiding clinical product development by finding promising candidate designs prior to expensive testing and clinical trials. Here, an approach for designing multilevel bone tissue scaffolds that provide structural support during tissue regeneration is developed by considering mechanical and biological perspectives. Three key scaffold design properties are considered: (1) porosity, which influences potential tissue growth volume and nutrient transport, (2) surface area, which influences biodegradable scaffold dissolution rate and initial cell attachment, and (3) elastic modulus, which influences scaffold deformation under load and, therefore, tissue stimulation. Four scaffold topology types are generated by patterning beam or truss-based unit cells continuously or hierarchically and tuning the element diameter, unit cell length, and number of unit cells. Parametric comparisons suggest that structures with truss-based scaffolds have higher surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomechanical Comparison of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Gelatin Fibrinogen Electrospun Scaffolds to Porcine Coronary Arteries. AU - Tamimi, E.. AU - Ardila, D. C.. AU - Haskett, D. G.. AU - Doetschman, T.. AU - Slepian, M. J.. AU - Kellar, R. S.. AU - Vande Geest, J. P.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains a mainstay of therapy for CVD and native vein grafts are limited by issues of supply and lifespan, an effective readily available tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in CABG would provide drastic improvements in patient care. Biomechanical mismatch between vascular grafts and native vasculature has been shown to be the major cause of graft failure, and therefore, there is need for compliance-matched biocompatible TEVGs for clinical implantation. The current study investigates the biaxial mechanical characterization of acellular electrospun ...
at New York University are testing out a 3D bone tissue scaffold printer that could substantially reduce the time it takes bones in the body to regenerate.. Bone generated from the scaffolds could be used to shore up alveolar (jaw) bone to support dental implants, as well as to repair cleft palates, fill in missing pieces of skull and repair other large and small defects.. The printer, known as a robotic deposition, or Robocaster, converts 3D information from CT scans into custom 3D printed tissue scaffolds with an unprecedented level of precision.. Because the structural elements of the scaffolds are similar in size to ingrowing bone structure (around 200µm), the bone is expected to grow faster and more accurately than bone generated from other types of tissue scaffolds.. The scaffolds are made from composites of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate that remodel with bone. Unlike metal plates used for bone replacement, the scaffolds disappear completely from the body once the bone has ...
Cell supports based on electroactive materials, that generate electrical signal variations as a response to mechanical deformations and vice-versa, are gaining increasing attention for tissue engineering applications. In particular, poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, has been proven to be suitable for these applications in the form of films and two-dimensional membranes. In this work, several strategies have been implemented in order to develop PVDF three-dimensional scaffolds. Three processing methods, including solvent casting with particulate leaching and three-dimensional nylon, and freeze extraction with poly(vinyl alcohol) templates are presented in order to obtain three-dimensional scaffolds with different architectures and interconnected porosity. Further, it is shown that the scaffolds are in the electroactive β-phase and show a crystallinity degree of ~ 45%. Finally, quasi-static mechanical measurements showed that an increase of the porous size within the scaffold leads to a tensile strengths
Optimized electrospinning conditions were applied to produce single and multilayered (ML) scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone, collagen and elastin. The ML scaffold was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to increase the stability. Morphological and structural characteristics of the scaffolds were measured by SEM and FTIR analyses. Results revealed that polymers combined to each other well and uniform fibers were obtained with the diameters ranging from 156 +/- 53 to 1536 +/- 293 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the hydrophilic character of each structure. It was observed that incorporation of the natural polymers into the blends increased the hydrophilicity. Mechanical tests proved that collagen contributed to fabricate stiffer structures while elastin provided more elasticity. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was examined by SEM analysis and WST-1 test with mouse fibroblast cells (L929) in vitro. Results exhibited that the addition of natural polymers increased the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cell detachment from porous poly(L-Lactic Acid) scaffolds cultured under flow perfusion for bone tissue engineering. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The engineering of dermal skin substitutes, using autologous fibroblasts, requires high seeding efficiencies, a homogeneous cell distribution in the scaffolds, and optimal culture conditions. Dynamic seeding in spinner flasks was used to seed and subsequently culture fibroblasts in three-dimensional scaffolds. Several seeding and culture variables were investigated. Simulation of medium movement with microspheres showed that three different regions existed in medium (outer, middle, and inner), where overall particle movement was different. In the middle region the flow was turbulent and scaffolds were best placed in this region. After fibroblast seeding, methylene blue staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the scaffolds showed that at a low stirring speed (20 rpm) fibroblasts attached mainly onto the upper part of the scaffold, and at 40 and 60 rpm fibroblasts attached and spread throughout the scaffolds. Measurements of total DNA content per scaffold showed that lower stirring ...
agp-version 2.0 # ORGANISM: Homo sapiens # TAX_ID: 9606 # ASSEMBLY NAME: EG1 # ASSEMBLY DATE: 09-November-2011 # GENOME CENTER: NCBI # DESCRIPTION: Example AGP specifying the assembly of chromosome Y from WGS scaffolds # COMMENTS: # Three scaffolds are placed but have unknown orientation. chrY 1 10000 1 N 10000 telomere no na chrY 10001 13043 2 W EG1_scaffold1 1 3043 ? chrY 13044 63043 3 N 50000 contig no na chrY 63044 3434094 4 W EG1_scaffold2 1 3371051 + chrY 3434095 3484094 5 N 50000 contig no na chrY 3484095 3576421 6 W EG1_scaffold3 1 92327 + chrY 3576422 3626421 7 N 50000 contig no na chrY 3626422 3633571 8 W EG1_scaffold4 1 7150 + chrY 3633572 3683571 9 N 50000 contig no na chrY 3683572 3689149 10 W EG1_scaffold5 1 5578 + chrY 3689150 3739149 11 N 50000 contig no na chrY 3739150 3817095 12 W EG1_scaffold6 1 77946 + chrY 3817096 3867095 13 N 50000 contig no na chrY 3867096 5466918 14 W EG1_scaffold7 1 1599823 + chrY 5466919 5516918 15 N 50000 contig no na chrY 5516919 6945193 16 W ...
Highly aligned nanofibers created by fibroblasts form a biological scaffold that could prove an ideal foundation for engineered tissues. Stem cells placed on
In previous in vitro and in vivo studies, decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has demonstrated unique bioactivity, but little is known about the bioactive components preserved in the decellularized scaffold. With the goal of characterizing the bioactive components in the DAT, protein was extracted from DAT samples from 3 donors using 5 different buffers. The resulting DAT extracts were found to have very low protein content so molecular weight fractioning centrifugation was used to concentrate the samples. Concentrated extracts were screened for the presence of the bioactive components adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and Dickkopf related protein 1 (DKK-1) using Western blotting. Positive signal for BMP-2 was found for one donor in Rogers Sample Buffer and Urea Buffer, but all other proteins investigated with Western blotting went undetected for all extraction buffers. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also used to determine the ...
Dr. Manitha B. Nair, Dr. Deepthy Menon, and Shantikumar V. Nair, Porous Composite Fibrous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Regeneration, U.S. Patent 15/341,866 2016.. ...
The most important finding in the present case was that in addition to favourable clinical, functional and radiographic results, transformation of the cell-free COL1 scaffold took place. The biopsy showed no signs of remaining COL1, but instead showed COL2 with embedded vital chondrocytes.. Several studies have shown that the use of cell-free scaffolds leads to favourable results comparable to those for cell-seeded scaffolds in different animal models [10, 12]. Similar results regarding clinical and morphologic outcome after implantation of cell-free COL1 matrices in humans were recently published [13].. The clinical course for the present case is in line with these results. After implantation of the cell-free scaffold, clinical, functional and morphological assessment revealed continuing improvement over time. The deterioration in results at the latest follow-up can undoubtedly be attributed to the traumatic meniscal tear the patient suffered. This injury also explains the slight deterioration ...
Vascular Tissue engineering (VTE) has emerged as a promising approach to develop blood vessel substitutes. Investigators have explored the use of arterial tissue cells combined with various types of natural and synthetic scaffolds to make tubular constructs in order to develop a functional small-diameter arterial replacement graft. The grafts must mimic the unique viscoelastic nature of an artery and be non-disruptive to blood ?ow. Moreover, after implantation, the scaffold must be gradually populated by cells and replaced by extra cellular matrix; with this respect, it is crucial that this replacement takes place with a well-defined timescale. In this work tubular scaffolds for VTE were produced via Diffusion Induced Phase Separation. Several PLA/ PLLA blends (100/0, 90/10, 75/25 wt/wt) were utilized in order to tune the crystallinity of the scaffolds and thus the rate of biodegrada- tion. In-Vitro biological tests were carried out in order to estimate the non-cytotoxicity of the scaffolds and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced angiogenesis in bFGF-containing scaffold promoted viability of enclosed hepatocytes and maintained hepatospecific glycogen storage capacity. AU - Takei, Takayuki. AU - Ijima, Hiroyuki. AU - Sakai, Shinji. AU - Ono, Tsutomu. AU - Kawakami, Koei. PY - 2005/11/20. Y1 - 2005/11/20. N2 - We fabricated a scaffold of poly (lactic acid) and acidic gelatin, a sustained-release carrier of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which is a positive regulator of angiogenesis. After 1 week of implantation into mesentery of rats, blood vessels induced in the bFGF-containing scaffolds were almost double those in the bFGF-free scaffolds. Further, histological examination of hepatocyte-immobilizing scaffolds retrieved after 1 week of implantation into the mesentery of the rats that received a 70% hepatectomy revealed that the bFGF-containing scaffolds were more efficient for immobilized cell survival than the bFGF-free scaffolds. As well, hepatocytes in the bFGF-containing scaffolds kept ...
Researchers have developed a stable collagen scaffold for use with glucose sensors. This will prevent loss of function when the ND3D porous collagen is integrated as a scaffold around implantable glucose sensors. This will help minimize tissue reactions while stimulating angiogenesis. This invention will be useful in the treatment of diabetes as well as with other implantable devices.
Tofu not only is a delicious vegetarian food, but also shows potential biomedical applications for its high protein content and typical porous scaffold structure. Herein, two kinds of porous soybean scaffolds were developed, the first based on the traditional tofu manufacturing processes, the second modified
Data Availability StatementThe datasets helping the conclusions of this article are included within the article. scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, scaffold properties, such as pore size and morphology of the cells, onto the scaffolds were evaluated using SEM. Furthermore, biocompatibility of these scaffolds was confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results The matrix mineralization was proved by alizarin reddish staining, and the osteogenic media-treated cultures positively expressed osteocalcin and osteopontin markers. Moreover, qRT-PCR results confirmed the positive gene expression of osteopontin and osteonectin in the differentiated osteoblast-like cells. The results of behavior assessment of the cultured cells on electrospinning and freeze-dried scaffolds demonstrated the fact that behavior from the cultured cells in the freeze-dried PLGA/HA scaffolds was considerably much better than the electrospinning PLGA/HA scaffolds. Bottom ...
A medical device includes a polymer scaffold crimped to a catheter having an expansion balloon. A single piece sheath is placed over the scaffold immediately following crimping of the scaffold to the balloon. The single piece sheath is replaced by a two-piece sheath, which is removed prior to performing a medical procedure using the medical device.
A mammalian tissue scaffold and method for making a tissue scaffold including a rigid scaffold body of biocompatible glass fibers bonded together and in special alignment to define open channels within the scaffold to allow fluid flow into and within the scaffold.
SpinPlant produces a unique collagen scaffold. Our biological scaffold is the platform technology basis for bone and cartilage repair, wound healing and soft tissue regeneration. The unique characteristics of our biological scaffold create evident advantages towards competing products ...
Background and Objective: Tissue engineering is a new method for replacing damaged tissue components in order to improve its function. In this method, a porous scaffold mixed with polysaccharide and synthetic antioxidants is first produced and then stem cells are cultured inside it. In this study, the polycaprolactane-chitosan-tannic acid scaffold was used ...
The time span needed for obtaining a functional cartilage substitute using tissue engineering strategies, together with the need for specific patient oriented constructs has stimulated the growing interest for developing
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Establishing structure activity relationships (SARs) in hit identification during early stage drug discovery is important in accelerating hit confirmation and expansion. We describe the development of En Core, a systematic molecular scaffold enumeration protocol using single atom mutations, to enhance the application of objective scaffold definitions and to enrich SAR information from analysis of high-throughput screening output. A list of 43 literature medicinal chemistry compound series, each containing a minimum of 100 compounds, published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry was collated to validate the protocol. Analysis using the top representative Level 1 scaffolds this list of literature compound series demonstrated that EnCore could mimic the scaffold exploration conducted when establishing SAR. When EnCore was applied to analyze an HTS library containing over 200 000 compounds, we observed that over 70% of the molecular scaffolds matched extant scaffolds within the library after ...
Scaffolds are a core concept in medicinal chemistry and they can be the focus of multiple independent development efforts, over an extended period. Thus, scaffold associated properties can vary over time, possibly showing consistently increasing or decreasing trends. We posit that such trends characterize the attention that the community pays to a scaffold.. This application allows you to query ChEMBL for a scaffold (represented as a SMILES) and visualize properties of the compounds containing the scaffold over time. This functionality is analogous to Google Trends.. Currently the properties considered are. ...
Stem cells grew, multiplied and differentiated into brain cells on a new three-dimensional scaffold of tiny protein fragments designed to be more like a living body than any other cell culture system.
(Medical Xpress) -- Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered a scaffolding protein that holds together multiple elements in a complex system responsible for regulating pain, mental illnesses and other complex neurological ...
Repopulating acellular biological scaffolds with phenotypically best suited cells is normally a appealing approach for regenerating functional organs and tissue. as the model program. Decellularization and recellularization had been optimized and a well balanced isotope labeling technique originated to differentiate remnant protein constituting the initial scaffold from protein recently synthesized by reseeded cells. Turnover of matrix and mobile proteins and the consequences of cell-scaffold connections were elucidated. This system sheds brand-new light on tissues remodeling and the procedure of tissues regeneration and it is easily applicable to various other tissue and body organ systems. remodeling from the ECM. The complete workflow is normally summarized in Fig. 1. This research is the initial to investigate the dynamic romantic relationship between your matrix and its own resident cells offering biological system-wide understanding into the proteins turnover thats central to SU6668 ...
This multi-layered scaffold could be applicable for tissue engineering/regeneration, drug delivery and wound dressing. This process may be used for phase-wise delivery of the growth factors which would be suitable for the studies of developmental biology. The novelty disclosed is the various ratios of the therapeutics/pharmaceuticals like antimicrobial agents, analgesics, antioxidants, antiallergic, growth factors and/or other signaling molecules like Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), either in free form or microparticles encapsulated or combination of both can be taken to formulate the multi-layered porous scaffold with different concentrations of natural or chemically modified collagen. Microparticles comprise minimum of two types of polymers e.g. gelatin, chitosan, alginate, casein, PLGA, PCL and multi-layer scaffold contains at least two layers out of which one may be thin film layer without therapeutics, may act as a protective layer, which is desirable for wound dressing. The multi-layered ...
Show moreCentral nervous system (CNS) injuries present one of the most challenging problems. Regeneration in the mammal CNS is often limited because the injured axons cannot regenerate beyond the lesion. Implantation of a scaffolding material is one of the possible approaches to this problem. Recent implantations by our collaborative research group using electrospun polyamide nanofibrillar scaffolds have shown promising results in vitro and in vivo. The physical properties of the tissue scaffolds have been neglected for many years, and it has only recently been recognized that significant aspects include nanophysical properties such as nanopatterning, surface roughness, local elasticity, surface polarity, surface charge, and growth factor presentation as well as the better-known biochemical cues.The properties of: surface polarity, surface roughness, local elasticity and local work of adhesion were investigated in this thesis. The physical and nanophysical properties of the cell culture ...
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We have successfully demonstrated a polarization-maintaining (PM) fused silica microfiber by adiabatically tapering a conventional PM fiber. Compared to standard single-mode microfibers, the proposed PM microfibers exhibit robust polarization, preserving characteristics under the presence of external perturbations, such as bending. A polarization-extinction ratio of ...
0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS gene 1386 2772 0.12 + . ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas;Name=Bv_00001z1_qhas 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS mRNA 1386 2772 0.12 + . ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas;Name=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0%;Note=cDNAcoverage_0% 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS five_prime_UTR 1386 1976 . + . ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.UTR;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS start_codon 1977 1979 . + 0 ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.start_codon;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS CDS 1977 2325 0.96 + 0 ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.CDS;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS intron 2326 2619 0.81 + . ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.intron;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS CDS 2620 2747 0.8 + 2 ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.CDS;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS stop_codon 2745 2747 . + 0 ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.stop_codon;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1 0001.scaffold00002 AUGUSTUS three_prime_UTR 2748 2772 . + . ID=Bv_00001z1_qhas.t1.UTR;Parent=Bv_00001z1_qhas. ...
T cells are finicky. You cant just inject them into a tumour and have them go to work. They will die within a couple of days if they arent in an environment equipped with the right mix of nutrients and ways to eliminate waste. Plus, tumours release self-defense chemicals that stop T cells from working.. Stephan and his team have designed a homey environment to outwit those obstacles.. The sticky, spongey, dissolvable biopolymer scaffold consists of tiny pores and can be made into just about any size or shape. With collaborators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Washington, Stephan and his Fred Hutch team loaded the scaffold with CAR-T cells and proteins to keep the T cells healthy, enable them to rapidly grow and quickly attack the tumour. The mix also included a substance known as STING agonist, which ramps up the immune response to go after nearby cancer cells that arent recognized by CAR-T cells.. When placed on the tumours of mice, the scaffolds sway the ...
The goal of the project is to quantitatively understand the role of one of the key regulatory cytokines, i.e. IL-4, in order to predict the outcome of the inflammatory process and to control the delicate balance between fibrotic or functional regenerated ECM production. The effect of the IL-4 boosted natural human host response on early tissue formation will be investigated in vitro. Data will be used to allow the development of an IL-4 loaded synthetic scaffold that selectively activates the wound healing M2 phenotype.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of scaffold architecture on mechanical characteristics and osteoblast response to static and perfusion bioreactor cultures. AU - Bartnikowski, Michal. AU - Klein, Travis J.. AU - Melchels, Ferry P. W.. AU - Woodruff, Maria A.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Tissue engineering focuses on the repair and regeneration of tissues through the use of biodegradable scaffold systems that structurally support regions of injury while recruiting and/or stimulating cell populations to rebuild the target tissue. Within bone tissue engineering, the effects of scaffold architecture on cellular response have not been conclusively characterized in a controlled-density environment. We present a theoretical and practical assessment of the effects of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold architectural modifications on mechanical and flow characteristics as well as MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cellular response in an in vitro static plate and custom-designed perfusion bioreactor model. Four scaffold ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous electrospin-electrosprayed biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. AU - Francis, Lijo. AU - Venugopal, J.. AU - Prabhakaran, Molamma P.. AU - Thavasi, V.. AU - Marsano, E.. AU - Ramakrishna, S.. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Currently, the application of nanotechnology in bone tissue regeneration is a challenge for the fabrication of novel bioartificial bone grafts. These nanostructures are capable of mimicking natural extracellular matrix with effective mineralization for successful regeneration of damaged tissues. The simultaneous electrospraying of nanohydroxyapatite (HA) on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds might be more promising for bone tissue regeneration. In the current study, nanofibrous scaffolds of gelatin (Gel), Gel/HA (4:1 blend), Gel/HA (2:1 blend) and Gel/HA (electrospin-electrospray) were fabricated for this purpose. The morphology, chemical and mechanical stability of nanofibres were evaluated by means of field ...
Surface properties of scaffolds such as hydrophilicity and the presence of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds play a key role in cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Different modification methods for hydrophilicity improvement and introduction of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds have been carried out on synthetic biodegradable polymers, for tissue engineering applications. In this study, alkaline hydrolysis of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out for different time periods (1 h, 4 h and 12 h) to increase the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. The formation of reactive groups resulting from alkaline hydrolysis provides opportunities for further surface functionalization of PCL nanofibrous scaffolds. Matrigel was attached covalently on the surface of an optimized 4 h hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds and additionally the fabrication of blended PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out. Chemical and mechanical characterization ...
3D bioprinting techniques have been attracting attention for tissue scaffold fabrication in nerve tissue engineering applications. However, due to the inherent complexity of nerve tissues, bioprinting scaffolds that can appropriately promote the regeneration of damaged tissues is still challenging. This paper presents our study on bioprinting Schwann cell-laden scaffolds from low-viscosity hydrogel compositions including RGD modified alginate, hyaluronic acid and fibrin, with a focus on investigating the printability of hydrogel compositions and characterizing the functions of printed scaffolds for potential use in nerve tissue regeneration. We assessed the rheological properties of hydrogel precursors via temperature, time and shear rate sweeps, and then designed/determined the bioprinting process parameters including printing pressure and needle type/size. Bioprinting with a submerged crosslinking method was applied for scaffold fabrication, where the key was to rigorously regulate the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of osteoblast functions by sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from heparin-coated chitosan scaffold. AU - Yun, Young Pil. AU - Lee, Su Young. AU - Kim, Hak Jun. AU - Song, Jae-Jun. AU - Kim, Sung Eun. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in osteoblast functions by using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized heparin-coated chitosan scaffolds and comparing it with that using chitosan scaffold or BMP-2/chitosan scaffold in vitro. BMP-2 was released from the heparin-coated chitosan scaffold in a sustained manner compared to that released from the chitosan scaffold. The osteoblast functions of MG-63 cells grown on the chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/Hep/chitosan scaffold were investigated by assessing cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The results of the in vitro studies demonstrated that MG-63 ...
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Background. The ADSCs, have the capacity for renewal and the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of mesenchymal tissues. These cells are capable of forming bone when implanted in an appropriate scaffold. Aims. We evaluate the effect of reconstructing bone defect by using degradable porous scaffolds seeded with ADSCs and compare the suitability of different biomaterial porous scaffolds; Hydroxyapatite/beta-Tricalcium Phosphate, Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate, Calcium Meta phosphate , Collagen-coated CMP.. Methods. ADSCs were obtained 24 adult Beagles undergoing lipectomy. The cells were isolated, cultured, labeled and seeded in vitro. The experimental group received ADSCs scaffolds and the control group received the acellular scaffolds into femoral defects, respectively. The bone blocks were retrieved at 4, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery for radiographic, biochemistry, histomorphologic analysis.. Results. Histological analysis revealed that implants loaded with autologous ADSCs, had ...
Description: Nanostructured Bioactive Glasses for Hard Tissue Regeneration and Tissue Engineering. Amorphous bioactive materials as tissue engineering scaffolds can regenerate hard tissues using the natural repair mechanisms of the body. This presentation will highlight underlying investigations on nanostructured bioactive glasses in vitro and in vivo.. 3D scaffolds for craniofacial tissue engineering Large bony defects present special challenges in craniofacial surgeries. Two strategies in using 3D fabricated scaffolds to enhance bone regeneration in the craniofacial area will be discussed. Biologically Active Nanostructured Membranes for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration. Exogenous growth factors, bone grafting materials and cell-based approaches have contributed to the advancement of periodontal tissue regeneration. This presentation will address electrospinning-based strategies that are currently being used.. Injectable scaffolds for dental pulp tissue engineering. The development of scaffolds ...
Polycaprolactone (PCL) has been regarded as a promising synthetic material for bone tissue engineering application. Owing to its unique biochemical properties and great compatibility, PCL fibers have come to be explored as a potential delivering scaffold for stem cells to support bone regeneration during clinical application. The human derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were obtained from umbilical cord (UC), bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue (AD), respectively. The osteogenic differentiation potency of various human MSCs on this novel synthetic biomaterial was also investigated in vitro. Here, we illustrated that those human UC-, BM-, and AD-derived MSCs exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and expressed characteristic markers. Impressively, PCL nanofiber scaffold could support those MSC adhesion and proliferation. Long-term culture on PCL nanofiber scaffold maintained the viability as well as accelerated the proliferation of those three different kinds of human MSCs. More importantly, the
Bone is the second most transplanted tissue in the body, with approximately 2.2 million bone graft procedures performed annually worldwide. Currently, autogenous bone is the gold standard for bone grafting due to its ability to achieve functional healing; however, it is limited in supply and results in secondary injury at the donor site. Tissue engineering has emerged as a promising means for the development of new bone graft substitutes in order to overcome the limitations of the current grafts. In this research project, the specific approach for bone tissue engineering involves seeding osteoprogenitor cells within a biomaterial scaffold then culturing this construct in a biodynamic bioreactor. The bioreactor imparts osteoinductive mechanical stimuli on the cells to stimulate the synthesis of an extracellular matrix rich in osteogenic and angiogenic factors that are envisioned to guide bone healing in vivo. Fluid flow, which exerts a hydrodynamic shear stress on adherent cells, has been ...
In recent years, significant success has been made in the field of regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed to repair and replace different types of tissues. The overall goal of the current work was to develop scaffolds of native extracellular matrix components for soft tissue regeneration, more specifically, neural tissue engineering. To date, much research has been focused on developing a nerve guidance scaffold for its ability to fill and heal the gap between the damaged nerve ends. Such scaffolds are marked by several intrinsic properties including: (1) a biodegradable scaffold or conduit, consisting of native ECM components, with controlled internal microarchitecture; (2) support cells (such as Schwann cells) embedded in a soft support matrix; and (3) sustained release of bioactive factors. In the current dissertation, we have developed such scaffolds of native biomaterials including hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen. HA is a nonsulphated, unbranched, ...
Background: Total meniscectomy leads to knee osteoarthritis in the long term. The poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold is a promising material for meniscal tissue regeneration, but cell-free scaffolds result in relatively poor tissue regeneration and lead to joint degeneration. Hypothesis: A novel, 3-dimensional (3D)-printed PCL scaffold augmented with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would offer benefits in meniscal regeneration and cartilage protection. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: PCL meniscal scaffolds were 3D printed and seeded with bone marrow-derived MSCs. Seventy-two New Zealand White rabbits were included and were divided into 4 groups: cell-seeded scaffold, cell-free scaffold, sham operation, and total meniscectomy alone. The regeneration of the implanted tissue and the degeneration of articular cartilage were assessed by gross and microscopic (histological and scanning electron microscope) analysis at 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. The mechanical properties of
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the greatest proliferation of cells over 13 days. Expression of collagen types I and III were upregulated in cells grown on non-cross-linked porcine dermis (Conexa).
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the greatest proliferation of cells over 13 days. Expression of collagen types I and III were upregulated in cells grown on non-cross-linked porcine dermis (Conexa).
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the greatest proliferation of cells over 13 days. Expression of collagen types I and III were upregulated in cells grown on non-cross-linked porcine dermis (Conexa).
There has been a considerable growth and development in electrospun nanofibers for research activity, as well as commercial fabrication over the past couple of decades. These continuous nanofibers are solution driven exclusively by an electric field. Numerous studies on electrospun fibrous scaffolds have demonstrated sufficient mechanical properties and support of cell growth for tissue engineering. Despite these substantial achievements, there is still an Edisonian-type procedure to acquire the desired scaffold orientation and mechanical response that mimics the native tissue behavior. In this study, the electrospun scaffolds are fabricated with different fiber orientation -i.e. aligned and patterned (0/90) - by modifying the electrospinning process, specifically electric field and target, over large areas and lengths (30 mm x 30 mm). Mechanical behavior of controlled scaffold parameters at nanoscale, e.g., fiber orientation, and porosity, is investigated for an effective tissue replacement. In
Introducing porosity in electrospun scaffolds is critical to improve cell penetration and nutrient diffusion for tissue engineering. Nanofibrous cellulose scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning cellulose acetate (CA) followed by saponification to regenerate cellulose. Using a computer-assisted design approach, scaffolds underwent laser ablation resulting in pores with diameters between 50 and 300 mu m. without damaging or modifying the surrounding scaffold area. A new mineralization method was employed in conjunction with microablation using commercial phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to soak carboxymethylcellulose surface-modified electrospun scaffolds. The resulting crystals within the scaffold on the interior of the pore had a calcium to phosphate ratio of 1.56, similar to hydroxyapatite. It was observed that porosity of the cellulose scaffolds enhanced osteoblast cell attachment at the edge of the pores, while mineralization enhanced overall cell density.
We have previously reported on the use of Bay K8644-release strategies in combination with perfusion-compression bioreactor systems for up regulating bone formation in three-dimensional PLLA scaffolds. Here we report on the analysis of Bay activity following its release from our PLLA scaffolds over the culture period imposed in our tissue engineering protocol using UV spectroscopy in combination with whole cell patch clamping techniques. Bay was released continually from scaffolds within the physiological range required for agonist activity (1-10 microM). Patch clamping allowed for the effects of Bay released from scaffolds to be monitored directly with respect to osteoblast electrophysiology. A characteristic shift in the current-voltage (I-V) relationship of L-type VOCC currents was observed in rat osteoblast sarcoma (ROS) cells patched in a solution with Bay released from scaffolds following 14 and 28 days incubation, with statistically significant differences observed in peak currents compared to
Polyurethane scaffolds (PUs) have a good biocompatibility but lack cell recognition sites. In this study, we functionalized the surface of a PU, P(D/L)LA and PCL (50:50) containing urethane segments, with heparin. The first step in this functionalization, aminolysis, lead to free amine groups on the surface of the PU. Free amine content was determined to be 6.4 nmol/mL/mg scaffold, a significant increase of 230%. Subsequently, heparin was crosslinked. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of heparin homogeneous throughout the 3D porous scaffold. Youngs modulus decreased significantly till 50% of the native stiffness after aminolysis and did not change after heparin crosslinking. Contact angle on PU films significantly decreased from 82.7 degrees to 64.3 degrees after heparin crosslinking, indicating a more hydrophilic surface. This functionalization beholds great potential for tissue engineering purposes. When used in a load-bearing environment, caution is necessary due to reduction in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on the microstructure gradient of biomimetic nanofiber scaffolds fabricated by cone electrospinning. AU - Wang, Min. AU - Zhou, Yingge. AU - Tan, George Z.. PY - 2019/8. Y1 - 2019/8. N2 - Biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering should exhibit structural complexity close to native tissues, which typically have non-homogenous nanostructures. This study presents a novel electrospinning process using a cone-shape rotating collector to fabricate polymer nanofiber scaffold with continuous gradient microstructures. The effects of rotation speed (RS) and tip-to-axis distance (TAD) on microstructure gradients were investigated through multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), a generalization of univariate ANOVA that allows the researchers to analyze more than one dependent variable in designed experiments. The covariation against multivariate null hypotheses relative to error covariation was visualized through an ellipsoid plot. We found ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrically Stimulated Adipose Stem Cells on Polypyrrole-Coated Scaffolds for Smooth Muscle Tissue Engineering. AU - Björninen, Miina. AU - Gilmore, Kerry. AU - Pelto, Jani. AU - Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta. AU - Kellomäki, Minna. AU - Miettinen, Susanna. AU - Wallace, Gordon. AU - Grijpma, Dirk. AU - Haimi, Suvi. N1 - EXT=Pelto, Jani. PY - 2016/11/14. Y1 - 2016/11/14. N2 - We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was applied to ASCs to study the effects of ES on ASC viability and differentiation towards SMCs on the PPy-coated scaffolds. PPy-coated scaffolds promoted ...
Tissue engineering is a new concept emerged as an alternative approach to tissue and organ reconstruction. It differs from organ transplantation by regenerating patients own tissue and organs avoiding the biocompatibility and low biofunctionality problems as well as severe immune rejection; which are the main problems of organ transplantation. In tissue engineering approach developed in 3Bs Research Group, the scaffold performs a critical role. The architecture of the tissue engineered scaffold is an important factor to take into consideration that can modulate biological response and the clinical success of the scaffold. Despite the periodical and completely interconnected pore network that characterizes rapid prototyped (RP) scaffolds, cell seeding efficiency still remains a critical factor for optimal tissue engineering applications. Hierarchical fibrous scaffolds, obtained by the combination of RP micro- and electrospun nano-motifs, have been considered a solution to overcome this drawback. ...
Cardiac tissue engineering is an emerging field that may hold great promise for advancing the treatment of heart diseases. Cardiac tissue engineering is in its infancy, and the overall field of tissue engineering, which was formalized in the late 1980s at conferences and workshops sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is still new enough to warrant some description. By broad definition, tissue engineering involves the construction of tissue equivalents through the manipulation and combination of living cells and biomaterials. It is a multidisciplinary field combining diverse aspects of the life sciences, engineering, and clinical medicine. The overall goal of tissue engineering is to develop tissue equivalents for use in the repair, replacement, maintenance, or augmentation of tissues or organs. Although some aspects of cardiac tissue engineering research have been ongoing for generations, albeit without being known as such, directed efforts in the field are only beginning.. The main ...
Greengate is the medieval heart of the city of Salford and lies on the Salford - Manchester border. Greengate has been a key investment focus of the council for a number of years now, with a vision to create a new corporate centre for Salford.. There are still a number of key opportunities for further development within the area and Salford City Council therefore commissioned Urban Vision (planning consultants), and Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, (architects and masterplanners) to update the regeneration strategy during 2017. We have now reached a stage where we wish to consult on the new draft regeneration strategy (at the bottom of the page).. We are undertaking an eight week consultation on the draft regeneration strategy starting on 27 November 2017.. As part of the consultation, we will be holding a drop-in session on the 13 December 2017 at Block 12, Spectrum, Blackfriars Road, Salford between 1pm and 7pm (access from Blackfriars Road). This will be an opportunity to meet officers from ...
Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering lack often control of cellular instructions. We propose a triple sequential approach for customizing scaffold features from the macro to the nanoscale. The nano/meso-scale is composed by human platelet lysate and marine-origin polysaccharides assembled by layer-by-layer and shaped into fibrils by freeze-drying. We show that osteogenic induction of stem cells is tunable within a low range of layers. This approach has the potential to develop new scaffolds with enhanced cell-instructive capabilities using affordable autologous sources of bioactive molecules ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Anna Walczyk.. Fracture toughness has occasionally been neglected in the development of tissue engineering scaffolds. In fact, almost all recent corneal scaffolds developments aim to achieve transparent scaffolds with the tensile strength and elastic modulus closely-matched to those of native cornea despite the fact that cornea is normally subjected to below-ultimate-strength cyclic tensile loadings due to intraocular pressure, ocular muscle contractions and eye blink. Similarly to other soft collagenous tissues, toughening mechanisms in cornea are not well understood, but the lamellar structure of orthogonally aligned collagen fibrils in corneal stroma is thought to account for its toughness. To examine this, transparent laminates of gelatin nanofibers in alginate gel, mimicking the corneal lamellar structure, were created in a three-step process. First, stacks of orthogonally aligned gelatin nanofibers were created by electrospinning ...
THESIS 8757 Tissue engineering (or regenerative medicine) is defined as the application of scientific principles to the synthesis of living tissues using bioreactors, cells, scaffolds, growth factors, or a combination (Rose and Oreffo, 2002). One of the principal methods in tissue engineering involves the use of a porous scaffold to support and guide synthesis of a 3D tissue or organ (Sachlos and Czernuszka, 2003). Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan scaffolds have found success in several clinical applications of tissue engineering (Yannas et al., 1989, Chamberlain et al., 1998). ...
Bone related diseases and disorders are a significant socioeconomic burden in the United States. Autografts and allografts are most commonly used for the treatment of bone defects and non-unions; however, they are associated with limitations such as donor site morbidity and immune rejection, respectively. Over the past few decades, bone tissue engineering (BTE) using scaffold and cells has garnered significant interest as an alternative method for the repair and regeneration of bone defects. Recreation of the tissue microenvironment via the development of biomimetic scaffolds that resemble the physicochemical aspects (i.e., composition, topography, stiffness) of native bone is a promising approach that has been previously shown to improve scaffold properties and augment cellular response. In this realm, collagen type I and bioactive glass (Bioglass 45S5 (BG); an osteostimulative glass-ceramic) have been combined in numerous studies to generate hybrid scaffolds that mimic the organic and ...
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The results obtained in the present study with murine immune cell subpopulations support the biocompatibility of the MGHA material and suggest an adequate host tissue response to their scaffolds upon their implantation. The interaction of new nanocomposite mesoporous glass/hydroxyapatite (MGHA) scaffolds with immune cells involved in both innate and acquired immunity has been studied in vitro as an essential aspect of their biocompatibility assessment. Since the immune response can be affected by the degradation products of bioresorbable scaffolds and scaffold surface changes, both processes have been evaluated. No alterations in proliferation and viability of RAW-264.7 macrophage-like cells were detected after culture on MGHA scaffolds which did not induce cell apoptosis. However, a slight cell size decrease and an intracellular calcium content increase were observed after contact of this cell line with MGHA scaffolds or their extracts. Although no changes in the percentages of RAW cells with low and
The iaxsys™ is a unique in vitro mechanobiology actuator that is compatible with established cell culture methods, consumables and incubators.. This versatile bioreactor platform facilitates near-physiologic strain of 2D membranes and scaffolds, thick 3D scaffolds (variotis™), ex vivo tissues, and soft tissue implants (eg bovine pericardium xenograft heart valve materials) within standard cell culture plates and flasks.. Quasi-static strain or cyclic strain can be applied uniformly to 6 samples simultaneously within a 6 well cell plate with a specified rate and number of cycles. Depending on the configuration, tensile or compression stresses are imparted.. When the iaxsys™ is used to actuate variotis™ scaffolds for mechanobiology studies in standard 6 well cell culture plates, the quality of RNA sampled is of a very high level. Unlike biologically derived gels and scaffolds, the fully synthetic variotis™ with b-glass™ avoids any contamination. The use of standard cell well plates ...
Fat grafting is emerging as a promising alternative to silicon implants in breast reconstruction surgery. Unfortunately, this approach does not provide a proper mechanical support and is affected by drawbacks such as tissue resorption and donor site morbidity. Synthetic scaffolds can offer a valuable alternative to address these challenges, but poorly recapitulate the biochemical stimuli needed for tissue regeneration. Here, we aim at combining the positive features of a structural, synthetic polymer to an engineered, devitalized extracellular matrix (ECM) to generate a hybrid construct that can provide a mix of structural and biological stimuli needed for adipose tissue regeneration. A RGD-mimetic synthetic scaffold OPAAF, designed for soft tissue engineering, was decorated with ECM deposited by human adipose stromal cells (hASCs). The adipoinductive potential of the hybrid ECM-OPAAF construct was validated in vitro, by culture with hASC in a perfusion bioreactor system, and in vivo, by ...
The present thesis was focused on the design and development of novel porous bioactive ceramic materials and scaffolds addressed to the regeneration of large and load-bearing bone defects. This research was carried out to meet the increasing demand for bioactive scaffolds enabling bone regeneration, due to the several drawbacks affecting the use of autologous bone, especially for large bone reconstruction. Nowadays, it is well established that effective tissue regeneration requires the implantation of scaffolds exhibiting tissue-mimicking compositional, morphological and mechanical features to promote the formation and maturation of new healthy tissue. In this context, my work was organized in three research topics on the basis of specific clinical requirements, thus leading to the development of different types of bioceramic scaffolds based on calcium phosphates, particularly: i) macroporous implants for cranio-maxillofacial defects obtained by direct foaming of ceramic suspensions, ii) 3D ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proliferation of genetically modified human cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds. AU - Borjigin, Mandula. AU - Strouse, Bryan. AU - Niamat, Rohina A.. AU - Bialk, Pawel. AU - Eskridge, Chris. AU - Xie, Jingwei. AU - Kmiec, Eric B.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP); this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or ...
Abstract Chitosan-based porous scaffolds are of great interest in biomedical applications especially in tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility in vivo, good texture, surface contact, controllable degradation rate and tailorable mechanical properties. These days biomaterials scaffolds have contributed as an alternative choice of therapy mainly due to the increase failure rates in autografts and allografts techniques. Terbinafine HCl is allylamines group of drugs which is used topically to treat dermatophyte group of fungi like ringworm. Chitosan possesses both anti-bacterial and antifungal property which synergises with Terbinafine HCl (TBH) for both prophylactic and therapeutic actions in treating fungal wound infection (FWI). The haemostatic property of chitosan allows sorption of plasma, erythrocyte coagulation and platelets activation. These properties contribute additional role in repairing debilitated tissue. The prolong drug release property of fabricated scaffold ...
The tissue engineering strategy proposed in this work regards the development of a novel autologous scaffold based on platelet lysates (PLs) with the ultimate goal of promoting the regeneration of an orthopaedic osteochondral interface. PLs are a high concentration of platelets in a small volume of plasma that, when activated, release several growth factors (GFs). Most of current PLs-based hydrogels present several limitations, specifically the lack of stability, the constant shrinking in culture and the need of activation with animal-derived thrombin. This study represents a major breakthrough as it demonstrates that a stable scaffold can be prepared only from PLs, thus acting simultaneously as a template for cell colonization and as multiple GF release system. The PL scaffolds, crosslinked with genipin were prepared by supercritical fluid assisted phase inversion at 100 bar and 40 °C. The morphological properties of the scaffolds were assessed and in vitro GF release profile was studied by ...
Recent work demonstrates that osteoprogenitor cell culture on nanofiber scaffolds can promote differentiation. This response may be driven by changes in cell morphology caused by the three-dimensional (3D) structure of nanofibers. We hypothesized that nanofiber effects on cell behavior may be mediated by changes in organelle structure and function. To test this hypothesis, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers scaffolds and on PCL flat spuncoat films. After 1 day-culture, hBMSCs were stained for actin, nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes, and then imaged using 3D confocal microscopy. Imaging revealed that the hBMSC cell body (actin) and peroxisomal volume were reduced during culture on nanofibers. In addition, the nucleus and peroxisomes occupied a larger fraction of cell volume during culture on nanofibers than on films, suggesting enhancement of the nuclear and peroxisomal functional capacity. Organelles adopted morphologies with greater 3D
Synthetic hydrogel scaffold is an effective vehicle for delivery of INFUSE (rhBMP2) to critical-sized calvaria bone defects in rats Journal Article ...
If youve been cleaning with disposable towels made of cotton or paper, its time to dispose of them permanently. Instead, harness the power of AMMEX Microfiber Towels.. Traditional materials like paper or cotton simply cant deliver the level of clean that comes with microfiber. Instead of merely spreading dirt particles around, microfiber lifts the particles into the cloth and carries them away from the surface, and does so with little or no detergent or cleaning solution.. AMMEX Microfiber Towels are made of 80% polyester and 20% polyamide (nylon) threads. These densely constructed fibers-one-sixteenth the size of a human hair, and more than 200,000 packed into every square inch-are woven to trap dust, dirt, and grime. The soft, non-abrasive material provides lint-free, streak-free cleaning and wont scratch or dull surfaces.. At 50 grams, these heavyweight, durable towels significantly outlast and outperform typical microfiber towels and hold much more liquid, up to seven times their weight. ...
Roofing works - worker on scaffold Stock Footage. csp13353806 - silhouette of worker on the scaffold against the blue sky. Affordable Royalty Free Stock Photography. Downloads for just $2.50, with thousands of images added daily. Subscriptions available for just $39.00. Our stock photo image search engine contains royalty free photos, vector clip art images, clipart illustrations.
This book addresses important biomaterials which are commonly used to fabricate scaffolds and it describes two major protocols employed in scaffold fabrication. Tissue engineering or regenerative medi
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of electrically conductive and non-conductive nanocomposite scaffolds on the maturation and excitability of engineered cardiac tissues. AU - Navaei, Ali. AU - Rahmani Eliato, Kiarash. AU - Ros, Robert. AU - Migrino, Raymond Q.. AU - Willis, Brigham C.. AU - Nikkhah, Mehdi. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - Utilization of electrically conductive nanomaterials for developing nanocomposite scaffolds has been at the center of attention for engineering functional cardiac tissues. The primary motive in the use of conductive nanomaterials has been to develop biomimetic scaffolds to recapitulate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native heart and to promote cardiac tissue maturity, excitability and electrical signal propagation. Alternatively, it is well accepted that the inclusion of nanomaterials also alters the stiffness and nano-scale topography of the scaffolds. However, what is missing in the literature is that to what extent the sole presence of nanomaterials ...
We demonstrated the scaffolds full biocompatibility in vitro and safety in vivo, and preliminary results on efficacy are extremely encouraging, De Lucrezia says. Thanks to five years of EU support, we were able to progress THE GRAIL project from a simple sketch on a paper to a working prototype, paving the way for the commercial exploitation of the results.. Three SME partners in THE GRAIL have set up a dedicated spin-off company that owns the intellectual property generated in the project and will engage with larger companies capable of supporting sales. The consortium has also sought to exploit by-products of the research, for instance, testing a new technique for peripheral vascular bypass surgery.. Meanwhile, expertise gained in the project has allowed Explora to offer advanced in-vivo models for safety and efficacy testing of advanced medical devices, making the company one of the leading SMEs in Europe in the field of advanced therapy medicinal product testing.. The project partners ...
Biomedical scaffolds are described that may be used, for example, for the treatment of bone diseases and bone reconstruction and restoration. The described scaffolds having ingress and habitiaion property for cells and growth factors with serum by capillary action via engineered micro-channles. Also, the scaffolds permit nutrient and ion flow such that bone regeneration in the area surrounding the scaffold is promoted. Kits that include such scaffolds and methods of preparing and using such scaffolds are also provided.
The present invention relates to biomimetic scaffolds, methods for making the same, and methods for using the same. The scaffolds comprise a plurality of graded or tapered microchannels that provide s